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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 5747 matches for " Erikka Brown "
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Prospective Teachers’ Perceptions of Science Theories: An Action Research Study  [PDF]
James P. Concannon, Patrick L. Brown, Erikka Brown
Creative Education (CE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2013.41011
Abstract: This study investigates prospective teachers’ conceptions of science theories before and after instruction. Instruction focused specifically on prospective teachers’ misconceptions that theories are not used to predict, that laws are more important than theories, and that theories are simply hunches. The action research investigation was successful in helping students accommodate new information presented in the lesson and facilitated their understanding towards the accepted explanation of what a theory in science means; however, the vernacular misconception that “theories are hunches” persisted.
Microarray Data Reveal Relationship between Jag1 and Ddr1 in Mouse Liver
Lara A. Underkoffler, Erikka Carr, Anthony Nelson, Matthew J. Ryan, Reiner Schultz, Kathleen M. Loomes
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0084383
Abstract: Alagille syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder involving bile duct paucity and cholestasis in addition to cardiac, skeletal, ophthalmologic, renal and vascular manifestations. Mutations in JAG1, encoding a ligand in the Notch signaling pathway, are found in 95% of patients meeting clinical criteria for Alagille syndrome. In order to define the role of Jag1 in the bile duct developmental abnormalities seen in ALGS, we previously created a Jag1 conditional knockout mouse model. Mice heterozygous for the Jag1 conditional and null alleles demonstrate abnormalities in postnatal bile duct growth and remodeling, with portal expansion and increased numbers of malformed bile ducts. In this study we report the results of microarray analysis and identify genes and pathways differentially expressed in the Jag1 conditional/null livers as compared with littermate controls. In the initial microarray analysis, we found that many of the genes up-regulated in the Jag1 conditional/null mutant livers were related to extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions, cell adhesion and cell migration. One of the most highly up-regulated genes was Ddr1, encoding a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) belonging to a large RTK family. We have found extensive co-localization of Jag1 and Ddr1 in bile ducts and blood vessels in postnatal liver. In addition, co-immunoprecipitation data provide evidence for a novel protein interaction between Jag1 and Ddr1. Further studies will be required to define the nature of this interaction and its functional consequences, which may have significant implications for bile duct remodeling and repair of liver injury.
On the relationship of steady states of continuous and discrete models
Alan Veliz-Cuba,Joseph Arthur,Laura Hochstetler,Victoria Klomps,Erikka Korpi
Computer Science , 2011,
Abstract: In this paper we provide theoretical results that relate steady states of continuous and discrete models arising from biology.
Influence of deficit irrigation on nutrient indices in wine grape (Vitis vinifera L.)  [PDF]
Krista Shellie, Brad Brown
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/as.2012.32031
Abstract: Deficit irrigation is widely used in wine grape production (Vitis vinifera L.) to meet wine quality goals yet its influence on tissue nutrient indices has not been well studied. The objective of this research was to determine whether response to water deficit compromised the prescriptive usefulness of tissue nutrient analyses. Tissue macro and micronutrient composition at bloom and veraison were evaluated over multiple seasons in nine wine grape cultivars grown under well-watered or deficit-irrigated conditions. Deficit-irrigated vines sampled at veraison had 2 to 12-fold higher petiole nitrate-nitrogen concentration, 6% lower blade nitrogen concentration and 13% lower blade copper concentration compared to well-watered vines. Water deficit influenced blade potassium concentration at veraison differently according to cultivar and was lower (cv. Malbec, Petite syrah, Viognier, Lemberger and Sangiovese), higher (cv. Merlot, Cabernet franc and Cabernet Sauvignon) or similar (cv. Grenache) to well-watered vines. Results from this study indicate that nutrient analysis of petiole or blade tissue sampled at veraison has limited diagnostic and prescriptive usefulness when vines are grown under a water deficit.
Locke’s Solid Souls  [PDF]
D. Kenneth Brown
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2012.24034
Abstract: John Locke holds that matter is solid, the soul thinks, and for all we know the soul may be a material substance divinely endowed with a power to think. Though he openly admits to nothing stronger than the bare possibility of thinking matter, Locke grants that what thinks in us occupies a definite spatial location to the exclusion of other souls. Solidity is the quality that prevents other things from occupying a spatial location. Locke’s general criterion for identity is spatiotemporal exclusion of other things of the same kind. To meet these conditions for identity, souls must be solid. Although Locke refuses to declare that souls really are material things, taking the solidity of souls to be a condition for their identity is consistent with the following of Locke’s other important commitments: (1) nominalism about the essences by which substances are classified, (2) agnosticism about the underlying reality of what supports such “nominal essences,” and (3) the identity of persons is distinct from the identity of any substance. Locke ignores the implication that souls are solid because the solidity of souls is irrelevant to those three aims. Nevertheless he could allow for the solidity of souls without giving up on any of his other important and explicitly held commitments. There is therefore no need for Locke’s commentators to refrain from employing solidity in their accounts of Locke’s general criterion for identity from fear of attributing to Locke the position that souls would be solid.
Ambivalence and obesity stigma in decisions about weight management: A qualitative study  [PDF]
Ian Brown, Alex McClimens
Health (Health) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/health.2012.412A224
Background: Many adults do not take up weight management interventions even after apparently deciding to do so. Further research about decision making prior to the intervention would be useful. This paper presents a qualitative study exploring the process of decision making and the influences of obesity stigma. Methods: A pragmatic qualitative methodology, conducting indepth interviews with 52 participants all with BMI > 30 kg/m2 and experience of efforts at weight management. Equal numbers of men and women with mean age 56.9 years completed interviews. Inductive analyses proceeded through systematic steps over a series of iterations. Findings: Decision making is difficult in the context of on-going mixed feelings over a long time. Thoughts and feelings become ingrained with habits and it is hard to separate out what is needed to think through a good decision. Thinking about weight brings a large volume of thoughts and feelings and apparent options or action choices. The volume of thoughts makes decisions difficult but, in the context of obesity stigma, many of the thoughts are negative. A variable sensitivity to these stigma-related thoughts adds further ambivalence and inhibition for taking deciions. The need for further thinking does not stand out in the context of the emotional resolving of thoughts about personal responsibility arising from obesity stigma. Conclusions: Obesity stigma contributes to a deeper ambivalence in the decision process and hence difficulty in decision making about weight management. Decision aid interventions and training of health care staff in communication skills for shared decision making are needed.
Assessing the Sensitivity of Climate Change Targets to Policies of Land Use, Energy Demand, Low Carbon Energy and Population Growth  [PDF]
Douglas Crawford-Brown
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2012.312178
Abstract: A reduced scale model of the coupled carbon cycle, population dynamics, energy system and land use characteristics is used to assess the sensitivity of atmospheric carbon to a variety of policies. Policies simulated include reduction of the rate of growth of the population; reduction of the rate of conversion of forested land to cropland; reduction in per capita energy demand in developed nations; reduction in per capita energy demand in developing nations; reduction in the carbon intensity of energy production in developed nations; and reduction in the carbon intensity of energy production in developing nations. For each policy, both the time to onset of the policy and the fractional annual rate of change in the associated model variable are established. Using as a measure of sensitivity the extension in years required for atmospheric carbon to reach the policy ceiling of 1160 BMT, achieved at a policy that introduces a rate of change in each affected model variable of 0.05 per year (a 5% change per year), then the policies in decreasing order of sensitivity are: Developing nations per capita growth (17 years), Developing nations carbon intensity (17 years), Population control (11 years), Developed nations carbon intensity (2.9 years), Developed nations per capita growth (2.8 years) and Land use (1.3 years). These values are all approximately doubled when population is stabilised first. An analysis of the model results also shows a convergence of the developed and developing nations per capita carbon emissions by 2100 when a portfolio of policies is selected to prevent a doubling of the pre-industrial revolution level of atmospheric carbon at any point in the future, consistent with a principle of “contract and converge”.
Qualitative studies of obesity: A review of methodology  [PDF]
Ian Brown, Jill Gould
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.58A3010

BACKGROUND: There is a developing interest in qualitative research to understand the perspectives and experiences of people living with obesity. However, obesity is a stigmatised condition associated with negative stereotypes. Social contexts emphasizing large body size as a problem, including research interviews, may amplify obesity stigma. This study reviews the methodology employed by qualitative studies in which study participants were obese and data collection involved face-to-face interviews. METHODS: Database searches identified qualitative studies meeting inclusion criteria from 1995 to 2012. Following screening and appraisal data were systematically extracted and analyzed from 31 studies. RESULTS: The studies included 1206 participants with a mean age of 44 years and mean BMI of37 kg/m2. Women (78.8%) outnumbered men (21.2%) by four to one. Socio-economic background was not consistently reported. The studies employed similar, typically pragmatic, qualitative methodologies, providing rich textual data on the experience of obesity derived from face-to-face interviews. The majority considered quality issues in data collection, analyses and generalizability of findings. However, the studies were weak as regards researcher reflexivity in relation to interviewer characteristics and obesity stigma. CONCLUSIONS: The impact of obesity stigma has not been attended to in the qualitative research. Clear information about study

The Use of Life Narrative and Living Standard Measurement Survey Data in the Study of Poverty in the Caribbean: A Resolution of Conflicting Epistemologies  [PDF]
Dennis A. V. Brown
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2013.33030

The paper examines the compatibility or usefulness of fit between epistemologically disparate quantitative survey data and qualitative life narrative data gleaned in the study of poverty in the Caribbean. It aims to find out whether or not the different approaches to the understanding of reality on which the two methodologies are based preclude the integration of their findings as a means of furthering understanding of the dynamics of Caribbean poverty. The analysis draws on Country Poverty Studies conducted in the territory of Grenada in the Eastern Caribbean. It is centered on the demographic measure of fertility, a measure of chronic illnesses by socioeconomic status and life narrative interviews conducted around the themes of poverty, family and life experiences with select poor households across the country. Fertility was measured using parity of women aged <15 - 30+. Statistical analyses were done using cross tabulations. The findings indicate that the hermeneutic understanding of the life narratives, and the causal explanatory accounts provided by the positivist quantitative data, allow for understanding of negative health seeking behaviour on the part of the poor, not provided by the quantitative data by themselves. They also provide insight into the synergy between family, reproductive behaviour, labour market status and chronic poverty in the Caribbean region that would not have been possible through the use of the positivist quantitative method by itself.

Deuterium oxide dilution can be used to determine the net energy content of feeds for dairy cattle and goats  [PDF]
Dan L. Brown
Open Journal of Animal Sciences (OJAS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojas.2013.33032

This article explores a technique for measuring the energy (NEL) value of feeds without respiration calorimetry or slaughter. The objectives were to compare results obtained from goats with those from cows, and to describe factors which limited the precision of these NEL estimates. One lactating Alpine doe and one lactateing Holstein cow were assigned to each of six different sequences of three 56-d feeding treatments consisting of low, medium, and high doses of the basal diet, rice bran, or hominy feed. This resulted in 30 observations of the basal diet and 12 of each byproduct feed for each species and utilized a total of 18 cows and 18 does. The NEL values of the basal diet, rice bran, and hominy feed were calculated as the sum of milk energy, change in body energy, and estimated fasting heat production per kilogram of feed dry matter. Milk energy was determined by bomb calorimetry and body energy from live body weight and deuterium oxide space. The NEL (MJ/kg) determined in this manner were basal diet, 5.73 and 5.98; rice bran, 7.11 and 7.07; and hominy feed, 6.99 and 8.20 for cows and goats, respectively.

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