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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4190 matches for " Emmanuel Reynard "
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A New Statistical Approach to Assess Climate Variability in the White Bandama Watershed, Northern C?te d’Ivoire  [PDF]
Franck Zokou Yao, Emmanuel Reynard, Isma?la Ouattara, Yao Alexis N’go, Jean-Michel Fallot, Issiaka Savané
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2018.84027
Abstract: The population of northern Côte d’Ivoire, especially in the white Bandama watershed, lives for majority in rural areas and depends on farming, which is mainly linked to climate variability. This study evaluates the trends within watershed’s hydro-climatic variables and their level of significance over the period 1950-2000. The methodological approach consists in applying successively standardized indexes to detect trends and breaks in hydro-climatic long-term data. The Mann-Kendall statistical test lets us know the trends significance and the Kendall-Theil Robust Line test reveals their magnitude. The Student’s t test underlines break years. Results show that although rainfall has decreased, this decline is not statistically significant. However, temperature and potential evapotranspiration have strongly rised and discharge was submitted to high decline. These changes in hydrometeorological variables appeared from 1970 to 1980. This study is different from others conducted on climate variability in the northern Côte d’Ivoire by the methodological statistical framework implemented and the understanding of significance level of climate trends. Until now, authors used the standardized index to detect trends in hydro-climatic parameters. For this work, we added the Mann-Kendall statistical test to assess the significance level of these trends at α = 5% and 10%. Then, the Kendall-Theil statistical test was used to highlight the trends magnitude and the student’s t test to know the break years.
Iconic Sites for Alpine Geology and Geomorphology
Emmanuel Reynard,Fabien Hobléa,Nathalie Cayla,Christophe Gauchon
Revue de Géographie Alpine , 2011, DOI: 10.4000/rga.1435
Abstract: In the Alps — as with the rest of Europe — renewed interest in geoheritage sites has grown since the late nineteen-nineties. Inventory, conservation and promotional (didactic, tourist) projects for geosites have blossomed at every scale — local, national and international – articulated around the central concept of geodiversity. The present article will demonstrate that far from being an entirely new tendency, this constitutes rather a specific stage in a number of different threads of the history of landscape heritage, on-going since the nineteenth century. What is new, however, is the movement that consists in basing the selection of heritage sites on their intrinsic scientific value with regard to their pertinence to the history of the Earth, rather than for any merely picturesque or aesthetic qualities. This tendency towards the implementation of geoheritage contributes to the general drive for the sustainable development of alpine territories, particularly by means of the establishment of territorial development tools such as Geoparks. Depuis la fin des années 1990, on assiste dans les Alpes, comme partout en Europe, à un nouvel intérêt pour les géopatrimoines. A toutes les échelles – locale, nationale, internationale – ont émergé des projets d’inventaire, de protection et de valorisation (didactique, touristique) des géosites autour du concept de géodiversité. Cet article montre que ces tendances ne sont pas nouvelles mais constituent plut t une étape dans des trajectoires patrimoniales diverses, initiées dès le XIXe siècle. La nouveauté est une patrimonialisation basée sur la valeur scientifique intrinsèque des sites, en tant que témoins de l’histoire de la Terre, et non plus seulement pour leur valeur esthétique ou pittoresque. Ce mouvement de patrimonialisation participe de la volonté de développer durablement les territoires alpins, notamment à travers la mise en place d’outils de développements territorial tels que les géoparcs.
Les hauts lieux géologiques et géomorphologiques alpins
Emmanuel Reynard,Fabien Hobléa,Nathalie Cayla,Christophe Gauchon
Revue de Géographie Alpine , 2011, DOI: 10.4000/rga.1412
Abstract: Depuis la fin des années 1990, on assiste dans les Alpes, comme partout en Europe, à un nouvel intérêt pour les géopatrimoines. A toutes les échelles – locale, nationale, internationale – ont émergé des projets d’inventaire, de protection et de valorisation (didactique, touristique) des géosites autour du concept de géodiversité. Cet article montre que ces tendances ne sont pas nouvelles mais constituent plut t une étape dans des trajectoires patrimoniales diverses, initiées dès le XIXe siècle. La nouveauté est une patrimonialisation basée sur la valeur scientifique intrinsèque des sites, en tant que témoins de l’histoire de la Terre, et non plus seulement pour leur valeur esthétique ou pittoresque. Ce mouvement de patrimonialisation participe de la volonté de développer durablement les territoires alpins, notamment à travers la mise en place d’outils de développements territorial tels que les géoparcs. In the Alps — as with the rest of Europe — renewed interest in geoheritage sites has grown since the late nineteen-nineties. Inventory, conservation and promotional (didactic, tourist) projects for geosites have blossomed at every scale — local, national and international – articulated around the central concept of geodiversity. The present article will demonstrate that far from being an entirely new tendency, this constitutes rather a specific stage in a number of different threads of the history of landscape heritage, on-going since the nineteenth century. What is new, however, is the movement that consists in basing the selection of heritage sites on their intrinsic scientific value with regard to their pertinence to the history of the Earth, rather than for any merely picturesque or aesthetic qualities. This tendency towards the implementation of geoheritage contributes to the general drive for the sustainable development of alpine territories, particularly by means of the establishment of territorial development tools such as Geoparks.
The role of common pool resource institutions in the implementation of Swiss natural resource management policy
Jean-David Gerber,Stéphane Nahrath,Emmanuel Reynard,Luzius Thomi
International Journal of the Commons , 2008,
Abstract: By analysing Swiss common pool resource (CPR) institutions, this paper aims to contribute to the debate on comanagement while demonstrating how important it is to take into account the structuring role played by public policies in the regulation of natural resource use in western countries characterized by significant state intervention. The comparative analysis of three detailed case studies dealing with hunting, flood protection and landscape management policies leads to three main conclusions: (1) CPR institutions strengthen the coherence of resource regimes to the extent that they constitute social institutions which can facilitate the "mediation process," i.e. the transformation of the collective identity, self-perception and, therefore, behaviour of policy target groups in the direction defined by the stated policy objectives; (2) one of the main conditions for the perpetuation of CPR institutions is their capacity to organize their activities around a collective problem defined as such by a policy; (3) the integration of CPR institutions into the political-administrative arrangement contributes to the reinforcement of the functional and territorial coordination between payers, decision makers and beneficiaries in regional and local institutional regimes.
To what extent does not wearing shoes affect the local dynamic stability of the gait? Effect size and intra-session repeatability
Philippe Terrier,Fabienne Reynard
Physics , 2012,
Abstract: Local dynamic stability (LDS) quantifies how a system responds to small perturbations. Several experimental and clinical findings have highlighted the association between gait LDS and fall risk. Walking without shoes is known to slightly modify gait parameters. Barefoot walking (BW) may cause unusual sensory feedback to individuals accustomed to shod walking (SW), and this may impact on LDS. The objective of this study was therefore to compare the LDS of SW and BW in healthy individuals and to analyze the intrasession repeatability. Forty participants traversed a 70 m indoor corridor wearing normal shoes in one trial and walking barefoot in a second trial. Trunk accelerations were recorded with a 3D-accelerometer attached to the lower back. The LDS was computed using the finite-time maximal Lyapunov exponent method. Absolute agreement between the forward and backward paths was estimated with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). BW did not significantly modify the LDS as compared to SW (average standardized effect size: +0.12). The intrasession repeatability was high in SW (ICC: 0.73-0.79) and slightly higher in BW (ICC: 0.82-0.88). Therefore, it seems that BW can be used to evaluate LDS without introducing bias as compared to SW, and with a sufficient reliability.
Effect of age on the variability and stability of gait: a cross-sectional treadmill study in healthy individuals between 20 and 69 years of age
Philippe Terrier,Fabienne Reynard
Quantitative Biology , 2014, DOI: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2014.09.024
Abstract: Falls during walking are a major health issue in the elderly population. Older individuals are usually more cautious, work more slowly, take shorter steps, and exhibit increased step-to-step variability. They often have impaired dynamic balance, which explains their increased falling risk. Those locomotor characteristics might be the result of the neurological/musculoskeletal degenerative processes typical of advanced age or of a decline that began earlier in life. In order to help determine between the two possibilities, we analyzed the relationship between age and gait features among 100 individuals aged 20-69. Trunk acceleration was measured during 5-min treadmill session using a 3D accelerometer. The following dependent variables were assessed: preferred walking speed, walk ratio (step length normalized by step frequency), gait instability (local dynamic stability, Lyapunov exponent method), and acceleration variability (root mean square (RMS)). Using age as a predictor, linear regressions were performed for each dependent variable. The results indicated that walking speed, walk ratio and trunk acceleration variability were not dependent on age (R2<2%). However, there was a significant quadratic association between age and gait instability in the mediolateral direction (R2=15%). We concluded that most of the typical gait features of older age do not result from a slow evolution over the life course. On the other hand, gait instability likely begins to increase at an accelerated rate as early as age 40-50. This finding support the premise that local dynamic stability is likely a relevant early indicator of falling risk.
Local dynamic stability of treadmill walking: intrasession and week-to-week repeatability
Fabienne Reynard,Philippe Terrier
Quantitative Biology , 2013, DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2013.10.011
Abstract: Repetitive falls degrade the quality of life of elderly people and of patients suffering of various neurological disorders. In order to prevent falls while walking, one should rely on relevant early indicators of impaired dynamic balance. The local dynamic stability (LDS) represents the sensitivity of gait to small perturbations: divergence exponents (maximal Lyapunov exponents) assess how fast a dynamical system diverges from neighbor points. Although numerous findings attest the validity of LDS as a fall risk index, reliability results are still sparse. The present study explores the intrasession and intersession repeatability of gait LDS using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and standard error of measurement (SEM). Ninety-five healthy individuals performed 5min. treadmill walking in two sessions separated by 9 days. Trunk acceleration was measured with a 3D accelerometer. Three time scales were used to estimate LDS: over 4 to 10 strides ({\lambda}4-10), over one stride ({\lambda}1) and over one step ({\lambda}0.5). The intrasession repeatability was assessed from three repetitions of either 35 strides or 70 strides taken within the 5min tests. The intersession repeatability compared the two sessions, which totalized 210 strides. The intrasession ICCs (70-strides estimates/35-strides estimates) were 0.52/0.18 for {\lambda}4-10 and 0.84/0.77 for {\lambda}1 and {\lambda}0.5. The intersession ICCs were around 0.60. The SEM results revealed that {\lambda}0.5 measured in medio-lateral direction exhibited the best reliability, sufficient to detect moderate changes at individual level (20%). However, due to the low intersession repeatability, one should average several measurements taken on different days in order to better approximate the true LDS.
Climate change and integrated analysis of mountain geomorphological systems
E. Reynard, C. Lambiel,S. N. Lane
Geographica Helvetica (GH) , 2012,
Abstract: No abstract available.
Pierre Mendès France, French Security Politics, and the European Defense Community  [PDF]
Emmanuel Konde
Open Journal of Political Science (OJPS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojps.2013.31004
Abstract:

This paper examines the role of Pierre Mendès France in the decision of the French National Assembly to reject the European Defense Community (EDC) proposed by René Pleven in October 1950 and signed by the [Antoine] Pinay government in 1952. Since the signing of the EDC treaty in 1952, successive governments of the Fourth Republic delayed action on ratification of the treaty until 1954 when Mendès France assumed the office of prime minister and, acting against conventional wisdom, forced the National Assembly to vote on it. The EDC was a collective attempt by western European powers, with the full support of the United States, to counterbalance the overwhelming conventional military ascendancy of the Soviet Union in Europe by forming a supranational European army. This collective security plan had its origins in the French government of René Pleven in 1950. Why the French signed the treaty establishing the EDC two years later in 1952, and then rejected it in 1954 after four years of debate, is of central concern to this paper, which explores the intersection and interplay of various factors that contributed to the negative French vote.


Capital Flows, Trade and the Role of the Financial System  [PDF]
Emmanuel Amissah
Modern Economy (ME) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/me.2018.99099
Abstract: In this study, we examine the crucial role played by financial development in the relationship between trade and capital flows. We examine this relationship for 130 countries from 1980 to 2005 for different types of capital flows. We show that the relationship depends on the type of capital flows and the level of financial development. We observe a positive interaction between trade liberalisation and financial development for portfolio flows. In the case of FDI (Foreign Direct Investment), we observe an insignificant relationship. The FDI flows bypass the financial system as it flows into such countries because of other factors as side the level of the financial development.
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