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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 972 matches for " Emotion "
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Chinese Teachers’ Emotion Regulation Goals and Strategies  [PDF]
Shaoying Gong, Xiaoyun Chai, Ting Duan, Liu Zhong, Yongqing Jiao
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2013.411125

This study aimed to explore Chinese teachers’ emotion regulation goals and strategies used before, in, and after classroom teaching. Thirty-four teachers from elementary, middle and high schools were interviewed with semi-structure questionnaire. Chinese teachers’ goals for regulating emotions included achieving instructional goals, decreasing the negative impact of emotions on student learning, confirming the professional and ethical norms, maintaining teachers’ and students’ mental health, keeping positive emotional images, and nurturing good teacher-student relationships. Teachers used various antecedent-focused and response-focused strategies to control their emotions before, in, and after class. In general, Chinese teachers used response-modulation most frequently, followed by cognitive changes in and after classroom teaching. These findings have implications for productive delivery of education service, teacher training and policy-making.

Emotional Reactions to Sounds without Meaning  [PDF]
Daniel V?stfj?ll
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2012.38091
Abstract: The present research examined the relationship between emotional reactions to sounds without meaning (tone and noise complexes) and objective sound descriptors. Two experiments showed that the core affect dimensions valence and activation were related to perceived loudness (intensity) and sharpness (perceived high frequency content), respectively. These results can be used as design criteria for emotion induction with sounds, implementation of emotional sounds in products, as well as in research on environmental noise perception.
Are Gender Differences in Empathy Due to Differences in Emotional Reactivity?  [PDF]
Linda Rueckert, Brandon Branch, Tiffany Doan
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.26088
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine whether gender differences in empathy reflect differences in self- rated emotion, and whether they are influenced by the nature of the target of the empathy (friend or enemy). 24 men and 36 women were asked to rate how much happiness, sadness, and anger they would feel if each of ten scenarios happened to themselves, and how they would feel if it happened to a friend or enemy. Overall, women rated themselves as feeling more happiness and sadness than men, whether the event happened to themselves, or to a friend or enemy. This suggests gender differences in self-reported empathy may be due to differences in general emotional responsiveness. An empathy score was computed by subtracting, for each scenario, the rating for the other person from the rating for self. Women showed a greater difference between friend and enemy than men.
Happiness as Surplus or Freely Available Energy  [PDF]
Matthew T. Gailliot
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2012.39107
Abstract: This paper presents a literature review that indicate happiness as a state of freely available or surplus energy. Happiness is associated with good metabolism and glucose levels, fewer demands (from parenting, work, difficult social relationships, or personal threats), and goal achievement, as well as increased ease of processing, mental resources, social support, and monetary wealth. Each of these either provide or help conserve energy.
Asymmetry in Resting Alpha Activity: Effects of Handedness  [PDF]
Ruth E. Propper, Jenna Pierce, Mark W. Geisler, Stephen D. Christman, Nathan Bellorado
Open Journal of Medical Psychology (OJMP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojmp.2012.14014
Abstract: Study Aim: Frontal electroencephalographic (EEG) alpha band power during rest shows increased right, and/or de-creased left, hemisphere activity under conditions of state or trait withdrawal-associated affect. Non-right-handers (NRH) are more likely to have mental illnesses and dispositions that involve such withdrawal-related affect. The aim of the study was to examine whether NRH might be characterized by increased right, relative to left, hemisphere activity during rest. Methods: The present research investigated that hypothesis by examining resting EEG alpha power in consistently-right-handed (CRH) and NRH individuals. Results: In support of the hypothesis, NRH demonstrated de-creased right hemisphere alpha power, and therefore increased right hemisphere activity, during rest, compared to CRH. Conclusions: The study demonstrates further support for an association between increased right hemisphere activity and negative affect via an association between such EEG activity and NRH.
Saliva Cortisol and Heart Rate Variability as Biomarkers in Understanding Emotional Reaction and Regulation of Young Children—A Review  [PDF]
Ishien Li, Shu-Mei Chwo, Ciwas Pawan
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2013.46A2004

Cortisol and heart rate variability (HRV) are good indicators for the non-invasive assessment of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity in response to psychophysiological stress respectively. Emerging evidence from previous studies suggests a link between cortisol and HRV response to stress and social experiences during early development. However, research in this area has been constrained by a number of conceptual and methodological challenges. Time is a crucial variable that needs to be taken into account in study designs since stress-sensitive physiological systems change over time in response to changing intrinsic and extrinsic states. In this review, our focus is on the HPA axis and HRV responses as an allostatic system with young children’s individual differences in temperament, social regulation, and environmental sources of influence taken into account. The conclusions include: 1) cortisol levels are related to various time courses, ranging from moment-to-moment changes to changes occurring over the course of days, months, and years in consideration of individual differences in state and trait emotions; 2) it is necessary to take individual characteristics, multi-faceted constructs related to early development, and developmental changes into account in studies of reactivity and regulation patterns of the cortisol and HRV in young children; and 3) prospective examination is needed on the long-term outcomes of various individual characteristics and environmental influences (e.g., attachment quality, family and daycare environment, and environmental control of the child) in early experience that are related to reactivity differences in HRV and atypical cortisol patterns.

Entrepreneurship Motivation: Tunisian Case  [PDF]
Jamel Choukir, Mouna Baccour Hentati
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management (AJIBM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajibm.2013.38085

The entrepreneurship option was launched in Tunisia nearly one decade ago. The firm creation process seemed to be initiated especially to absorb the increasing number of undergraduates and graduates. Therefore, the main aim of the present research is to highlight the entrepreneurship motivation as a social issue and to understand the link existing between motivator factors and economic and social success. Hence, a survey by questionnaire was conducted based on 100 respondents representing Tunisian entrepreneurs. The results revealed that there are links between motivator factors and entrepreneurship as well as some ties between entrepreneurship, motivator factors and the antecedents, especially concerning gender, age and family background. The results have shown some differences existing between male and female entrepreneurs. Male entrepreneursmotivator factors are in the same importance with push and pull ones. Female entrepreneurs’ motivator factors are rather emotional. These results are statistically significance. Thus, the finding would be useful for the stakeholders to understand the entrepreneurship dynamic.


A Qualitative Study of Librarian’s Negative Emotions in Taiwan
Su-May Sheih Chen
Journal of Library and Information Studies , 2003,
Abstract: Literature in emotional management has considered that emotions of employees may have important organizational implications. In librarianship, emotions also play an important role in affecting librarians’ attitude to patrons and in turn his/her job performance. Yet the exploration of emotion has not been much studied in Taiwan’s librarianship. Hence, the purpose of this study is trying to explore librarians’ perception and causes of negative emotions in the library settings in Taiwan. The result indicates that librarians in Taiwan experience significant levels of negative emotions, and interpersonal relationship appears as one of the most important causes.[Article content in Chinese]
Kinematic Elicitation of Basic Emotions: A Validation Study in an Italian Sample  [PDF]
Cesare Maffei, Emanuela Roder, Claudia Cortesan, Francesca Passera, Massimo Rossi, Martina Segrini, Raffaele Visintini, Andrea Fossati
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2014.59119

Video clips proved to effectively elicit different emotions. Hewig and colleagues (2005) developed a comprehensive set collecting 20 emotional film clips and investigated the basic emotions elicited in a German sample. In this study, we tested the reproducibility of their findings in Italian nonclinical adult subjects (N = 32) examined individually in an ecological setting; moreover, the differences between presentation modalities (with and without sound) were examined. Clips were rated on 10 emotional states (serene, amused, happy, surprised, sad, scared, angry, disgusted, indignant, tense) and on two bipolar dimensions of valence and intensity. Only little differences between presentation modalities were found; stories depicted proved to be clear enough. Film clips elicited the expected emotional profiles, and their rank order for each emotion is almost comparable with the German ones. However, all the clips elicited more than one emotion: ANCOVA proved that emotions were not fully independent and specific association patterns were found. Implications are discussed in the light of the complexity of emotional activation.

Emotion Regulation, Personality and Social Adjustment in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders  [PDF]
Nathalie Nader-Grosbois, Stéphanie Mazzone
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2014.515182
Abstract: The study examines how emotion regulation and emotion dysregulation in 3 - 12 years old children with autism spectrum disorders (n = 39) are linked with the five factors of personality and their social adjustment. Children were assessed by means of the Differential Scales of Intellectual Efficiency-Revised edition (EDEI-R). The teachers have completed the CARS-T, the Bipolar Rating Scales based on the Five Factor Model (EBMCF) and the French version of Emotion Regulation Checklist (ERC-vf) and a Social Adjustment scale (including items related to Theory of Mind, EASE-ToM, and related to social rules, EASE-Social-Skills). Positive and significant correlations are obtained between emotion regulation scores and verbal developmental age, personality factors of openness, agreeableness, and extraversion. The emotion dysregulation score is negatively and significantly linked with the factor of emotional stability, but positively and significantly linked with extraversion. Moreover, emotion regulation scores are positively and significantly linked with scores in social adjustment. Linear regression by stepwise shows that both extraversion and agreeableness explain 66.5% of the variance of the emotion regulation score; and extraversion, agreeableness and emotional stability explain 68.3% of the variance of the emotion dysregulation score. The openness explains 55.9% of the variance of the EASE-ToM score. Both agreeableness and extraversion explain 61.6% of the variance of the EASE-Social Skills score.
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