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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 11578 matches for " Epidemiological Research "
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Ethics in epidemiological research
Barata,Rita Barradas;
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-81232008000200020
Abstract: this text focus, on a series of author's opinions, on the difficulties that the current system of regulation of ethics in research represents for the practice of the epidemiological research, in the country. it introduces a few understandings concerning the present subject in the international literature, pointing out some of the most relevant themes and problems. it also examines part of the difficulties faced by brazilian epidemiologists. the main topic developed in the article is the specificity of the science's reasoning that guides acting of the public health and epidemiology with repercussions for the practice of scientific research in this field, plenty different from the science's reasoning that preside medical practice and biomedical research. hence the inadequacy of the ethical recommendations in force, all of them based on biomedical research, particularly at that with experimental design. it concludes with the indication that procedures adopted by the system of the ethics in research should be reviewed, adapting such procedures to the characteristics of different kinds of research.
Dengue no Brasil: situa??o epidemiológica e contribui??es para uma agenda de pesquisa
Barreto, Maurício L.;Teixeira, Maria Glória;
Estudos Avan?ados , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-40142008000300005
Abstract: the epidemiological situation of dengue in brazil is presented, showing the introduction and spread of vector and the different virus serotypes in brazil. at the present time the aedes aegypti, the vector, and 3 out of 4 existing virus serotypes (denv-1, denv-2 and denv-3) are spread by virtually the entire national territory. the epidemiological picture has been characterized by recurrent epidemics, especially in large urban centers. a new characteristic in this scenario is the growth in the proportion of severe cases, particularly cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever. existing control actions have been costly and ineffectives. in order to meet the gaps in existing knowledge, some elements for a research agenda are presented. finally, we must recognize that problems such as dengue have their roots in the explosive form urban populations in countries such as brazil has grown and in the conditions and lifestyles under which these people live.
O estresse na pesquisa epidemiológica: o desgaste dos modelos de explica??o coletiva do processo saúde-doen?a
Castiel, Luis David;
Physis: Revista de Saúde Coletiva , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-73312005000300006
Abstract: the article focuses on the difficulties the epidemiological instrument faces when dealing wih questions posed by contemporary health problems, in which the concept of stress finds broad diffusion. thus there is a discussion about the theoretical-concepual framework of the theory of stress and its developments. besides, the text points out the limitation of the method and of the available epidemiological models when they talk about: 1) manifestations whose predicability cannot be delimited; 2) phenomena placed in different hierarchic levels. in such cases, the theorization underlying the notion of risk, used to explain sickliness at the individual level proves to be insufficient. the complexity of the health-illness process demands another epistemological paradigm which allows the subject of the epidemiological research develop other ways of demarcating and understanding its object.
Quince a?os de investigación en trastornos de la conducta alimentaria
Behar A,Rosa;
Revista chilena de neuro-psiquiatría , 2010, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-92272010000300006
Abstract: background: there is a substantial number of publications on eating disorders (ed) in the foreign literature; nevertheless, in our country there is just a small amount of published research in specialized reviews. objective: to summarized our main findings in ed females patients published in national literature. method: an exhausted review was made of published articles along 15 years by the author and coworkers in specialized national reviews on epidemiological, psychosocial and clinical aspects of ed. results: risk groups (students, overweight adolescents, pregnant women, gym users) (n= 2.171) fluctuated between 15% and 41%. the prevailing profile of ed was characterized by higher drive for thinness, perfectionism and body dissatisfaction and lower interoceptive awareness (p < 0.001). the prevalence of social anxiety was 40.7% (p < 0.001), particularly among anorexics (66.6%) (p < 0.001); of severe depression was 18.5 % (p < 0.001), especially in anorexics (66.6%) (p < 0.001); of moderate and/or severe obsessive-compulsive disorder was 26% (p < 0.001), higher in anorectics (33.3%) (p = 0,009). identification with female gender role stereotype was significant in ed (42.9%), mainly in restrictive anorexia, considered as a risk factor for developing ed. the more restrictive and bulimic behaviors, the less assertive were the ed patients (7.5 points) mainly in submissive and dependant behaviors (-0.6 points) (p < 0.001). lack of assertiveness showed a significant predictive capacity (53.2%) for developing an ed. conclusions: our findings confirmed the evidence of the international literature satisfying the research guidelines for ed according to the american psychiatric association.
La investigación en salud pública: de la transición epidemiológica a la transición epistemológica
Villasana López,Pedro Enrique;
Revista Cubana de Salud Pública , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0864-34662007000400013
Abstract: a critical-hermeneutic approach to some of the several manifestations of the relationship between public health research in venezuela and the contextual historical-political scenarios where it is made was presented in this article. it was attempted to characterize the phenomenon and identify the possible epistemological fundamentals for such a relationship. research/context relationship shows certain regularities and equivalences that assist in explaining the emphasis at different "historical times" on "specific" healthcare problems. the designation as a "healthcare problem" progressively discloses the "epistemological background" in which such designation is possible. the system of determinants where a public health problem emerges as such can be viewed and identified at the different considered times. the epidemiological transition described in the 70's and the 80's of the 20th century seems to meet with a suggestive epistemological transition that takes place in an accelerated way during this period. at the same time, the above-mentioned allows setting the conditions for making particular types of research on certain problems possible or impossible. then, various epistemological backgrounds begin to be delineated, thus showing close relationships with possibility or impossibility for sovereign practice not only in public health research but also in formulating national health policies and building the national public health system of venezuela on the basis of the systematic study and understanding of the realities of the country.
Clinical-Homeopathic Profile in the Pediatric Ward at the University Hospital ¢a a€ Brazil
Debora Alves dos Santos Fernandes,Francisco Jos???? de Freitas
International Journal of High Dilution Research , 2011,
Abstract: Background: In 2004, the deployment of Homeopathy in the pediatric ward at the University Hospital of Gaffr e Guinle ¢a a€ UNIRIO (HUGG at the Federal University of the State of Rio de Janeiro) was initiated in conjunction with both the Pediatric and Homeopathy Service. A research project approved by the HUGG Ethics and Research Committee was prepared to survey the most prevalent diseases. A team composed of medical students and doctors participating in the homeopathy course was formed and underwent training, enabling them to use the established protocols of action. A partnership was established with the Fluminense Federal University(Universidade Federal Fluminense ¢a a€ UFF), for the supply of drugs. In early 2009, the research project started, followed by homeopathic treatment in the pediatric ward. Aim: To demonstrate the diseases and treatment using homeopathic therapy on patients in the pediatric ward at the HUGG-UNIRIO-Brazil. Methodology: A sectional clinical study was carried out on patients participating in a research approved and registered by the Brazilian Research Ethics Committee, named,"The study of the effect of Homeopathic Treatment as an Adjunct Therapy on patients Hospitalized in the Pediatric Ward of HUGG". Criteria of Inclusion: Newborns up to the age of 16 of both sexes were admitted to the pediatric ward of HUGG, from May to October 2009. The diagnosis for admission being: respiratory, gastrointestinal and/or dermatologic diseases. A consent form had to be accepted and signed by the person responsible. Inclusion depended on the availability of having the appropriate homeopathic medicine in stock. Criteria of Exclusion: Cases of discontinuation of the homeopathic treatment or medical records not completed correctly. The medical records were analyzed individually. Microsoft Office Excel 2007 was used for data collection and analysis. Results: 32 patients admitted: 80% treated with Homeopathy; Diagnosis for admission: 73% respiratory, 11.5% dermatological, 4% gastrointestinal and 11.5% other diseases (malnutrition, adenomegaly, eyelid edema); 37% had secondary diseases. An average of 4.7 medicaments (min 01-max09) was used per patient, 31% repeated the medication in two different dinamizations. ¢a “Diagnosis for admission and medication used ¢a : a) respiratory: 79% Pulmao histaminum, 32% Antimonium tartaricum, 21% Natrum sulfuricum, 21% Sambucus nigra, 16% Ipecacuanha, 16% Nux vomica, 16% Medorrhinum; b) dermatological: 100% Apis mellifica, 33% Dulcamara, 33% Mezereum, 33% Psorinum, 33% Rhus toxicodendron, 33% Alumina;
Epidemiologia e planejamento de saúde
Teixeira,Carmem Fontes;
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva , 1999, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-81231999000200005
Abstract: the utilization of epidemiological knowledge, methods and techniques in the process of health planning and programming has become an object of practical experimentation and theoretical, methodological reflection, particularly in the past 15 years, in the light of the process of reform of the health systems in brazil and in latin america. this paper discusses specifically the contribution of epidemiology to health planning in the process of building up the national health service in brasil, based on a study of the trends of epidemiological practice presented in the brazilian congresses of epidemiology held between 1990-1995. in addition, it discusses the theoretico-methodological perspectives of improvemment and redefinition of the practice of planning and programming in health, taking into account the epistemological debates and the conceptual propositions which characterize the field of epidemiology today.
Aquisi??o de drogas: um estudo entre estudantes brasileiros
Fonseca, Marília Saldanha da;
Psico-USF , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-82712002000200004
Abstract: the increase of drug consumption in brazil is reaching young populations, including students. epidemiological surveys carried out among basic education brazilian students had concluded that the majority of students have never had contact with drugs (with the exception of tobacco and alcohol). the way drug users usually act has also been evaluated in order to counteract such behaviours. accordingly, the objective of the present study is to investigate how drugs users obtain drugs. results evinced that friends are ranked first followed by drug dealers, pharmacies and family. the study pinpoints the need that schools direct their efforts toward preventive actions to reduce the risk of drug abuse among students through the adoption of measures aimed at providing health education and the enhancement of quality of life. the important role of health psychology in all levels of prevention is acnowledged and discussed.
First household survey on drug abuse in S?o Paulo, Brazil, 1999: principal findings
Galduróz, José Carlos Fernandes;Noto, Ana Regina;Nappo, Solange Aparecida;Carlini, Elisaldo Luiz de Araújo;
Sao Paulo Medical Journal , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-31802003000600003
Abstract: context: in order to establish prevention programs regarding psychotropic drug use that are adapted to specific populations it is, first of all, important to have data on the realities of such consumption. single data points are not enough for drawing up a profile of society in relation to drugs. objective: the aim of this household survey was to determine the incidence of illegal drug, alcohol, tobacco and psychotropic medication use, and thus the number of persons dependent on drugs, alcohol and nicotine, and to evaluate their perception regarding how easy it is to obtain psychotropic drugs. type of study: epidemiological survey. setting: all of the 24 cities in the state of sao paulo with more 200,000 inhabitants participated in the study. method: the sampling was constructed from weighted probabilistic stratified conglomerates obtained via two-stage selection. in each municipality sampled, census sectors (generally 200-300 households) were first selected. then, households and a respondent were selected to provide information from his/her point of view. the samhsa questionnaire (substance abuse and mental health services administration) of the u.s. department of public health was used, after translation and adaptation to brazilian conditions. results: a total of 2,411 persons aged 12-65 years old were interviewed, of whom 39.9% weremen. lifetime use of any psychotropic drug other than alcohol and tobacco was 11.6%: much less than in the u.s. (34.8%). the alcohol dependence rate was 6%, similar to findings from other countries. marijuana was the illegal drug most cited as used daily (6.6%): a prevalence much lower than in the u.s. (32.0%). inhalant use was next in frequency of use (2.7%): about 10 times less than in the united kingdom (20%). cocaine use (2.1%) was about 5 times less than in the u.s. (10.6%). there was no report of heroin use, although there was a surprisingly high perception regarding the ease of obtaining heroin: 38.3% said it was easy to obtain.
Rapid assessment of avoidable blindness
Hannah Kuper,Sarah Polack,Hans Limburgh
Community Eye Health Journal , 2006,
Abstract: The planning of eye care programmes requires data on the prevalence and causes of blindness. Unfortunately, programme planning is often hampered by the lack of data, because no surveys have been conducted in the area or the surveys are too old to be relevant. Programme planners are often reluctant to plan surveys, as they are believed to be expensive, time-consuming, and complicated. The Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness (RAAB) has been developed as a simple and rapid survey methodology that can provide data on the prevalence and causes of blindness. So far, RAAB has been successfully undertaken in Kenya,1 Bangladesh,2 the Philippines, Botswana, Rwanda, Mexico, and China (personal communication). RAAB is an updated and modified version of the Rapid Assessment of Cataract Surgical Services (RACSS).
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