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The ultimate goal of environmental impact assessment is to guarantee
that benefits generated by a development project will not cause highly negative
effects on the environment or public health. The fulfillment of this goal
depends on the willingness of proponents and society to cooperate. The
information management, its accessibility to community and the educational
level of participants are of great relevancy too. Cooperation is not always
attainable due to conflicts between individual and community interests. Conflict
leads to a variety of cooperative and non-cooperative responses, depending on
the information available to the actors. In order to capture the tendency in
which a community perceives the proposals, we introduced an information index.
We prove that computer models have a direct impact on this information index.
This computer-based approach, leads the EIA to the paradigm of adaptive
environmental assessment and management. To implement this, a system based on
artificial intelligence and game theory was used to resolve a study case of
conflict in groundwater management.
The challenges of
ecological and environmental change are significant and solutions remain largely
under the influence of people and the decisions of governments, interest
groups, national and local communities and individuals. Evidence suggests that
despite 20 years of effort, conservation initiatives have failed to achieve the
targets set for protecting biodiversity in the UN Convention on Biological
Diversity 2010. A common factor influencing effectiveness of conservation work
undertaken by the diverse mix of government, non-government and civil
organisations is leadership. A command-and-control approach to leadership is
commonly encountered in conservation and previous reviews suggest this as a
major factor in ineffective conservation initiatives. This suggests that
conservation leaders should consider a fundamentally different approach to
leadership. We examine whether an alternative paradigm, Deming’s System of
Profound Knowledge, offers a suitable new basis for leadership in biodiversity
conservation. This “Systems Thinking” approach should encompass (i) an
understanding of natural systems, (ii) a sense of how human behaviour is
influenced, (iii) an understanding of how knowledge should inform
decision-making and problem solving, and (iv) an understanding of variation in
natural systems. Current paradigms of conservation management fail to address
these four fundamentals and therefore do not represent the most effective way
to manage conservation. Conversely, challenges and opportunities encountered in
biodiversity conservation are well-aligned to a Systems Thinking approach.
Leadership approaches defined in Deming’s “System of Profound Knowledge” offer
significant positive impacts on biodiversity conservation achievement and
provide lessons for leaders in other areas of human activity.
Considering the great importance of the Itupararanga Reservoir, Upper Alto Sorocaba basin/SP, this study aimed to report the variations of some parameters of water quality in the spatial and temporal gradients in this multipurpose reservoir. The eutrophication of this reservoir was checked using the Carlson Index Modified and the results indicate that the surface water were classified as eutrophic and mesotrophic in wet and dry periods, being characterized the better quality of water in wet period. In the vertical gradient the results showed a stratiphication in all parameters analyzed, except for the electrical conductivity, with good correlation between total phosphorous and chlorophyll-a, indicating that eutrophication of the reservoir changes the conditions of algal growth, mainly in its initial area. Immediate interventions are needed, which must be directed to planning of land use, domestic effluents treatment, taking to an integrated management of this important watershed located in the Sao Paulo State.