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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 332800 matches for " Enrique Sánchez-Salinas "
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Analysis of Solid Waste Management and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in México: A Study Case in the Central Region  [PDF]
María Luisa Castrejón-Godínez, Enrique Sánchez-Salinas, Alexis Rodríguez, Ma. Laura Ortiz-Hernández
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2015.62017
Abstract: In this work, an analysis of the generation, composition and management of the urban solid waste in Mexico and its relation to greenhouse gas emissions is described; as well a case study in Morelos, a state in the central region of the country. Data were collected from the scientific literature and existing data bases at state and national levels. In addition, the emissions of greenhouse gas were calculated for a period of 14 years, using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) methodology. The municipal solid waste data collected from 1998 to 2012 reveal an increase in the amount of waste generated in Mexico and in Morelos (38% and 43%, respectively), which have been influenced by the urbanization process and the population increase. According to the official data, the composition of the urban solid waste in Mexico, is mostly organic matter (50%), represented by food and garden residues, as well as paper and cardboard (near to 14%). While in Morelos, the percentages of generation for these materials are 44% and 9%, respectively. The management of the urban waste mainly consists of house collection, principally in metropolitan zones and medium and small cities, representing 78.7% in Mexico and 89.2% in Morelos. The second way to eliminate the solid wastes is open burning (mostly in semi-urban and rural areas), representing 14.5% and 6.7% for Mexico and Morelos, respectively. During this period, the nationwide greenhouse gas emissions derived from solid waste management (SWM) increased by 180%, while in Morelos, an increase of 42.5% was calculated. Thus, the population increment and urbanization process were correlated with the rise in the amount of residues generated in Mexico and Morelos.
Biodegradation of the organophosphate pesticide tetrachlorvinphos by bacteria isolated from agricultural soils in México
Revista internacional de contaminación ambiental , 2010,
Abstract: a bacterial consortium which degrades tetrachlorvinphos (phosphoric acid, 2-chloro-1-(2,4,5-trichlorophenyl) ethenyl dimethyl ester) was isolated from agricultural soil. this consortium was composed of six pure strains which were characterized based on their morphological and biochemical characteristics. the strains were presumptively identified as stenotrophomonas malthophilia, proteus vulgaris, vibrio metschinkouii, serratia ficaria, serratia spp. and yersinia enterocolitica. the consortium and the six bacteria were assessed in order to discover their ability to degrade tetrachlorvinphos (tcv) in mineral medium and in rich medium. growth curve experiments showed that the bacterial consortium was able to grow in mineral medium containing tcv as the only carbon source. however, only one pure strain was able to remove tcv in mineral medium, while all of them removed it in rich medium. hydrolysis products were detected and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. these data indicate that the isolated strains can be used for waste biodegradation or bioremediation of tcv-contaminated soil or water.
Revista internacional de contaminación ambiental , 2010,
Abstract: Se aisló un consorcio bacteriano de suelos agrícolas, capaz de degradar tetraclorvinfos (ácido fosfórico, 2-cloro-1-(2,4,5-triclorofenil) etenil dimetil ester). Este consorcio estuvo formado por seis cepas puras que fueron caracterizadas con base en sus características bioquímicas y morfológicas. Las cepas fueron presumiblemente identificadas como Stenotrophomonas malthophilia, Proteus vulgaris, Vibrio metschinkouii, Serratia ficaria, Serratia spp. and Yersinia enterocolitica. El consorcio y las seis cepas puras fueron cultivados en medio mineral y en medio rico, para evaluar su capacidad para degradar TCV. Los resultados de las curvas de crecimiento mostraron que el consorcio es capaz de crecer en presencia de TCV como única fuente de carbono. Sin embargo, sólo una cepa pura removió el TCV del medio de cultivo, pero todas las cepas removieron este plaguicida en medio rico. Los productos de la hidrólisis fueron detectados por cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas. Estos datos indican que las cepas aisladas pueden ser utilizadas para la biodegradación de residuos o para la biorremediación de suelos o aguas contaminadas con este plaguicida.
Modeling the Effects of Interactions between Environmental Variables on the State of an Environmental Issue: The Case of the Morelos State in Mexico  [PDF]
Fernando Ramos-Quintana, Deny L. Hernández-Rabadán, Enrique Sánchez-Salinas, María Laura Ortiz-Hernández, María Luisa Castrejón-Godínez, Edgar Dantán-González
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2015.63023
Abstract: An important use of environmental indicators is oriented to know their individual impact on the whole environment quality. Nevertheless, most of the important causes of environment affectations are derived from multiple interactions between indicators which correspond more specifically to the environmental reality. The affectations derived from interactions should be analyzed and interpreted through numerical expressions representing a relevant challenge for developers of environmental indicators. To cope with the analysis and interpretation problem, we propose in this work a methodology in two senses: in a bottom-up sense a directed graph is built representing interactions between environmental indicators as behavioral relations, which exert an effect on the state of an environmental issue of a site over time (10 years); in a top-down sense to assist users in the analysis and interpretation of interactions through a computer interface that provides users with the capacity of knowing how and what relational behaviors between indicators are affecting, the most or the least, the performance of the environmental issue being studied. This methodology was applied to the analysis an interpretation of interactions between environmental variables that affect the state of an environmental quality issue related with the State of Morelos in Mexico. The results showed the adequate expressivity of a directed graph to represent interactions allowed to verify the coherence of the numerical values associated with their behaviors during a period of time and with their effects on the environmental issue under study.
Tratamiento de aguas residuales por un sistema piloto de humedales artificiales: evaluación de la remoción de la carga orgánica
Revista internacional de contaminación ambiental , 2009,
Abstract: wastewater treatment is a priority at the global level, because it is important to have enough water of good quality, which will allow an improvement of environment, health and life quality. in mexico, because of insufficient infrastructure, high costs, lack of maintenance and qualified staff, only 36 % of the generated wastewaters are treated, which generates the need for developing alternative technologies for their depuration. artificial wetlands are an alternative due their high efficiency for removal of polluting agents and their low installation and maintenance costs. this paper evaluates the removal percentage of the organic charge of wastewaters in a treatment system of artificial wetlands of horizontal flux, with two vegetal species. the system was designed with three modules installed in a sequential way. at the first one, organisms of the species phragmites australis (cav.) trin. ex steudel were integrated; at the second, organisms of the species typha dominguensis (pers.) steudel, and at the third, both species. the experimental modules were installed at the effluent of a primary treatment, which contains municipal wastewater coming from a research building. the following parameters were analyzed in the water: chemical oxygen demand (cod), ions of nitrogen (no3-, n-no2- y n-nh4+) and total phosphorus. additionally, the total count of bacteria associated to the system was evaluated. results showed that the system is an option for the removal of organic matter and nutrients, of low operation and maintenance costs.
Revista internacional de contaminación ambiental , 2009,
Abstract: El tratamiento de las aguas residuales es una cuestión prioritaria a nivel mundial, ya que es importante disponer de agua de calidad y en cantidad suficiente, lo que permitirá una mejora del ambiente, la salud y la calidad de vida. En México, debido a la insuficiente infraestructura, los altos costos, la falta de mantenimiento y de personal capacitado, sólo 36 % de las aguas residuales generadas reciben tratamiento, lo cual crea la necesidad de desarrollar tecnologías para su depuración. Los humedales artificiales son una alternativa de tratamiento debido a su alta eficiencia de remoción de contaminantes y a su bajo costo de instalación y mantenimiento. En el presente trabajo se evalúa el porcentaje de remoción de la carga orgánica de aguas residuales, en un sistema de tratamiento por humedales artificiales de flujo horizontal y con dos especies vegetales. El sistema fue dise ado con tres módulos instalados de manera secuencial. En el primero se integraron organismos de la especie Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steudel, en el segundo, organismos de la especie Typha dominguensis (Pers.) Steudel y en el tercero las dos especies. Los módulos experimentales fueron instalados a la salida de un tratamiento primario, el cual contiene aguas residuales municipales provenientes de un edificio de investigación. En el agua se analizaron los siguientes parámetros: demanda química de oxígeno (DQO), los iones de nitrógeno (N-NO3-, N-NO2- y N-NH4+) y el fósforo total. También se realizó el conteo de bacterias asociadas al sistema. Los resultados demostraron que el sistema es una opción para la remoción de la carga orgánica y de nutrimentos, de bajo costo de operación y mantenimiento.
Ionic Composition in Aqueous Extracts from PM2.5 in Ambient Air at the City of Cuernavaca, México  [PDF]
Hugo Saldarriaga-Nore?a, Leonel Hernández-Mena, Enrique Sánchez-Salinas, Fernando Ramos-Quintana, Laura Ortíz-Hernández, Rodrigo Morales-Cueto, Vanesa Alarcón-González, Sandra Ramírez-Jiménez
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2014.513124
Abstract: The present study was carried out between May and June 2012 in the city of Cuernavaca, Mexico. During this time the average ambient temperatures were about 25°C, suggesting the formation of secondary aerosols, consisting mainly of ammonium and sulfate. The average PM2.5 concentration was 37 μg·m-3 for the entire urban area and there were only two days which exceeded the limit established by the official standards for periods of 24 h. The most abundant ionic species associated with PM2.5 were sulfates (3634.82 ng·m-3, average) and ammonium (1709.53 ng·m-3, average). The ratio estimated between total anions and total cations indicated that the concentration of total anions was 1.94 times total cations. The contribution percentage of the ionic species associated with PM2.5 revealed that 76% of the PM2.5 is sulfates and ammonium. The ion balance made for the urban area of Cuernavaca indicated that during the study period, the aerosols showed alkaline characteristics; that is to say the concentration of anions was not sufficient to neutralize the cations, specifically ammonia (m = 0.060). Finally, wind fields showed that during the study the winds came in 50% from the south west, followed by 25% from east and 12.5% of the south east, which in part allowed transport of contaminants into the portion of the city, where the AUSM campus site was located.
Radiocirugía como tratamiento complementario del meduloblastoma recidivado del adulto: respuesta ultratemprana
Pérez-Espejo,M.A.; Tobarra-González,B.M.; Piqueras-Pérez,C.J.; Sola-Pérez,J.; Torroba,A.; Sánchez-Salinas,A.; Moraleda-Jiménez,J.M.; Fuente-Mu?oz,I. de la; García-Fernández,R.; López-Soler,F.; Martínez-Lage,J.F.; Fernández-Pérez,J.;
Neurocirugía , 2011,
Abstract: the role of radiosurgery after multimodality treatment of recurrent desmoplastic adult medulloblastoma is analyzed. the ultra-early clinical and pathological response of this tumor to adjunctive radiosurgery is stressed.
Propuesta de manejo de los lodos residuales de la planta de tratamiento de la Ciudad Industrial del Valle de Cuernavaca, Estado de Morelos, México
Ma. Laura Ortiz Hernández,Margarita E. Gutiérrez Ruiz,Enrique Sánchez Salinas
Revista internacional de contaminación ambiental , 1995,
Biodegradation of methyl-parathion by bacteria isolated of agricultural soil
Ma. Laura Ortiz Hernández,Michelle Monterrosas Brisson,Gustavo Yánez Ocampo,Enrique Sánchez Salinas
Revista internacional de contaminación ambiental , 2001,
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