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Plain cigarette packaging: A policy analysis of Australia’s integrated “whole-of-system” model for smoking cessation  [PDF]
Lorraine Davies, Erica Bell
Health (Health) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/health.2012.412187
Abstract: Introduction: Plain cigarette packaging as a tobacco control measure is to be implemented in Australia on December 1st 2012. There is mounting evidence for its likely impact on smokers and potential smokers. Yet Australia’s integrated model of smoking cessation and the particular role and opportunities it has created for primary healthcare have not yet been subject to policy analysis in leading international journals. This policy analysis paper explores these new Australian policy developments and debates in ways that identify their international relevance to primary healthcare. Policy analysis: There are 57 studies about plain cigarette packaging published since 2002. Of these, 27 looked at the impact of health warnings. These studies support the introduction of plain packaging as a tobacco control measure, by increasing the efficacy of health warnings and reducing misconceptions about cigarettes. However, the Australian tobacco control reforms are not limited to plain cigarette packaging. They include other evidence-based tobacco control measures as part of its primary health care strategy: for example, increasing tobacco excises, a mass media campaign focusing on high-risk and hard-to-reach groups, and a national summit on smoking in prisons. The Australian government has acknowledged the key role of primary health care in health promotion activities, establishing a network of regional primary health care organisations (“medicare locals”) in 2011-2012, and expanding the role of nurses in general practice. These initiatives offer general practice a chance to seize “golden opportunities to intervene with smoking patients”. Conclusions: Whether the combined impact of the Australian government’s recent tobacco control reforms and its previous measures will be sufficient to reduce daily smoking prevalence to 10% or less by 2020, only time will tell. What is more certain is that the Australian experience of plain packaging offers international colleagues in general practice key lessons about the importance of “whole-of-system” approaches, integrating efforts at the local to national levels, to tackle smoking cessation. The achievement of Australia’s political leaders in plain cigarette packaging is an extraordinary testament to political will but there is no room for complacency. Primary healthcare sectors must continue to lobby political leaders around the world to tackle smoking at the system level where the motivations and beliefs about smoking are being shaped, especially among disadvantaged groups with lower health literacy.
Quali-Quantitative Analysis (QQA): Why It Could Open New Frontiers for Holistic Health Practice
Erica Bell
The Scientific World Journal , 2006, DOI: 10.1100/tsw.2006.357
Influencing Holistic Health Policy
Erica Bell
The Scientific World Journal , 2007, DOI: 10.1100/tsw.2007.205
Climate change: what competencies and which medical education and training approaches?
Erica J Bell
BMC Medical Education , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6920-10-31
Abstract: The paper describes what kinds of competencies for climate change might be included in medical education and training. It explores which curricula, teaching, learning and assessment approaches might be involved. Rather than arguing for major changes to medical education and training, this paper explores well established precedents to offer practical suggestions for where a particular kind of literacy--eco-medical literacy--and related competencies could be naturally integrated into existing elements of medical education and training.The health effects of climate change have, generally, not yet been integrated into medical education and training systems. However, the necessary competencies could be taught by building on existing models, best practice and innovative traditions in medicine. Even in crowded curricula, climate change offers an opportunity to reinforce and extend understandings of how interactions between people and place affect health.Health workforce development for climate change has become a pressing matter. It is an emerging priority in international policy guidelines for health workforce development produced by the Global Health Workforce Alliance [1] and has featured in recent international policy forums such as the 2008 Geneva Health Forum. The work of the World Health Organisation now includes a focus on the ways in which global health issues such as climate change can be included in health workforce education programs for developing countries. Developed countries are also beginning to include health workforce development for climate change in their national policy statements. For example, education and training of the health workforce features in the UK Department of Health guidance document The health impact of climate change: promoting sustainable communities [2]. Health workforce development is identified as a priority area in the USA's sentinel policy statement, the CDC Policy on Climate Change and Public Health [3]. Australia's premier poli
Understanding and benchmarking health service achievement of policy goals for chronic disease
Bell Erica,Seidel Bastian
BMC Health Services Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-12-343
Abstract: Background Key challenges in benchmarking health service achievement of policy goals in areas such as chronic disease are: 1) developing indicators and understanding how policy goals might work as indicators of service performance; 2) developing methods for economically collecting and reporting stakeholder perceptions; 3) combining and sharing data about the performance of organizations; 4) interpreting outcome measures; 5) obtaining actionable benchmarking information. This study aimed to explore how a new Boolean-based small-N method from the social sciences—Qualitative Comparative Analysis or QCA—could contribute to meeting these internationally shared challenges. Methods A ‘multi-value QCA’ (MVQCA) analysis was conducted of data from 24 senior staff at 17 randomly selected services for chronic disease, who provided perceptions of 1) whether government health services were improving their achievement of a set of statewide policy goals for chronic disease and 2) the efficacy of state health office actions in influencing this improvement. The analysis produced summaries of configurations of perceived service improvements. Results Most respondents observed improvements in most areas but uniformly good improvements across services were not perceived as happening (regardless of whether respondents identified a state health office contribution to that improvement). The sentinel policy goal of using evidence to develop service practice was not achieved at all in four services and appears to be reliant on other kinds of service improvements happening. Conclusions The QCA method suggested theoretically plausible findings and an approach that with further development could help meet the five benchmarking challenges. In particular, it suggests that achievement of one policy goal may be reliant on achievement of another goal in complex ways that the literature has not yet fully accommodated but which could help prioritize policy goals. The weaknesses of QCA can be found wherever traditional big-N statistical methods are needed and possible, and in its more complex and therefore difficult to empirically validate findings. It should be considered a potentially valuable adjunct method for benchmarking complex health policy goals such as those for chronic disease.
Doppler Boosting May Have Played No Significant Role in the Finding Surveys of Radio-Loud Quasars  [PDF]
Morley B. Bell
International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics (IJAA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ijaa.2012.21008
Abstract: There appears to be a fundamental problem facing Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) jet models that require highly relativistic ejection speeds and small jet viewing angles to explain the large apparent superluminal motions seen in so many of the radio-loud quasars with high redshift. When the data are looked at closely it is found that, assuming the core component is unboosted, only a small percentage of the observed radio frequency flux density from these sources can be Doppler boosted. If the core component is boosted the percentage of boosted to unboosted flux will be higher but will still be far from the 90 percent required for Doppler boosting to have played a significant role. Without a highly directed, Doppler boosted component that dominates the observed flux, radio sources found in low-frequency finding surveys cannot be preferentially selected with small jet viewing angles. The distribution of jet orientations will then follow the sini curve associated with a random distribution, where only a very few sources (~1%) will have the small viewing angles (<8°) required to explain apparent superluminal motions vapp > 10c, and this makes it difficult to explain how around 33% of the radio-loud AGNs with high redshift can exhibit such highly superluminal motions. When the boosted component is the dominant one it can be argued that in a flux limited sample only those members with small viewing angles would be picked up while those with larger viewing angles (the un-boosted ones) would be missed. However, this is not the case when the boosted component is small and a new model to explain the high apparent superluminal motions may be needed if the redshifts of high-redshift quasars are to remain entirely cosmological.
Lack of Effect of the 5-HT4 Receptor Ligands RS 67333 and RS 39604 on Murine Agonistic Behaviour  [PDF]
Robert Bell, Karl Lynch
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2012.21004
Abstract: In comparison to studies investigating the roles of 5-HT1, 5-HT2 and 5-HT3 receptors in aggressive behaviour there is a dearth of material examining the function of 5-HT4 receptors in this behaviour. In view of this, the current study examined the effects of the 5-HT4 receptor partial agonist RS 67333 and antagonist RS 39604 in murine agonistic behaviour. RS 67333 failed to produce any significant changes in the offensive. Significant variation in the frequency of evade behaviour was detected but this occurred between treatment groups rather than with controls. Interestingly, both the frequency and duration of stretched attend behaviour were increased by RS 67333 0.1 mg/kg, a result indicative of increased risk assessment. The administration of RS 39604 (0.01 - 1 mg/kg) produced significant variation in the fre-quency and duration of following, and aggressive grooming. Frozen crouch behaviour was also increased significantly at 0.1 mg/kg. It is concluded that since the 5-HT4 receptor ligands employed in this study produced very few significant behavioural effects across the treatment groups, 5-HT4 receptors do not play a role in the modulation of murine aggressive behaviour.
Mach’s Principle of Inertia Is Supported by Recent Astronomical Evidence  [PDF]
Morley B. Bell
International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics (IJAA) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ijaa.2015.53021
Abstract: Inertial mass is detected on Earth only when matter is accelerated or decelerated. Recently evidence has been reported for a low-level velocity oscillation with a period of 39 ± 1 Mpc (127 ± 3 Myr) superimposed on the Hubble flow. Like the Hubble flow, this oscillation is assumed to be an expansion and contraction of space itself. If space is oscillating as it expands and the Hubble flow contains a superimposed velocity ripple, matter on Earth will experience alternating accelerations and decelerations relative to the rest of the matter in the Universe. The acceleration curve can be obtained from the velocity oscillation curve simply by taking the magnitude of the derivative of the velocity curve and the acceleration curve is found here to have a period of 63.5 ± 1.5 Myr. Evidence has also been claimed recently for a ubiquitous ~62 ± 3 Myr periodic fluctuation superimposed on general trends in the fossil biodiversity on Earth. The periods of the acceleration curve oscillation and fossil biodiversity fluctuations are thus identical within the errors. A second, weaker fluctuation is also detected in both the Hubble flow and fossil biodiversity trends. They too have identical periods of ~140 Myr. From this excellent agreement, it is argued here that it is the oscillation in the Hubble flow, through an inertia-like phenomenon involving all the matter in the universe that has produced the fluctuations in the fossil biodiversity on Earth. This may represent the first instance where observational evidence supporting Mach’s Principle of Inertia has been found.
Tradutor: o inescapável h?te da língua do Outro
Lima, Erica;
Trabalhos em Linguística Aplicada , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-18132011000200011
Abstract: building on certain concepts of language, translation, and hospitality formulated by french philosopher jacques derrida, this essay aims to establish a relationship between derrida's consideration of the translation of the french term h?te-a word that designates both the host and the guest-and the work of translators. the first part explores how the idea of the language of the h?te influenced derridean thinking and brought forward, from early on, the issue of translation. the second part deals with the translation itself of the term h?te, as emphasized by derrida in his own reading of camus's short story l'h?te, as well as with the translator's relationship as h?te of the other's text. the aim is to show that the discussion of the translation of h?te stages the impossibility of an unconditional hospitality and unveils the relationships through which meaning is formed, in a play of multiple languages that interact in the translation process.
Profile: Erica Smith
Erica Smith
Partnership : the Canadian Journal of Library and Information Practice and Research , 2011,
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