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Geostatistical Modeling of Uncertainty for the Risk Analysis of a Contaminated Site  [PDF]
Enrico Guastaldi
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2011.38066
Abstract: This work is a study of multivariate simulations of pollutants to assess the sampling uncertainty for the risk analysis of a contaminated site. The study started from data collected for a remediation project of a steel- works in northern Italy. The soil samples were taken from boreholes excavated a few years ago and analyzed by a chemical laboratory. The data set comprises concentrations of several pollutants, from which a subset of ten organic and inorganic compounds were selected. The first part of study is a univariate and bivariate sta- tistical analysis of the data. All data were spatially analyzed and transformed to the Gaussian space so as to reduce the effects of extreme high values due to contaminant hot spots and the requirements of Gaussian simulation procedures. The variography analysis quantified spatial correlation and cross-correlations, which led to a hypothesized linear model of coregionalization for all variables. Geostatistical simulation methods were applied to assess the uncertainty. Two types of simulations were performed: correlation correction of univariate sequential Gaussian simulations (SGS), and sequential Gaussian co-simulations (SGCOS). The outputs from the correlation correction simulations and SGCOS were analyzed and grade-tonnage curves were produced to assess basic environmental risk.
Perturbation of Hydrogen Degenerate Levels and SO(4)  [PDF]
Enrico Onofri
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2014.512106

We present a short note about the perturbative correction to Rydberg energies under a perturbation cosθ/rμ and discuss the role of SO(4) symmetry.

Measuring Salinity within Shallow Piezometers:Comparison of Two Field Methods  [PDF]
Enrico Balugani, Marco Antonellini
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2010.23029
Abstract: The objective of this study is to understand the validity of salinity vertical profiles collected from shallow piezometers that are not previously flushed. This study shows that salinity data collected from boreholes are only an average value along the entire screened section of the piezometer. In order to collect data that is rep-resentative for the salinity of the adjacent aquifer, a new monitoring strategy has been developed. This strat-egy includes measurement of the salinity at the top of the watertable in an auger hole which is a shallow boreholes made with an handheld drill. This should be combined with measurements in piezometers that are first flushed to take out stagnant water. From the piezometers on can measure the average salinity of the screened part and the salinity at the bottom of the aquifer. By using this monitoring strategy it is also possi-ble to define where the piezometers screens are located if this is not known beforehand.
Energy and Sustainability in Museums. The Plant Refurbishment of the Medieval Building of Palagio di Parte Guelfa in Florence  [PDF]
Carla Balocco, Enrico Marmonti
Open Journal of Energy Efficiency (OJEE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojee.2012.13004
Abstract: This paper presents a performance-based design of a HVAC plant and controller system of the “Palagio di Parte Guelfa” Palace, a medieval building converted into a museum in the city of Firenze. Transient simulations to evaluate the internal microclimate conditions during the year for the building and the different system plant were carried out. A comparison between the indoor microclimatic parameters obtained and the values suggested by the standards on protection and conservation of historical works of art, suggested a non-invasive and reversible plant system solution. The MuseumofHistorical Footballbuilding portion is the case study. The proposed plant, a constant air flow system coupled with radiant panels dry mounted above the existing flooring, was simulated throughout the year under transient conditions to evaluate its energy performance. This solution ensures indoor temperature and humidity values suitable for the conservation of works of art and visitor comfort. It is an example of a possible course of action for a plant refurbishment in a historic building converted into a museum, located in climatic regions characterized by high thermal and solar loads. The present paper concerns the study of an integrated and reversible architectural-plant solution proposed: reversibility of the proposed system is understood as the possibility for the present conditions being easily restored.
Hierarchical Modeling by Recursive Unsupervised Spectral Clustering and Network Extended Importance Measures to Analyze the Reliability Characteristics of Complex Network Systems  [PDF]
Yiping Fang, Enrico Zio
American Journal of Operations Research (AJOR) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajor.2013.31A010

The complexity of large-scale network systems made of a large number of nonlinearly interconnected components is a restrictive facet for their modeling and analysis. In this paper, we propose a framework of hierarchical modeling of a complex network system, based on a recursive unsupervised spectral clustering method. The hierarchical model serves the purpose of facilitating the management of complexity in the analysis of real-world critical infrastructures. We exemplify this by referring to the reliability analysis of the 380 kV Italian Power Transmission Network (IPTN). In this work of analysis, the classical component Importance Measures (IMs) of reliability theory have been extended to render them compatible and applicable to a complex distributed network system. By utilizing these extended IMs, the reliability properties of the IPTN system can be evaluated in the framework of the hierarchical system model, with the aim of providing risk managers with information on the risk/safety significance of system structures and components.

Bilinear Mappings and the Frame Operator  [PDF]
Enrico Au-Yeung
Advances in Pure Mathematics (APM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/apm.2013.34062

The theory of frames has been actively developed by many authors over the past two decades, both for its applications to signal processing, and for its deep connections to other areas of mathematics such as operator theory. Central to the study of frames is the frame operator. We initiate an investigation that extends the frame operator to the bilinear setting.

Human Biomonitoring of Engineered Nanoparticles: An Appraisal of Critical Issues and Potential Biomarkers
Enrico Bergamaschi
Journal of Nanomaterials , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/564121
Abstract: The present paper deals with the applicability of biological monitoring to the assessment of exposure and possible effects deriving from exposure to engineered nanomaterials (NM). After establishing a conceptual framework in which human biomonitoring should be placed, the paper reviews the critical issues related to the unusual properties of NM affecting the implementation of biomonitoring activities for this new class of chemicals. Relying on the recent advances in the toxicogenomic, it is possible to assess whether specific biological pathways are activated or perturbed by specific NM. However, to evaluate if quantitative changes in these biomarkers can be used as indicators or predictors for toxicity in humans, validation on well characterised groups of exposed people is needed. At present, it appears more pragmatic to evolve NM-associated biomarker identification considering relevant biological responses found in environmental and occupational studies and assessing the early events associated with exposure to these NM. The battery of biochemical markers includes soluble molecules, antioxidant capacity, peroxidated lipids and carbonyl groups in serum proteins as a biomarkers of systemic inflammation and vascular adhesion molecules to assess endothelial activation/damage. Abnormalities in exhaled breath condensate chemistry reflecting intrinsic changes in the airway lining fluid and lung inflammation seem promising tools suitable for BM studies and are broadly discussed.
Fukushima: There Are Lessons to Be Learnt, on Both Sides
Enrico Sciubba
Energies , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/en4050818
Abstract: On Friday March 11, at 2.46pm (5.46am GMT), an earthquake of magnitude between 8.9 and 9.1 (Richter scale) hit the superficial submarine crust, about 10 km below sea level and about 120 km south-east of the east coast of Japan. Minutes later, a tsunami wave of up to 10 m reached the north-east coast of Japan. Less than two hours later, the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) announced that over 4 million households were without power because of the quake-induced power generation and transmission failures. In particular, TEPCO stated that units 1, 2 and 3 at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant and units 1 to 4 at Fukushima Daini stopped automatically because of the quake. This was the beginning of the worst nuclear accident of the last two decades (the Tschernobyl tragedy dates back to 1986).
Entropy Generation Minima in Different Configurations of the Branching of a Fluid-Carrying Pipe in Laminar Isothermal Flow
Enrico Sciubba
Entropy , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/e12081855
Abstract: The paper discusses a simple multi-variable optimization problem: the bifurcation of a branch of a pipe of circular cross-section with a given initial radius r0 and delivering a given mass flow rate m0.The optimization is performed using an objective function that prescribes the minimization of the entropy generation rate due — in this simple case — only to viscous flow effects within the tubes. Several fundamental simplifying assumptions are made to reduce the problem to a multi-variable optimization in three independent variables: the aspect ratio of the domain served by the flow, the diameter ratio of the primary and secondary branches, and the length of the secondary branch (the location of both the “source” of the fluid and the “sink”, i.e., the place of desired delivery of the fluid, being a datum).It is shown that the solution is strongly dependent both on the aspect ratio and on the diameter ratio, and that the "optimal" configurations display some resemblance to the branching patterns observed in natural structures. The study poses a challenge both to Designers and to Natural Scientists: are the optima suggested by the present procedure compatible with the structures currently used in heat exchangers and flow devices? Are they compatible with the structures observed in nature? No final answer is provided in this preliminary study, but a possible "falsification" procedure is outlined in the conclusions.
Energies—A Trans-Disciplinary Journal
Enrico Sciubba
Energies , 2009, DOI: 10.3390/en20401007
Abstract: It is customary for a new Editor to address the audience of the Journal he is called to contribute to, to define or redefine its aims and scope and to state or restate its scientific and strategic priorities. In my case, this task is made much easier by the excellent relationship that has been established, in the two months since my nomination, with the Editorial Staff and with the Editorial Board of Energies. [...]
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