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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4237 matches for " Emmanuel Patroba Mhache "
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A Comparative Analysis of Social Service Provision and Accessibility in Regularised Settlements in Tanzania  [PDF]
Edmund Zakayo, Emmanuel Patroba Mhache, Wakuru Magigi
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105278
Social service provision and accessibility play a great role in ensuring city de-velopment in both developed and developing countries with emerging econo-mies, Tanzania inclusive. This paper provides a comparative study on the situation, arguments and criticisms of three planned neighborhoods, whereby in those cases, local communities were involved in settlement upgrading through land regularization in Tanzania. The discussion centered on comparing the social infrastructure service provision and the levels of accessibility of neighborhood residents to roads, waste disposal, water and electricity supply. Similarly, the paper highlights the role of neighborhood leaders in ensuring social service provision, accessibility levels, reasons for connections, and the correlation between source of water and electricity supply as well as inferential statistics for the effects of the land regularization on the access to social services. We find that local leadership determines provision and accessibility of infrastructures in an area where informal settlement upgrading project takes place. Location differences of neighborhoods and proximity to the infrastructure service influence business growth, home improvement, service payments, and residents’ mindset change in the neighborhood land development processes. We also found that conditions set for provision of social services include: availability of permanent building structure, land ownership, affordability level, household agreement, offering land for public use and freedom from the road reserve. Local Authority sets guidelines for service provision and helps meet with the local community and thus, shows the recognized role of community involvement in settlement upgrading projects. Furthermore, the role of planning institutions and differences is highlighted. The study concludes that community involvement and local leadership championship in informal settlement upgrading are vital elements for the success of the program and towards ensuring development control, coordination and sustainability once the project ends.
Infrastructure Provision in Regularised Informal Settlement through Labour Based Approach: Lessons from Miembeni Settlement in Moshi, Tanzania  [PDF]
Edmund Zakayo, Emmanuel Patroba Mhache, Wakuru Magigi
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105883
Labour based approach as a participatory approach in infrastructure pro-vision has become a topical global agenda to ensure success of urban plan-ning practice in informal settlements. This paper contributes to the emerging debate on the roles and critiques of the use of labour based approach in infrastructure provision as one step in the implementation of land regularization taking Miembeni settlement in Moshi Tanzania as a case. The study highlights motives and needs for infrastructure provisioning as an important step for local communities’ engagement in land regularization towards improving infrastructure facilities and utilities in the settlement. It provides explanation on technology in which labour adopted, supported by light equipment, which was used as a cost-effective method of constructing and maintaining infrastructure at a required standard. Likely provides donor community contributions and settlement characteristics. The analysis is grounded in understanding labour based approach as a theoretical base in using local community and simple technology in improving infrastructure in informal settlements, implementation process, the role of planning institutions, planning standards and written and unwritten norms. The paper ends by providing reflections and concluding remarks which provide lessons and sharing knowledge for replication in informal settlements of the same context in Tanzania and elsewhere.
Spatial Modelling of Weather Variables for Plant Disease Applications in Mwea Region  [PDF]
Paul Onyango Ouma, Patroba Achola Odera, John Bosco Mukundi
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2016.45013
Abstract: Climate change is expected to affect the agricultural systems, such as crop yield and plant disease occurrence and spread. To be able to mitigate against the negative impacts of climate change, there is a need to use early warning systems that account for expected changes in weather variables such as temperature and rainfall. Moreover, providing such information at high spatial and temporal resolutions can be useful in improving the accuracy of an early warning system. This paper describes a methodology that can be used to produce high spatial and temporal resolutions of minimum temperature, maximum temperature and rainfall in an agricultural area. We utilize MarkSim GCM, a weather file generator that incorporates IPCC based climate change models to downscale the weather variables at monthly intervals. An ensemble of 17 GCM models is used within the RCP 8.0 emission scenario within the latest model based CMIP5. We first assess the usability of the model, by comparing results produced to what has been recorded at weather station level over a vast region. Then, we estimate the correction factors for model results by implementing a linear regression that is used to assess the relationship between the variables and the deviation of model outputs to the weather station data. Finally, we use kriging geostatistical technique to interpolate the weather data, for the year 2010. Results indicated that the model overestimated the results of maximum temperature, while underestimating the result of minimum temperature. Variability in the recorded weather variables was also evident, indicating that the response variables such as plant disease severity dependent on such weather information could vary in the area. These datasets can be useful especially in predicting the occurrence of plant diseases, which are affected by either rainfall or temperature.
Determination of Suitable Sites for Establishment of Large-Scale Concentrated Solar Power Plants in Kenya  [PDF]
Joan Njeri Gathu, Patroba Achola Odera, Edward Hunja Waithaka
Natural Resources (NR) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2017.81001
Abstract: The demand for energy in Kenya, especially for electricity, is increasing rapidly due to population growth, decentralization of governance, and technological and industrial development. Hydroelectricity, the core source of power, has proved unreliable due to the rapid climate change. In response, the country has ventured into other renewable sources to counter the issues posed by the alternative nonrenewable sources such as unreliability, high costs, and environmental degradation as seen with the use of diesel and kerosene. The purpose of this research is to determine the viability of setting up a large-scale concentrated solar power plantation in Kenya that will assist in stabilizing Kenya’s energy demand and supply as well as increase its affordability. The project is divided into three phases. The first phase conducts an overlay analysis to determine the Kenya’s solar energy potential. The results show that the northern region has the highest potential. The second step involves the creation of an exclusion mask which eliminates the unsuitable land forms and Land Use Land Cover. Based on the results, the best ten sites are situated in Turkana and Marsabit counties. The final phase involves the evaluation of the potential capacity of power that could be generated per square kilometer. The study finds out that the potential varies based on the technologies: parabolic trough, linear Fresnel reflector, or dish systems.
Estimation of Above Ground Biomass in Forests Using Alos Palsar Data in Kericho and Aberdare Ranges  [PDF]
Eunice Wamuyu Maina, Patroba Achola Odera, Mwangi James Kinyanjui
Open Journal of Forestry (OJF) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2017.72006
Abstract: Above Ground Biomass is one of the six pools identified in the inventory of forest resources and estimation of greenhouse gas emissions and sinks from the forestry sector. The pool varies by management practices in different agro-ecological or agro-climatic zones in forests. The quantification of above ground biomass (AGB) hence carbon sequestration in forests has been very difficult due to the immense costs required. This research was done to estimate AGB using ALOS PALSAR L band data (HH, HV polarisation) acquired in 2009 in relation with ground measurements data in Kericho and Aberdares ranges in Kenya. Tree data information was obtained from ground measurement of DBH and tree heights in 100 circular plots of 15 m radius, by use of random sampling technique. ALOS PALSAR image is advantageous for its active microwave sensor using L-band frequency to achieve cloud free imageries, and the ability of long wavelength cross-polarization to estimate AGB accurately for tropical forests. The variations result between Natural and plantation forest for measured and estimated biomass in Kericho HV band regression value was 0.880 and HH band was 0.520. In Aberdare ranges HV regression value of 0.708 and HH band regression value of 0.511 for measured and estimated biomass respectively. The variations can be explained by the influence of different management regimes induced human disturbances, forest stand age, density, species composition, and trees diameter distribution. However, further research is required to investigate how strong these factors affect relationship between AGB and Alos Palsar backscatters.
Estimation of Tree Height and Forest Biomass Using Airborne LiDAR Data: A Case Study of Londiani Forest Block in the Mau Complex, Kenya  [PDF]
Faith Kagwiria Mutwiri, Patroba Achola Odera, Mwangi James Kinyanjui
Open Journal of Forestry (OJF) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2017.72016
Abstract: Tactical decisions on natural resource management require accurate and up to date spatial information for sustainable forest management. Remote sensing devices by the use of multispectral data obtained from satellites or airborne sensors, allow substantial data acquisition that reduce cost of data collection and satisfy demands for continuous precise data. Forest height and Diameter at Breast Height (DBH) are crucial variables to predict volume and biomass. Traditional methods for estimation of tree heights and biomass are time consuming and labour intensive making it difficult for countries to carry out periodic National forest inventories to support forest management and REDD+ activities. This study assessed the applicability of LiDAR data in estimating tree height and biomass in a variety of forest conditions in Londiani Forest Block. The target forests were natural forest, plantation forests and other scattered forests analysed in a variety of topographic conditions. LiDAR data were collected by an aircraft flying at an elevation of 1550 m. The LIDAR pulses hitting the forest were used to estimate the forest height and the density of the vegetation, which implied biomass. LiDAR data were collected in 78 sampling plots of 15 m radius. The LiDAR data were ground truthed to compare its accuracy for above ground biomass (AGB) and height estimation. The correlation coefficients for heights between LiDAR and field data were 0.92 for the pooled data, 0.79 in natural forest, 0.95 in plantation forest and 0.92 in other scattered forest. AGB estimated from LiDAR and ground truthed data had a correlation coefficient of 0.86 for the pooled data, 0.78 in natural forest, 0.84 in plantation forest and 0.51 in other scattered forests. This implied 62%, 84% and 89% accuracy of AGB estimation in natural forests, other scattered forests and plantation forests respectively. The even aged conditions of plantation forests might have resulted to better estimates of height and AGB as compared to uneven aged natural forests and scattered forests. The results imply the reliability of using Airborne LIDAR scanning in forest biomass estimates in Kenya and are an option for supporting a National Forest Monitoring System for REDD+.
Securing Bank Loans and Mortgages Using Real Estate Information Aided by Geospatial Technologies
David Kuria,Moses Gachari,Patroba Odera,Rogers Mvuria
International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies , 2013,
Abstract: Due to liberalization within the financial market, there has been increased cash flow in banks. This has resulted in increased competition among banks to secure and increase their customer base, in an effort to remain profitable. Banks are foregoing the multitude of checks that used to be conducted before granting any mortgage facility to customers, in an effort to remain competitive. This has led to a drastic increase in the number of credit card and loan defaulters, leading to increased operation costs and reduction in profit margins. This research proposes an integrated GIS approach enabling banks locate defaulting real estate properties used as collateral. Using data provided by Kenya Commercial Bank (KCB) for a locality in Kenya, a geodatabase was developed and a custom application developed for the bank loan appraiser to use. This application retrieves property information about a client based on his/her bank account information. Based on a series of spatially driven queries embedded in the solution, the appraiser can prepare a detailed appraisal for the client in a very short time, thereby satisfying the client, while not prejudicing the banks position.
Pierre Mendès France, French Security Politics, and the European Defense Community  [PDF]
Emmanuel Konde
Open Journal of Political Science (OJPS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojps.2013.31004

This paper examines the role of Pierre Mendès France in the decision of the French National Assembly to reject the European Defense Community (EDC) proposed by René Pleven in October 1950 and signed by the [Antoine] Pinay government in 1952. Since the signing of the EDC treaty in 1952, successive governments of the Fourth Republic delayed action on ratification of the treaty until 1954 when Mendès France assumed the office of prime minister and, acting against conventional wisdom, forced the National Assembly to vote on it. The EDC was a collective attempt by western European powers, with the full support of the United States, to counterbalance the overwhelming conventional military ascendancy of the Soviet Union in Europe by forming a supranational European army. This collective security plan had its origins in the French government of René Pleven in 1950. Why the French signed the treaty establishing the EDC two years later in 1952, and then rejected it in 1954 after four years of debate, is of central concern to this paper, which explores the intersection and interplay of various factors that contributed to the negative French vote.

Rethinking Leadership Theories  [PDF]
Emmanuel Mango
Open Journal of Leadership (OJL) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojl.2018.71005
Leadership is governed by over 66 theories which leaves many leaders and leadership scholars searching for an inclusive leadership theory. The existence of too many leadership theories obstructs progressive practice and research of leadership, hence there is need for leadership theory consolidation. This paper is an attempt to integrate leadership theories. The integration efforts are based on representative leadership theories and the review of the wider relevant leader-ship literature. Initially, the integration was to be built around 66 leadership theories but with further study 44 theories were eliminated to avoid either repetition or miniature issues and it was established that the 22 leadership theories are a good representation of the concepts captured in leadership theories. The review of the 22 leadership theories was enriched with insights from the wider leadership literature. The review and synthesis of leadership theories and the wider relevant leadership literature revealed that leadership is built on six (6) foundational domains, namely: character, characteristics, people practices, institutional practices, context and outcomes (CCPICO). The six domains occasioned the development of an integrative leadership model: ethical and effective leadership (EEL). As a consequence of the EEL model, one, the EEL subdomains are highlighted, two, leadership development based on EEL model is proposed, three, leadership definition that is in line with EEL model is suggested.
Beyond Leadership  [PDF]
Emmanuel Mango
Open Journal of Leadership (OJL) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojl.2018.71007
The crisis of leadership, like other crises in most critical human endeavours, is not occasioned by lack of definitive theories or knowledge, it is elicited by failure to put the existing theories and knowledge into practice. Besides, the assumption advanced by most of the proponents of leadership theories, that by revealing to leaders what leadership is and what leaders should do, then inevitably the leaders will utilize the acquired knowledge and skills to impact their followers and the society, does not stand the test of scrutiny. There is a gap between leadership knowledge and practice, meaning that there are missing elements which translate leadership theories, knowledge and skills into impact. This paper (beyond leadership) seeks to bridge the gap between knowledge and practice. Beyond leadership answers the question, why are some people (leaders) more ethical and effective than other? The paper proposes and discusses 7 elements (purpose, conviction, moral authority, passion, commitment, courage and learning) which distinguish impactful leaders from the rest. Many more elements may be needed on the leadership journey but without the 7 elements of beyond leadership, any other additional element may not matter much.
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