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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 13214 matches for " Eric Gobin "
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Merkel Cells as Putative Regulatory Cells in Skin Disorders: An In Vitro Study
Nicholas Boulais, Ulysse Pereira, Nicolas Lebonvallet, Eric Gobin, Germaine Dorange, Nathalie Rougier, Christophe Chesne, Laurent Misery
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0006528
Abstract: Merkel cells (MCs) are involved in mechanoreception, but several lines of evidence suggest that they may also participate in skin disorders through the release of neuropeptides and hormones. In addition, MC hyperplasias have been reported in inflammatory skin diseases. However, neither proliferation nor reactions to the epidermal environment have been demonstrated. We established a culture model enriched in swine MCs to analyze their proliferative capability and to discover MC survival factors and modulators of MC neuroendocrine properties. In culture, MCs reacted to bFGF by extending outgrowths. Conversely, neurotrophins failed to induce cell spreading, suggesting that they do not act as a growth factor for MCs. For the first time, we provide evidence of proliferation in culture through Ki-67 immunoreactivity. We also found that MCs reacted to histamine or activation of the proton gated/osmoreceptor TRPV4 by releasing vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). Since VIP is involved in many pathophysiological processes, its release suggests a putative regulatory role for MCs in skin disorders. Moreover, in contrast to mechanotransduction, neuropeptide exocytosis was Ca2+-independent, as inhibition of Ca2+ channels or culture in the absence of Ca2+ failed to decrease the amount of VIP released. We conclude that neuropeptide release and neurotransmitter exocytosis may be two distinct pathways that are differentially regulated.
Immunohistochemical localization of hepatopancreatic phospholipase in gastropods mollusc, Littorina littorea and Buccinum undatum digestive cells
Zied Zarai, Nicholas Boulais, Pascale Marcorelles, Eric Gobin, Sofiane Bezzine, Hafedh Mejdoub, Youssef Gargouri
Lipids in Health and Disease , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1476-511x-10-219
Abstract: We have previously producted an antiserum reacting specifically with mSDPLA2. It labeled zymogen granules of the hepatopancreatic acinar cells and the secretory materials of certain epithelial cells in the depths of epithelial crypts in the hepatopancreas of snail. To confirm this localization a laser capture microdissection was performed targeting stained cells of hepatopancreas tissue sections. A Western blot analysis revealed a strong signal at the expected size (30 kDa), probably corresponding to the PLA2.The present results support the presence of two hepatopancreatic intracellular and extracellular PLA2 in the prosobranchs gastropods molluscs, Littorina littorea and Buccinum undatum and bring insights on their localizations.Snails require lipids for metabolic energy and for maintaining the structure and integrity of cell membranes in common with other animals to tolerate environemental strains [1]. The analyses of lipid composition of digestive gland and pedal muscle of two northern freshwater pulmonate snails Lymnaea stagnalis and Lymnaea ovata and three marine prosobranch gastropods Littorina obtusata, Littorina littorea and Buccinum undatum from the White Sea, shown that the content of triacylglycerides both in digestive gland and pedal was higher in littoral dwellers Littorina, the activity of which depends on the tide level. The presence of massive shell enhances demands in energy needed for supporting movement and activity. Because the intensity of energy metabolism is related to quantity of total phospholipids, mitochondria and activity of their oxidizing ferments, the presence of thick shell in marine snails together with motor activity costs more in terms of energy than in freshwater snails with thin shell [1].In different molluscs, food is processed to varying degrees as it passes through the alimentary tract. It is generally assumed that digestion of ingested material takes place in two phases, an extracellular process and intracellular digestion, w
Impact of heat and drought stress on arable crop production in Belgium
A. Gobin
Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences (NHESS) & Discussions (NHESSD) , 2012, DOI: 10.5194/nhess-12-1911-2012
Abstract: Modelling approaches are needed to accelerate understanding of adverse weather impacts on crop performances and yields. The aim was to elicit biometeorological conditions that affect Belgian arable crop yield, commensurate with the scale of climatic impacts. The regional crop model REGCROP (Gobin, 2010) enabled to examine changing weather patterns in relation to the crop season and crop sensitive stages of six arable crops: winter wheat, winter barley, winter rapeseed, potato, sugar beet and maize. The sum of vapour pressure deficit during the growing season is the single best predictor of arable yields, with R2 ranging from 0.55 for sugar beet to 0.76 for wheat. Drought and heat stress, in particular during the sensitive crop stages, occur at different times in the crop season and significantly differ between two climatic periods, 1947–1987 and 1988–2008. Though average yields have risen steadily between 1947 and 2008, there is no evidence that relative tolerance to stress has improved.
Innovation , circulation, fragmentation. Ethnographie d’un conflit religieux à La Havane
Emma Gobin
Ateliers du LESC , 2007, DOI: 10.4000/ateliers.411
Abstract: à travers l’analyse d’une innovation rituelle et du conflit sans précédent qu’elle a engendré entre initiés dans le culte d’Ifá à La Havane, cet article soutient que la situation d’expansion croissante que connaissent aujourd’hui les religions cubaines d’origine yoruba, mais aussi les modalités africaines dont elles sont issues, constitue la clé de compréhension de certaines pratiques rituelles et discursives a priori locales. Les discours et stratégies de légitimation et délégitimation mis en place dans le conflit évoqué ne prennent en effet tout leur sens qu’au regard de ce contexte plus global. Ils mettent par ailleurs en scène une complexification du rapport de certains groupes d’initiés à la notion de tradition , phénomène lié à une intensification des échanges avec des initiés de l’extérieur et qui engendre, en même temps, un nouveau processus de fragmentation dans le champ religieux strictement local. Analysing a conflict caused by a ritual innovation in Havana now dividing practitioners of Ifá religion, this article argues that the expansion of Cuban religions of Yoruba origins as well as of the African religions which they originated from, is now a key concept in our understanding of ritual practices and discurses at the meso level. Indeed, the strategies of legitimization and delegitimization in stake in that conflict can only be understood if we consider their resonnance in a global context. Moreover, these conflicts are the result of a complex relationship between practitioners and “tradition” also caused by the establishment of religious networks between Cubans and foreigners. Within the last years, these changes have had a tremendous impact on the Afro-Cuban religious field especially in its constant tendency of fragmention. A través del análisis de una innovación ritual y del conflicto que generó entre iniciados en el culto de Ifá en La Habana, este artículo sostiene que la situación de expansión creciente que conocen hoy las religiones cubanas de origen yoruba, así como las vertientes africanas que las originaron, constituye la clave de comprensión de algunas practicas rituales y discursivas a priori locales. Efectivamente, los discursos y estrategias de legitimación y delegitimación mobilizados en el conflicto evocado sólo cobran sentido pleno en este contexto global. También ponen en escena la complejidad creciente de la relación de ciertos grupos de iniciados a la noción de tradición , fenómeno vinculado con una intensificación de los intercambios con iniciados del exterior y que genera, al mismo tiempo, un nuevo proceso
Inverse scattering at fixed energy for massive charged Dirac fields in de Sitter-Reissner-Nordstr?m black holes
Damien Gobin
Physics , 2014,
Abstract: In this paper, we consider massive charged Dirac fields propagating in the exterior region of de Sitter-Reissner-Nordstr\"om black holes.We show that the parameters of such black holes are uniquely determined by the partial knowledge of the corresponding scattering operator $S(\lambda)$ at a fixed energy $\lambda$.More precisely, we consider the partial wave scattering operators $S(\lambda,n)$ (here $\lambda \in \mathbb{R}$ is the energy and $n \in \mathbb{N}^{\star}$ denotes the angular momentum) defined as the restrictions of the full scattering operator on a well chosen basis of spin-weighted spherical harmonics.We prove that the knowledge of the scattering operators $S(\lambda,n)$, for all $n \in \mathcal{L}$, where $\mathcal{L}$ is a subset of $\mathbb{N}^{\star}$ that satisfies the M\"untz condition $\sum\_{n \in \mathcal{L}} \frac{1}{n} = + \infty$, allows to recover the mass, the charge and the cosmological constant of a dS-RN black hole.The main tool consists in the complexification of the angular momentum $n$ and in studying the analytic properties of the "unphysical" corresponding data in the complex variable $z$.
CD133 Is a Marker of Bioenergetic Stress in Human Glioma
Corinne E. Griguer, Claudia R. Oliva, Eric Gobin, Pascale Marcorelles, Dale J. Benos, Jack R. Lancaster, G. Yancey Gillespie
PLOS ONE , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0003655
Abstract: Mitochondria dysfunction and hypoxic microenvironment are hallmarks of cancer cell biology. Recently, many studies have focused on isolation of brain cancer stem cells using CD133 expression. In this study, we investigated whether CD133 expression is regulated by bioenergetic stresses affecting mitochondrial functions in human glioma cells. First, we determined that hypoxia induced a reversible up-regulation of CD133 expression. Second, mitochondrial dysfunction through pharmacological inhibition of the Electron Transport Chain (ETC) produced an up-regulation of CD133 expression that was inversely correlated with changes in mitochondrial membrane potential. Third, generation of stable glioma cells depleted of mitochondrial DNA showed significant and stable increases in CD133 expression. These glioma cells, termed rho0 or ρ0, are characterized by an exaggerated, uncoupled glycolytic phenotype and by constitutive and stable up-regulation of CD133 through many cell passages. Moreover, these ρ0 cells display the ability to form “tumor spheroids” in serumless medium and are positive for CD133 and the neural progenitor cell marker, nestin. Under differentiating conditions, ρ0 cells expressed multi-lineage properties. Reversibility of CD133 expression was demonstrated by transfering parental mitochondria to ρ0 cells resulting in stable trans-mitochondrial “cybrid” clones. This study provides a novel mechanistic insight about the regulation of CD133 by environmental conditions (hypoxia) and mitochondrial dysfunction (genetic and chemical). Considering these new findings, the concept that CD133 is a marker of brain tumor stem cells may need to be revised.
Free-living marine polychaetes (Annelida) inhabiting hard-bottom substrates in Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies
Gobin,Judith F;
Revista de Biología Tropical , 2010,
Abstract: as part of a larger comparative study, marine polychaete hard-bottom assemblages were surveyed using artificial substrate units (asus) deployed at four sites off the islands of trinidad and tobago. the polychaete fauna was represented by 19 families comprising 89 species. the syllid exogone dispar was the most abundant polychaete followed closely by the serpulid pseudovermilia occidentalis. at the family level, the polychaete fauna inhabiting the asus is similar to the fauna from other temperate and tropical locations. omnivorous species were dominant (70 %), followed by filter feeders (20%). this survey provides first records of the hard-bottom polychaete fauna of trinidad and tobago and adds new information about the geographic range of some polychaete species. rev. biol. trop. 58 (1): 147-157. epub 2010 march 01.
La 44e élection présidentielle américaineLe regard des Américains dans un contexte mondial difficile
Cynthia Ghorra-Gobin
EchoGéo , 2008,
Abstract: La 44e élection présidentielle américaine qui a commencé début janvier dans l’Etat de l’Iowa vient de se traduire par la victoire de Barack H. Obama, un candidat démocrate au parcours atypique. Ce dernier a remporté 364 Grands Electeurs contre 174 pour son adversaire, le candidat républicain John McCain, soit une avance de 190 points. Aux Etats-Unis, le vote des Grands Electeurs (dont le nombre au sein de chacun des 50 Etats varie en fonction du poids démographique) est en effet décisif pour...
Free-living marine polychaetes (Annelida) inhabiting hard-bottom substrates in Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies
Judith F Gobin
Revista de Biología Tropical , 2010,
Abstract: As part of a larger comparative study, marine polychaete hard-bottom assemblages were surveyed using artificial substrate units (ASUs) deployed at four sites off the islands of Trinidad and Tobago. The polychaete fauna was represented by 19 families comprising 89 species. The syllid Exogone dispar was the most abundant polychaete followed closely by the serpulid Pseudovermilia occidentalis. At the family level, the polychaete fauna inhabiting the ASUs is similar to the fauna from other temperate and tropical locations. Omnivorous species were dominant (70 %), followed by filter feeders (20%). This survey provides first records of the hard-bottom polychaete fauna of Trinidad and Tobago and adds new information about the geographic range of some polychaete species. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (1): 147-157. Epub 2010 March 01. Como parte de un estudio comparativo más amplio, ensamblajes marinos de poliquetos de fondos duros fueron contabilizados utilizando unidades de sustrato artificial ubicadas en cuatro sitios de las islas de Trinidad y Tobago. La fauna de poliquetos estuvo representada por 19 familias, integradas por 89 especies. Exogone dispar fue el poliqueto más abundante seguido cercanamente por Pseudovermilia occidentalis. A nivel de familia, la fauna de poliquetos que habitan las unidades de sustrato artificial es similar a la de otras localidades templadas y tropicales. Las omnívoras fueron las especies dominantes (70%), seguido por las filtradoras (20%). Este estudio proporciona los primeros registros de la fauna de poliquetos del fondo duro de Trinidad y Tobago, y a ade nueva información sobre la distribución geográfica de algunas especies de poliquetos.
L’investiture du 44e président des Etats-Unis :Le National Mall, le village global et le Green New Deal
Cynthia Ghorra-Gobin
EchoGéo , 2009,
Abstract: Ce texte sur les Etats-Unis est le dernier article d’une série de trois rédigés au fur et à mesure des événements à l’occasion de la 56e élection présidentielle qui a marqué l’avènement du 44e président, Barack Obama. Le premier article (juin 2008), Un événement révélateur des mutations de la société américaine soulignait l’originalité du sénateur candidat Obama à l’élection présidentielle de 2008 en raison de son parcours personnel face à son rival McCain. Le deuxième article (novembre 2008) Le regard des Américains dans un contexte mondial incertain , mettait en évidence les valeurs symboliques véhiculées par le futur président Obama dans une société qui avait choisi de clore son histoire raciale. Ce troisième article s’appuyant principalement sur les images de la cérémonie d’investiture du 20 janvier 2009, le discours du président Obama et quelques commentaires des médias rend compte du sentiment de joie et de fierté d’un peuple en dépit d’une prise de conscience de la gravité d’une crise financière et économique (sans oublier les deux guerres en cours). Il illustre le choix du président en faveur d’une politique a priori en rupture avec celle de l’administration précédente en prenant l’exemple du changement climatique. Toutefois il s’interroge sur la pertinence de l’expression Green New Deal avancée par les médias en dehors de toute référence à la notion d’empreinte écologique et d’un regard réflexif sur l’American Way of Life. This third article mainly based on the images of the inauguration ceremony (January 20th), on the president Obama’s discourse and on a few comments made by the media, describes the feeling of happiness and prideness as expressed by the American people on the National Mall in spite of the seriousness of the financial and economic crises (besides two wars). It also illustrates the choice of a president willing to take some distance with the former administration while taking the exemple of climate change. As a conclusion, it questions the expression of a Green New Deal used by some media, given the lack of concern for the notion of footprint and a reflexive thought on the American Way of Life.
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