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Mineral Chemistry of REE-Rich Apatite and Sulfur-Rich Monazite from the Mushgai Khudag, Alkaline Volcanic-Plutonic Complex, South Mongolia  [PDF]
Dorjpalma Enkhbayar, Jieun Seo, Seon-Gyu Choi, Young Jae Lee, Enkhbayar Batmunkh
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2016.71003
Abstract: The Mushgai khudag volcanic-plutonic complex consists of four REE mineralization zones: carbonatite zone, apatite zone, magnetite zone, and monazite zone. REE mineralization occurs within peripheries of alkaline magmatic rocks which consist of porphyritic syenite, microsyenite and quartz syenites. Three types of LREE-rich apatite can be found in the carbonatite, apatite, and monazite zones. Crystal-1 type of apatite exists as hexagonal prismatic shape and is mostly found in the apatite zone, and in syenite. Crystal-2 type of apatite can be exposed also at the apatite zone, and carbonatite zone as brecciated massive crystalline aggregate. Crystal-3 type of apatite demonstrates the compositional zoning texture with monazite as inter-zoning, and is only found in monazite zone. The LREE-bearing apatites from the Mushgai khudag complex are mostly fluorapatite to hydroxyl-bearing fluorapatite with variable REE content. Apatites from the monazite zone present individual sulfur-rich monazite grain, and are formed by comprehensive substitutions.
Stochastic simulation of cell cycle
Purevdolgor Luvsantseren,Enkhbayar Purevjav,Khenmedeh Lochin
Advanced Studies in Biology , 2013,
Abstract:
Exploring Coverage and Distribution of Identifiers on the Scholarly Web
Peter Kraker,Asura Enkhbayar,Elisabeth Lex
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: In a scientific publishing environment that is increasingly moving online, identifiers of scholarly work are gaining in importance. In this paper, we analysed identifier distribution and coverage of articles from the discipline of quantitative biology using arXiv, Mendeley and CrossRef as data sources. The results show that when retrieving arXiv articles from Mendeley, we were able to find more papers using the DOI than the arXiv ID. This indicates that DOI may be a better identifier with respect to findability. We also find that coverage of articles on Mendeley decreases in the most recent years, whereas the coverage of DOIs does not decrease in the same order of magnitude. This hints at the fact that there is a certain time lag involved, before articles are covered in crowd-sourced services on the scholarly web.
Parametric optimization for the Lipschitz function
Ya. Lutbat,J. Enkhbayar,W. J. Hwang,R. Enkhbat
International Mathematical Forum , 2013,
Abstract: We consider the parametric minimization problem with a Lipschitzobjective function. We propose an approach for solving the originalproblem in a finite number of steps in order to obtain a solution with agiven accuraly.
Rapid assessment of Hib disease burden in Vietnam
Batmunkh Nyambat, Duc Dang, Hien Nguyen, Trinh Mai, Manju Rani, Mary PE Slack, Paul E Kilgore
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-260
Abstract: Laboratory, hospitalization and mortality data were collected for the period January 2004 through December 2005 from five representative hospitals. Based on the WHO Hib RAT protocol, standardized MS Excel spreadsheets were completed to generate meningitis and pneumonia case and death figures.We found 35 to 77 Hib meningitis deaths and 441 to 957 Hib pneumonia deaths among children < 5 years of age annually in Vietnam. Overall, the incidence of Hib meningitis was estimated at 18/100,000 (95% confidence interval, CI, 15.1-21.6). The estimated Hib meningitis incidence in children < 5 years age was higher in Ho Chi Minh City (22.5/100,000 [95% CI, 18.4-27.5]) compared to Hanoi (9.8/100,000 [95% CI, 6.5-14.8]). The Hib RAT suggests that there are a total of 883 to 1,915 cases of Hib meningitis and 4,414 to 9,574 cases of Hib pneumonia per year in Vietnam.In Hanoi, the estimated incidence of Hib meningitis for children < 5 years of age was similar to that described in previous population-based studies of Hib meningitis conducted from 1999 through 2002. Results from the Hib RAT suggest that there is a substantial, yet unmeasured, disease burden associated with Hib pneumonia in Vietnamese children.Prior to the introduction of universal childhood immunization with Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine, Hib was the most common cause of life-threatening bacterial infection (most often resulting in meningitis, bacterial pneumonia, and sepsis) in young children in industrialized countries [1]. Haemophilus influenzae, including Hib, is a well-known cause of childhood and adult disease with manifestations that include pneumonia, meningitis, epiglottitis, empyema, septicemia, septic arthritis, osteomyelitis, pericarditis, and cellulitis [2,3]. Globally, Hib is responsible for an estimated 3 million cases of serious disease and 386,000 childhood deaths every year [4]. Since the introduction of Hib conjugate vaccines in many countries, the decline in Hib disease burden has been
Comparative sequence analysis of leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) within vertebrate toll-like receptors
Norio Matsushima, Takanori Tanaka, Purevjav Enkhbayar, Tomoko Mikami, Masae Taga, Keiko Yamada, Yoshio Kuroki
BMC Genomics , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-8-124
Abstract: The new method utilizes known LRR structures to recognize and align new LRR motifs in TLRs and incorporates multiple sequence alignments and secondary structure predictions. TLRs from thirty-four vertebrate were analyzed. The repeat numbers of the LRRs ranges from 16 to 28. The LRRs found in TLRs frequently consists of LxxLxLxxNxLxxLxxxxF/LxxLxx ("T") and sometimes short motifs including LxxLxLxxNxLxxLPx(x)LPxx ("S"). The TLR7 family (TLR7, TLR8, and TLR9) contain 27 LRRs. The LRRs at the N-terminal part have a super-motif of STT with about 80 residues. The super-repeat is represented by STTSTTSTT or _TTSTTSTT. The LRRs in TLRs form one or two horseshoe domains and are mostly flanked by two cysteine clusters including two or four cysteine residue.Each of the six major TLR families is characterized by their constituent LRR motifs, their repeat numbers, and their patterns of cysteine clusters. The central parts of the TLR1 and TLR7 families and of TLR4 have more irregular or longer LRR motifs. These central parts are inferred to play a key role in the structure and/or function of their TLRs. Furthermore, the super-repeat in the TLR7 family suggests strongly that "bacterial" and "typical" LRRs evolved from a common precursor.Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a central role in innate immunity [1-3]. TLRs are type I integral membrane glycoproteins consisting of leucine rich repeat (LRR) motif in the ectodomain (ECD), and cytoplamic signaling domains known as Toll IL-receptor (TIR) domains, joined by a single trans membrane helix (Figure 1). They recognize and respond to a variety of components derived from pathogenic or commensal microorganisms principally bacteria and viruses. These molecules include lipids such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Gram-negative bacteria and peptidoglycan fragments from bacterial cell walls, proteins such as flagellin and nucleic acids such as single-stranded and double-stranded RNA and unmethylated CpG DNA from bacteria or viruses. The ECDs
Spectral optical properties of long-range transport Asian dust and pollution aerosols over Northeast Asia in 2007 and 2008
J. Jung, Y. J. Kim, K. Y. Lee, M. G. -Cayetano, T. Batmunkh, J.-H. Koo,J. Kim
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2010,
Abstract: As a part of the IGAC (International Global Atmospheric Chemistry) Mega-cities program, aerosol physical and optical properties were continuously measured from March 2007 to March 2008 at an urban site (37.57° N, 126.94° E) in Seoul, Korea. Spectral optical properties of long-range transported Asian dust and pollution aerosols have been investigated based on the year long measurement data. Optically measured black carbon/thermally measured elemental carbon (BC/EC) ratio showed clear monthly variation with high values in summer and low values in winter mainly due to the enhancement of light attenuation by the internal mixing of EC. Novel approach has been suggested to retrieve the spectral light absorption coefficient (babs) from Aethalometer raw data by using BC/EC ratio. Mass absorption efficiency, σabs (=babs/EC) at 550 nm was determined to be 9.0±1.3, 8.9±1.5, 9.5±2.0, and 10.3±1.7 m2 g 1 in spring, summer, fall, and winter, respectively with an annual mean of 9.4±1.8 m2 g 1. Threshold values to classify severe haze events were suggested in this study. Increasing trend of aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA) with wavelength was observed during Asian dust events while little spectral dependence of SSA was observed during long-range transport pollution (LTP) events. Satellite aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and Hysplit air mass backward trajectory analyses as well as chemical analysis were performed to characterize the dependence of spectral optical properties on aerosol type. Results from this study can provide useful information for studies on regional air quality and aerosol's effects on climate change.
New Formula for the Reflection Coefficient of an Open-Ended Rectangular Waveguide with or Without an Infinite Flange
Jong-Heon Kim;Bayanmunkh Enkhbayar;Jae-Hoon Bang;Bierng-Chearl Ahn;Eun-Jong Cha
PIER M , 2010, DOI: 10.2528/PIERM10033104
Abstract: New formulas are presented for the reflection coefficient at the open end of a rectangular waveguide radiating into air including the effect of wall thickness or flange. Existing formulas require significant amount of numerical calculations and do not cover the practical range of waveguide dimensions. Reflection coefficients of open-ended standard waveguides are simulated using commercial electromagnetic software and curve-fitted to derive new formulas. Proposed formulas include the effects of waveguide wall thickness and broad-to-narrow wall aspect ratio. The accuracy of proposed formulas is compared with existing analytical, numerical and experimental results.
Survey of childhood empyema in Asia: Implications for detecting the unmeasured burden of culture-negative bacterial disease
Batmunkh Nyambat, Paul E Kilgore, Dong Yong, Dang Anh, Chen-Hsun Chiu, Xuzhuang Shen, Luis Jodar, Timothy L Ng, Hans L Bock, William P Hausdorff
BMC Infectious Diseases , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-8-90
Abstract: We surveyed medical records of four representative large pediatric hospitals in China, Korea, Taiwan and Vietnam using ICD-10 diagnostic codes to identify children <16 years of age hospitalized with empyema or pleural effusion from 1995 to 2005. We also accessed microbiology records of cultured empyema and pleural effusion specimens to describe the trends in the epidemiology and microbiology of empyema.During the study period, we identified 1,379 children diagnosed with empyema or pleural effusion (China, n = 461; Korea, n = 134; Taiwan, n = 119; Vietnam, n = 665). Diagnoses of pleural effusion (n = 1,074) were 3.5 times more common than of empyema (n = 305), although the relative proportions of empyema and pleural effusion noted in hospital records varied widely between the four sites, most likely because of marked differences in coding practices. Although pleural effusions were reported more often than empyema, children with empyema were more likely to have a cultured pathogen. In addition, we found that median age and gender distribution of children with these conditions were similar across the four countries. Among 1,379 empyema and pleural effusion specimens, 401 (29%) were culture positive. Staphylococcus aureus (n = 126) was the most common organism isolated, followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 83), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 37) and Klebsiella (n = 35) and Acinetobacter species (n = 34).The age and gender distribution of empyema and pleural effusion in children in these countries are similar to the US and Western Europe. S. pneumoniae was the second leading bacterial cause of empyema and pleural effusion among Asian children. The high proportion of culture-negative specimens among patients with pleural effusion or empyema suggests that culture may not be a sufficiently sensitive diagnostic method to determine etiology in the majority of cases. Future prospective studies in different countries would benefit from standardized case definitions and coding
Influenza and Bacterial Pathogen Coinfections in the 20th Century
Xuan-Yi Wang,Paul E. Kilgore,Kyung Ah Lim,Song-Mei Wang,Jeongseok Lee,Wei Deng,Mei-Qi Mo,Batmunkh Nyambat,Jing-Chen Ma,Michael O. Favorov,John D. Clemens
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/146376
Abstract: To help understand the potential impact of bacterial coinfection during pandemic influenza periods, we undertook a far-reaching review of the existing literature to gain insights into the interaction of influenza and bacterial pathogens. Reports published between 1950 and 2006 were identified from scientific citation databases using standardized search terms. Study outcomes related to coinfection were subjected to a pooled analysis. Coinfection with influenza and bacterial pathogens occurred more frequently in pandemic compared with seasonal influenza periods. The most common bacterial coinfections with influenza virus were due to S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, Staphylococcus spp., and Streptococcus spp. Of these, S. pneumoniae was the most common cause of bacterial coinfection with influenza and accounted for 40.8% and 16.6% of bacterial coinfections during pandemic and seasonal periods, respectively. These results suggest that bacterial pathogens will play a key role in many countries, as the H1N1(A) influenza pandemic moves forward. Given the role of bacterial coinfections during influenza epidemics and pandemics, the conduct of well-designed field evaluations of public health measures to reduce the burden of these common bacterial pathogens and influenza in at-risk populations is warranted. 1. Introduction Worldwide, seasonal influenza causes an estimated one million deaths, and Streptococcus pneumoniae is associated with approximately 875,000 deaths among children and ~1.1 million deaths among adults each year [1–3]. Influenza and S. pneumoniae account for a large proportion of total respiratory disease morbidity and mortality. In addition, bacterial coinfection due to pathogens such as S. pneumoniae is a recognized complication of both upper and lower respiratory tract disease due to influenza [4, 5]. With the continued spread of H1N1 influenza virus and the declaration of a global H1N1 influenza pandemic, the impact of this virus may greatly increase in coming months—particularly in populations where there is limited access to health care. In recent years, as pandemic preparedness activities have advanced throughout the world, the treatment, the management, the and prevention of bacterial coinfections (e.g., S. pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae type b [Hib]) have garnered increasing attention [6]. To help understand the potential impact of vaccination against coinfection during pandemic influenza periods, we undertook a broad review of the existing literature that provides new insights into the interaction of influenza and bacterial pathogens. 2.
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