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To determine the frequency and expression of the ten SAP (secreted aspartyl protease) genes in a group of Candida albicans strains isolated from Mexican women suffering from vaginal candidosis, a group of 264 women (age 18 - 57 years) with vaginal infections, predisposed by diabetes mellitus or contraceptive consumption, were evaluated. C. albicans was identified using PCR to amplify the rRNA internal transcribed spacer regions ITS1 and ITS2. The presence of the SAP genes was determined using conventional PCR, and their expression levels were determined using real-time PCR after the C. albicans strains had been grown in reconstituted human vaginal epithelium (RHVE). C. albicans was identified in the samples from 50 women (18.9%). The genotyping frequencies of the SAP genes were as follows: SAP1, 94%; SAP2, 98%; SAP3, 80%; SAP4, 100%; SAP5, 100%; SAP6, 100%; SAP7, 63%; SAP8, 96%; SAP9, 70%; and SAP10, 88%. The most frequently expressed genes in the strains harboring all of the genes were SAP1, 90%; SAP2, 90%; SAP3, 90%; SAP4, 100%; SAP5, 90%; SAP6, 90%; SAP7, 100%; SAP8, 90%; SAP9, 100%; and SAP10, 100%. SAP genes were expressed in the RHVE, suggesting that the Sap proteins play an important role in the pathogenesis of infection.
In this work is developed a proposal of environment indicators needed for the Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) process in Mexico’s Federal District (FD); through which are authorized the construction and realization of different work actions and activities. The methodology is based on the combination of cabinet and field work, performed in three stages. In the first, a documental review was carried out within the topic of Environment Impact (EI), the EIA and the study area, with a subsequent analysis of the environment indicators at an international, national and regional scale. In the second, the systematization of information was performed for the sixteen study cases at a local scale and the organization and analysis of a data base with the allotted information. And in the last stage, a field work was realized with participative observations in three verification sites and interview applications to the principal actors of the EIA process. These results allowed: to determine the main limitations within the EIA process (methodological, technical and operational), to propose an indicators scheme, and to formulate recommendations focused on the improvement of this Environment Public Policy instrument.