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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 754 matches for " Erick Ntambwe Kamangu "
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Estimation of Clinical, Immunological and Virological Failure of First Line Antiretroviral Treatment in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo  [PDF]
Erick Ntambwe Kamangu
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104560
Background: The prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection was 1.2% in the Democratic Republic of Congo, according to the Demographic Health Study report in 2014. In 2012, the severe failure rate to first-line ART in Kinshasa was estimated at more than 16%. Objective: The objective of this study is to determine the rate of clinical, immunological and virological failure in first-line treatment in Kinshasa. Methodology: At the 6th month of Antiretroviral Treatment (ART), 138 patients from a follow-up cohort of 8 centers in Kinshasa were received for paraclinical evaluations and analyses. The clinical and paraclinical parameters were recorded on the individual patient sheets as well as the survey forms. Clinical parameters, viral load and CD4 were evaluated at the 6th month of ART. Results: One hundred and thirty-eight (138) patients had returned for follow-up treatment, 81 women and 57 men. The average age of patients is 37 ± 12 years. The dominant age groups are those of 26 to 35 years and 36 to 45 years with 39 patients (28.3%) each, followed by those of 18 to 25 years (21.7%). One hundred and twenty-five (125) patients (90.5%) were in clinical stage 3 and 13 (9.5%) in clinical stage 4 according to the WHO classification. CD4 levels ranged from 98 to 1050 cells/mm3 and a median value of 560 cells/mm3. The median value of the patients’ VLs was 0.90 log10 copies of RNA/ml with respective minimum and maximum values of 0 and 4.82 log10 copies of RNA/ml. The virological failure rate was 24.6%. Conclusions: The rate of virological failure of first-line antiretroviral treatment of patients under treatment in Kinshasa is 24.6% for the year 2015.
Prevalence of Malaria Infection among People Living with HIV in Kinshasa  [PDF]
Erick Ntambwe Kamangu, Hypolite Mavoko Muhindo, Carole Weba Wapa-Kamangu, Hip-polyte Nani-Tuma Situakibanza
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1101077
Abstract: Background: Infection with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and malaria are two infectious diseases which are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa and each a major public health problem. Data on malaria infection among people living with HIV (PLHIV) are poorly defined in Kinshasa as there are very few studies available on the subject. Objective: To determine the rate of co-infection HIV/malaria in Kinshasa to improve the care of PLHIV, this study was initiated to update the data. Methodology: This study was a prospective cohort. 123 volunteers participated in this study in the third month. 114 patients completed the 6- month visit. Malaria diagnosis by microscopy was performed at the two medical visits. A sample of 5 ml of blood was also drawn in a tube with EDTA for the determination of viral load and measuring the level of CD4 T cells. Results: In the third month of Antiretroviral Therapy (ART), we had 123 PLHIV (78 women and 45 men). Viral loads (VL) ranged from 390.79 copies/ml (2.59 log10) and 38546691.53 copies/ml (6.59 log10). The CD4 ranged between 90 and 547 cells/mm3. 25 patients (20.33%) were positive for malaria. At 6th month of ART, there were 114 patients (75 women and 39 men). The CV of the population ranged from 0 copies/ml and 2693671.54 copies/ml (6.43 log10). The CD4 at 6th month were in the range between 421 and 984 cells/mm3. 20 patients (17.54%) presented positive thick smear for malaria. Conclusion: The prevalence rate of HIV/ malaria co-infection varies between 17.54% and 20.33% in Kinshasa.
Involvement of the Genetic Diversity of HIV-1 in the Virological Treatment Failure of First Line Antiretroviral in Kinshasa  [PDF]
Erick Ntambwe Kamangu, Richard Lunganza Kalala, Georges Lelo Mvumbi, Dolores Vaira, Marie-Pierre Hayette
World Journal of AIDS (WJA) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/wja.2017.71003
Abstract: Background: Genetic diversity of human immunodeficiency virus affects the treatment and the emergence of resistance. Some subtypes would develop resistance more frequently than others. The aim of this study is to determine the rate of virological treatment failure and the involvement of genetic diversity and different mutations in this failure in Kinshasa. Methods: Of the 153 Antiretroviral-naive patients who were included in the cohort, 138 patients have been received for the appointment of the 6th month. Clinical parameters were recorded on individual patient charts. The determination of Viral Load (VL) was done at the Laboratory of Molecular Biology. Clinical and biological parameters of the 6th month were compared with those taken at baseline of the cohort to determine the evolution of patients under treatment. Results: At the consultation of the 6th month, 138 patients (90.2%) had returned out of the 153 included. Eighty-one (58.7%) patients were women and 57 (41.3%) men. The age of patients is between 18 and 65 with an average of 37 years. Ten deaths (6.5%) and 5 (3.3%) lost have been reported. One hundred twenty-five patients (90.5%) were in clinical stage 3 and 13 (9.5%) in clinical stage 4. The median CD4 T cells is 560 cells mm3. The median VLs of patients was 0.90 log10 RNA copies/ml. Of the 34 patients in virological failure, 8 (23.5%) are minimal failure, 23 (67.7%) in moderate failure and 3 (8.8%) in severe failure. According to the Pearson’s test, VLs at 6th months were highly correlated with that of inclusion, with V75 and K70 mutations for NRTIs, with V108 mutation for NNRTI well as the virological failure of treatment. Conclusion: Our results confirmed the hypothesis that high Viral Load at the start of the treatment is a poor prognosis for the development of therapy. Transmitted mutations are involved in treatment failure.
Implementation of an In-House Quantitative Real-Time PCR for Determination of HIV Viral Load in Kinshasa  [PDF]
Erick Ntambwe Kamangu, Adawaye Chatte, Raphael Boreux, Richard Lunganza Kalala, Georges Lelo Mvumbi, Patrick Demol, Dolores Vaira, Pierre Marie Hayette
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1100855
Abstract: Background: Measurement of Viral Load (VL) is the most reliable mean for evaluating virological monitoring of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. It allows determination of the amount of virus present in a given volume. Due to the constraints of costs, the VL is not often requested for patient’s follow-up in countries with limited resources. Hence the objective of this study is to implement an in-house Quantitative Real-Time PCR to assess the VL of HIV infected patients in Kinshasa. Methods: One hundred and fifty five patients positive for HIV type 1, naive of Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) and eligible for treatment were included in the study. Five milliliter of blood was collected in a tube with anticoagulant. One milliliter of plasma was sent to the laboratory for analysis. After RNA extraction, a Quantitative Real time PCR was performed on a portion of the region of the Long Terminal Repeat (LTR) of the virus. Results: Of 155 samples received for determination of VL by Quantitative Real-Time PCR, 153 were successfully amplified according to the protocol. The median VL was 301052.97 copies/ml or 5.48 log10. Conclusions: The results of VL were used to assess the feasibility of the Real-Time Quantitative PCR. It turns a simple, reliable and less expensive alternative for the diagnosis and virological monitoring of HIV patients under ART.
Correlation between Sequencing Results from Liquid Plasma and Dried Plasma Spot (DPS) for Determination of HIV Type 1 Non-B Subtypes  [PDF]
Erick Ntambwe Kamangu, Adawaye Chatté, Dolores Vaira, Patrick de Mol, Georges Lelo Mvumbi, Richard Lunganza Kalala, Marie-Pierre Hayette
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1102922
Background: The blotting paper is an alternative to the collection of blood in the tubes for analysis, especially in the field of Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection. This technique allows to easily send the collected samples to specialized laboratories while limiting the stresses of storage and transport. Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the results of sequencing performed on liquid plasma and Dried Plasma Spot (DPS) for the variants of HIV-1 non-B. Methodology: Fifty subjects diagnosed positive for HIV Type 1 using the Rapid Screening Tests voluntarily participated in this study. Two hundred microliters of plasma are deposited on blotting paper Whatman 903 and 500 μl in a micro tube. RNA was extracted from 140 μl of plasma fluid and from a piece of DPS of 5 mm of diameter using the QIAamp RNA Mini Kit QIAGEN. After extraction, the Viral Load (VL) was performed on each sample of liquid plasma. A Reverse Transcription PCR and Nested PCR were used to amplify the regions of interest on the Protease and Reverse Transcriptase for subsequent sequencing. Results: Protease and Reverse Transcriptase were amplified and sequenced respectively for 44 (88%) and 48 (96%) with the liquid plasma samples and 40 (80%) and 45 (90%) with the DPS. The results of Viral Loads were in the range of 2.5 log10 and 6.5 log10. The results of sequencing are comparable for plasma samples and DPS. The correlation coefficient (R2) between the two methods is good (R2 = 0.903, p < 0.001). Conclusion: Liquid Plasma and Dried Plasma Spot give highly correlated results for sequencing strains of HIV type 1 non-B.
Sociodemographic and Anthropometric Profile of Positive HIV Patients in Early Traditional Treatment: Case of the Bonkoko Center  [PDF]
Ben Ilunga Bulanda, Elvis Tshunza Kateba, Berry Ikolango Bongenia, Victor Nyiama Kasongo, Micheline Abiba Kingombe, Erick Ntambwe Kamangu
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104555
Context: In the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), the Antiretroviral (ART) drug coverage is still very low throughout the country. Hence, a large number of People Living with HIV (PLHIV) use traditional treatment made from plants to fight the HIV infection and the opportunistic infection associated to it. Objective: The objective of this work was to evaluate the clinical parameters; para clinical and socio-demographic studies at the beginning of treatment of People Living with HIV (PLHIV) who adhere to traditional treatment in Kinshasa. Methods: A cohort study was conducted in the Bonkoko center with a baseline of 3 months; 97 HIV positive patients were included randomly according to the specific inclusion criteria from January 11, 2016 to April 11, 2016. Clinical, biological and socio-demographic parameters were recorded in all patients at baseline. Results: A total of 97 patients were selected for the job. A total of 79 women (81%) and 18 men (19%) participated voluntarily. The mean age was 40.8 ± 10 years and the most represented age range was 36 - 45 years. The mean Body Mass Index (BMI) is 23.07 ± 3.8 at baseline. The married dominated the sample while the dominant religion was the other religions called revival. The level of study that dominated the population was the secondary level. The mean biological values at baseline were as follows: Glycaemia 85 ± 19 mg/dl; Urea 22.5 ± 6.66 mg/dl; Creatinine 0.88 ± 0.22 mg/dl; Total cholesterol 169.6 ± 37.7 mg/dl; HDL 52.6 ± 15.1 mg/dl; LDL 96.4 ± 31.4 mg/dl; Triglyceride 102.8 ± 47 mg/dl; SGPT 23.3 ± 11.1 UI/L; SGOT 22.3 ± 10 UI/L; Amylase 81.9 ± 31.1 UI/L; and the median values for CD4 was 220 cells/ml and for the Viral Load was 4.10 log10 copies of RNA/ml. Conclusion: This study showed that patients who adhere to traditional medicine for the treatment of HIV infection are not different from those starting Antiretroviral into modern centers. The patient is in search of wellness and what is better. These patients followed by Traditional Medicine must be considered and taken care of in an integral way like all PLHIV followed by modern medicine.
Vertical Transmission Rate of HIV from Seropositive Mothers Followed in the Different Care Centers in Kinshasa from 2010 to 2015  [PDF]
Divine Chuga, Ben Ilunga Bulanda, Jean Yves Debels Kabasele, Médard Omakoy Okonda, Berry Ikolango Bongenya, Erick Ntambwe Kamangu
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104769
Background: In the Democratic Republic of Congo, the use of Prevention of Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection from mother to child is still very low. Objective: The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of infants born from HIV-positive mother in different centers in Kinshasa. Methods: This study is a retrospective cohort of at least 2 years on the records of mother-child couple followed in 8 centers of Kinshasa. Based on a sample survey form with specific criteria, some files were selected. Results: The record keeping of all centers was estimated at 70% on average; the most represented age group was from 26 to 35 years with 102 women (54%) out of 190. Forty-five percent (45%) of pregnant women started pre-natal consultation (CPN) in the 2nd trimester of pregnancy. All mothers had been diagnosed with 3 Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDT). The majority of women were under: AZT 3TC NVP and CTX and 139 (73%) women were diagnosed at stage 1 of HIV infection according to WHO’s standard. One hundred new born were male. Seventy-eight newborns weighed between 2.01 and 3.00 kg at birth. Ninety seven percent of newborns were treated at birth. Ninety-one children who were on Nevirapine syrup; six of them were not put on treatment. Ninety five percent of newborns were diagnosed HIV-negative 9 months after birth by PCR; 2% of children were undiagnosed as a result of refusal and 3% of children had undetermined serology. This gives a mother-to-child transmission rate of 2% at 9 months of birth for the centers of Kinshasa. Conclusion: Despite the insufficient coverage of the PMTCT service in our community, the centers in Kinshasa respond to the PMTCT approach and the transmission rate in the 8 centers of 4 districts of Kinshasa is 2%.
Comparison of an In-House Quantitative Real-Time PCR and COBAS AmpliPrep/TaqMan Roche for Determination of Viral Load for HIV Type 1 Non-B  [PDF]
Erick Ntambwe Kamangu, Adawaye Chatte, Raphael Boreux, Fabrice Susin, Richard Lunganza Kalala, Georges Lelo Mvumbi, Patrick De Mol, Marie-Pierre Hayette, Dolores Vaira
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1101402
Abstract: Context: The in-house techniques or experimental methods are increasingly recommended for their low-cost reagents for the determination of the Viral Load (VL) in resource-limited settings. The objective of this study was to compare the determination of VL from HIV-1 non-B samples by an in-house technique with the COBAS AmpliPrep/TaqMan version 2.0. Method: In this cross-sectional study, 39 plasma samples from patients infected with HIV type 1 non-B from N’Djamena and Kinshasa were used to determine the VL using the two techniques. Results: The mean values of VL are respectively 4.68 ± 1.26 and 4.58 ± 1.33 log10 RNA copies/ml for the COBAS AmpliPrep/TaqMan assays and the in-house assays. A good correlation (Spearman Correlation) was obtained, with a coefficient (R2) of 0.9452. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that there is no significant difference between the results of VL determined by the COBAS AmpliPrep/TaqMan assays and the in-house assays used.
Virological Profile of Patients Infected with HIV Starting Antiretroviral Treatment in Kinshasa  [PDF]
Erick Ntambwe Kamangu, Ben Ilunga Bulanda, Berry Ikolango Bongenia, Huguette Tshweka Botomwito, Georges Lelo Mvumbi, Patrick De Mol, Dolores Vaira, Marie-Pierre Hayette, Richard Lunganza Kalala
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1101564
Abstract: Background: Viral Load (VL), CD4 T cells count and clinical signs are significant parameters for the decision of starting ARV Treatment (ART). The aim of this study is to determine the Viral Load profile of eligible patients on treatment in the centers according to the algorithm used in Kinshasa and the DRC. Methodology: Our sample consisted of 153 HIV-positive patients naive of ART. All patients aged over 18 years were included in the study without gender discrimination. The determination of the VL was made at the laboratory of Molecular Biology of the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Kinshasa using a previously described technique. Results: Of the 153 patients included in the study, 92 (60.1%) were women. The age of the patients was in the range 18 - 65 years with a mean of 37 years. Most patients (91.5%) were clinical stage 3, while the rest (8.5%) were clinical stage 4 for HIV infection. The rates of CD4 T lymphocytes were between 8 and 915 cells/mm3 with a median value of 180 cells/mm3. Seventy nine patients (86.8%) had CD4 count below 500 cells/mm3. The median VL of patients is 5.68 log10 RNA copies/ml. The minimum and maximum values are respectively 0.37 and 7.95 log10 RNA copies/ml. Conclusion: The majority of patients (63.4%) in Kinshasa begin antiretroviral treatment with a poor prognosis. The Viral loads are usually very high in these patients and CD4 quite collapsed. Indeed, the median value of CD4 for the patients is 180 cells/mm3 for the population, while the mean value of Viral Load is 5.48 log10 RNA copies/ml.
Infection with Hepatitis B and C Virus in the Democratic Republic of Congo: A Public Health Problem  [PDF]
Ben Ilunga Bulanda, Berry Ikolango Bongenya, Jean-Yves Debels Kabasele, Médard Omakoy Okonda, Divine Chuga, Christian Tshisumbu, Elvis Tshunza Kateba, Erick Ntambwe Kamangu
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104760
Background: Viral hepatitis represents a major public health burden with more than 375 million people with chronic hepatitis B infection and 130 to 150 million with hepatitis C for 2016. Sub-Saharan Africa has the heaviest burden of the epidemic. Objective: The objective of this review is to present the characteristics of hepatitis B and C infections (HBV and HCV), present the synthesis and estimate its magnitude in the Democratic Republic of Congo for the last 20 years. Methods: This work consisted in cataloging the various published articles and abstracts presented in scientific conferences having as subject of interest the infection with viral hepatitis B and C in the DRC. The search for these published works on different infections was done on the internet from different search engines. The research was limited to published works and abstracts presented over the last 20 years. Pediatric studies, studies in patients with renal or hepatic infections or without original data were not included in this review. Results: According to the various works published and presented in conference since 1997, the populations targeted for the investigations on the hepatitis B and C infections are the poly-transfused, the blood donors and the People Living with HIV. Seven (7) works have been documented for the DRC meeting the various selection criteria. In 1999, the carriage of HBV infection was 9.2% in Kinshasa. In 2000, the carriage of HBV was 5.9% while that of HCV was 4.8% in Kinshasa. In 2001, the portage of HCV was 5.0% in Kinshasa. In 2004, the prevalence of HBs antigen was 5.4% in Kisangani. In 2008, the prevalence of HBV and HCV was 8% and 4% respectively in Bukavu. In 2008, seroprevalences of HBV and HCV were respectively 4.2% and 3.8% in Bukavu. In 2012 and 2013, prevalence of HCV was 5.8% and 5.2% respectively in Kinshasa. Conclusions: Although often asymptomatic, viral hepatitis B and C are a public health problem for the Democratic Republic of Congo. The prevalence of these viral infections is far superior to that of HIV infection in Blood Transfusion Centers across the country.
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