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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4196 matches for " Emmanuel Mahama "
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Estimating malaria parasite density: assumed white blood cell count of 10,000/μl of blood is appropriate measure in Central Ghana
Adu-Gyasi Dennis,Adams Mohammed,Amoako Sabastina,Mahama Emmanuel
Malaria Journal , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-11-238
Abstract: Background White blood cells count (WBCc) is a bedrock in the estimation of malaria parasite density in malaria field trials, interventions and patient management. White blood cells are indirectly and relatively used in microscopy to estimate the density of malaria parasite infections. Due to frequent lack of facilities in some malaria-endemic countries, in order to quantify WBCc of patients, an assumed WBCc of 8.0 X 10(9)/L has been set by the World Health Organization to help in estimating malaria parasite densities. Methods This comparative analysis study, in Central Ghana, compiled laboratory data of 5,902 Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite positive samples. Samples were obtained from consented participants of age groups less than five years. Full blood counts (FBC) of participants’ samples were analysed using the ABX Micros 60 Haematology Analyzer. Blood slides were read by two competent microscopists to produce concordant results. All internal and external quality control measures were carried out appropriately. Parasite densities were calculated using participants’ absolute WBCc and assumed WBCc of 5,000 to 10,000 per microlitre of blood. Results From the 5,902 Pf malaria positive samples, the mean (SD) WBCc and geometric mean parasite density were 10.4 (4.6) × 10(9)/L and 7,557/μL (95 % CI 7,144/μL to 7,994/μL) respectively. The difference in the geometric mean parasite densities calculated using absolute WBCs and compared to densities with assumed WBCs counts were significantly lower for 5.0 × 10(9)/L; 3,937/μL, 6.0 × 10(9)/L; 4,725/μL and 8.0 × 10(9)/L; 6,300/μL. However, the difference in geometric mean parasite density, 7,874/μL (95 % CI, 7,445/μL to 8,328/μL), with assumed WBCc of 10.0 × 10(9)/L was not significant. Conclusion Using the assumed WBCc of 8.0 X 10(9)/L or lower to estimate malaria parasite densities in Pf infected children less than five years old could result in significant underestimation of parasite burden. Assumed WBCc of 10.0 × 10(9)/L at 95 % CI of geometric mean of parasite density statistically agreed with the parasite densities produce by the absolute WBCc of participants. The study suggests where resources are limited, use of assumed WBCc of 10.0 × 10(9)/L of blood to estimate malaria parasite density in central Ghana. Preferably, absolute WBCc should be used in drug efficacy and vaccine trials.
Making Family Planning Services Relevant to Adolescents: Perspectives from Rural Communities in Central Ghana  [PDF]
Yeetey Enuameh, Charlotte Tawiah, Samuel Afari-Asiedu, Obed Ernest A. Nettey, Abubakari Sulemana, Emmanuel Mahama, George Adjei, Ellen Boamah, Alex Manu, Stephanie Gyaase, Charles Zandoh, Nelson Amanfo, Kwaku Poku Asante, Timothy Letsa, Seth Owusu-Agyei
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2014.411096
Abstract: In lower middle-income countries like Ghana, it is common to find low contraceptive use among adolescents with corresponding high pregnancy outcomes. Evidence points to the fact that the use of contraceptives prevents maternal, neonatal and infant deaths, but in most lower middle-income countries, socio-cultural practices inhibit adolescents’ use. Ensuring the uptake of family planning among adolescents is deemed a necessary means of reducing maternal, neonatal and infant mor-tality. This manuscript seeks to provide contextually relevant approaches to satisfying family planning needs of adolescents in a population lacking it. We employed a qualitative study design from an interpretive paradigm with phenomenology as the methodology to understand societal attitudes towards family planning delivery to adolescents, so as to arrive at contextually appro-priate ways of providing family planning to this needy group. Focused group discussions and in-depth interviews techniques were used in data collection among adolescents, relevant commu-nity opinion leaders and family planning & health services providers. Themes that emerged from data analysis with respect to “perspectives on family planning care delivery to adolescents” and “best ways in addressing adolescents’ family planning needs” are presented, followed by discussion of the issues emerging. A significant and encouraging finding of the study was that opinion leaders and healthcare providers viewed family planning as a means of protecting adolescents against pregnancies and their complications. A key recommendation is for policy makers and political leaders to enact legislations that enable adolescents to have friendly family planning service delivery in all places and at all times.
Family Planning Needs of Adolescents in Predominantly Rural Communities in the Central Part of Ghana  [PDF]
Yeetey Enuameh, Obed Ernest Nettey, Emmanuel Mahama, Charlotte Tawiah, Ellen Boamah, Abubakari Sulemana, George Adjei, Stephanie Gyaase, Samuel Afari Asiedu, Alexander Manu, Charles Zandoh, Kwaku Poku Asante, Seth Owusu-Agyei
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2015.56030
Abstract: The manuscript presents findings of a descriptive analysis of data from a cross-sectional study of adolescents aimed at identifying their family planning needs and the best approaches to addressing them in the Kintampo Districts of Ghana. Data for the paper were from the family planning module of a sexual and reproductive health survey carried out by the Kintampo Health and Demographic Surveillance System in 2011. Adolescents in this study recorded high marital (1.6% females and 0.4% males) and pregnancy rates (11.5% females and 1.5% males). Their knowledge of contraceptive methods was high (87.7% females and 82% males), but utilization was low (17.9% females and 6% males). Most study participants viewed family planning as important to their health and wellbeing (59.6% females and 58.6% males). A minority of adolescents were of the perception that contraceptive use was solely the responsibility of women (41.1% females and 32.4% males); and that the use of contraceptives could lead to promiscuity among women (43.8% females and 42.5% males). Those adolescents who previously had unwanted pregnancies would have accepted some help in preventing it (33.1% females and 9.1% males). Recommendations made by respondents included creating a friendly atmosphere by care providers for family planning services delivery to adolescents. Other suggestions were ensuring that family planning services are available and accessible to adolescents, and educating adolescents on the diverse methods available.
Adolescents’ Willingness and Intentions to Use Contraceptives in Rural Ghana  [PDF]
Sulemana Abubakari, Yeetey A. Enuameh, Emmanuel Mahama, Obed Ernest A. Nettey, George Adjei, Gifty Fosuaa Nuamah, Edward Apraku Anane, Robert Adda, Francis Dzabeng, Seeba Amenga-Etego, Charles Zandoh, Kwaku Poku Asante, Seth Owusu-Agyei
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2015.311029
Abstract: Efforts made to improve the availability and access to family planning services to adolescents in Ghana have not yielded the desired results. Adolescents in the Kintampo Health and Demographic Surveillance System area are no exception. This study explored contraceptive use intentions, preferences and their determinants among adolescents in rural Ghana. This was to contribute evidence towards achieving universal access to reproductive health. A cross-sectional study design was used to collect Sexual and Reproductive Health data in the Kintampo districts in 2011. A total of 1805 female adolescents were randomly sampled from a resident female adolescent population of 16,795. This study used intention and/or willingness of adolescents to use contraceptives as the outcome variable and the explanatory variables were demographic and socioeconomic factors. Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were done. The findings indicated 54.3% of adolescents’ were willing to use contraceptives. Injectable was the most preferred contraceptive method among adolescents (48.6%); this was followed by the pill (29.6%) with the least being foam or jelly (0.2%). The most commonly cited reason for not intending to use contraception was adolescents’ opposition to family planning (31.5%) followed by a fear of side effects (25.8%). Age and education influenced adolescents’ willingness to use contraceptives in the future. Formal education of the young generation coupled with knowledge of contraceptive methods could yield positive outcomes for contraceptive use and ultimately reproductive health of the adolescent population in the near future.
Local Government and Traditional Authorities in Concert: Towards a More Productive Relationship
Callistus Mahama
Commonwealth Journal of Local Governance , 2009, DOI: 10.5130/cjlg.v0i4.1331
Abstract: Ghana embarked on decentralisation in 1988 as a way of bringing decision making closer to the people. Since then, there have several reforms with a view to strengthening local governance. This article identifies a major challenge still facing Ghana’s decentralisation: Partnership between local government and traditional authorities. The paper discusses the fuzzy relationship between local governments and traditional authorities as a result of constitutional and legislative ambiguity on their relationship. Traditional Authorities perform important functions in the country, albeit their roles have waned since independence. Yet current legal provisions on local government have not sufficiently clarified their role in local administration. This has led to a murky and competing relationship between traditional authorities and local governments. In localities where mutual relationship exists, it is mainly as a result of the personalities involved and this has had a positive effect on the development of the area. The paper concludes by advocating for measures which among others include a re-enactment of legislation which will define the working relationship between traditional authorities and local government.
Family Planning Awareness, Perceptions and Practice among Community Members in the Kintampo Districts of Ghana  [PDF]
Obed Ernest A. Nettey, Yeetey A. Enuameh, Emmanuel Mahama, Abubakari Sulemana, George Adjei, Stephaney Gyaase, Samuel Afari-Asiedu, Robert Adda, Abena Konadu Yawson, Gifty Fosuaa Nuamah, Edward Apraku Anane, Livesy Abokyi, Charles Zandoh, Martha Abdulai, Ellen Abrafi Boamah, Kwame Adjei, Seeba Amenga-Etego, Francis Dzabeng, Charlotte Tawiah-Agyeman, Frank Baiden, Kwaku Poku Asante, Seth Owusu-Agyei
Advances in Reproductive Sciences (ARSci) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/arsci.2015.31001
Abstract: Family planning is known to prevent maternal deaths, but some social norms, limited supplies and inconsistent use makes this difficult to achieve in most low- and middle-income countries. In spite of the high fertility levels in most sub-Saharan African countries and the potential economic benefits of family planning, its patronage remains very low in the sub-region. This study was with the objective of identifying the levels of awareness, utilization, access to and perceptions about family planning and contraception. A cross-sectional study design was used for the study, with data collected from multiple sources using both quantitative and qualitative approaches. Relevant findings included a marked disconnect between family planning/contraceptive knowledge and use. The pills and injectables were the most frequently used, but females in the study population poorly patronised emergency contraception. Supplies of most family planning methods were found to be health facility based, requiring clients to have to necessarily go there for services. Some respondents harboured perceptions that family planning was the responsibility of females alone and that it fuelled promiscuity among female users. Recommendations made include ensuring that health facilities had adequate staff and expertise to provide facility-based family planning services and also to disabuse the minds of community members of the negative perceptions towards family planning.
Management of stool land revenue in Ghana: A study of the Nkawie and toase stools of the Atwima Nwabiagya District of the Ashanti Region
CA Mahama, OA Baffour
Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana) , 2009,
Abstract: Land plays an important part in the socio-economic development in Ghana. In fact apart from the spiritual dimension of land in the Ghanaian context, it contributes about 60 % of the GDP of the country. Out of the total contribution, the non state sector, made up of individual, family and customary sectors contribute about 80 %. Despite constitutional and statutory interventions in the administration of this sector, not much has been achieved in that regard. The management of stool lands, however, has for long time been beset with many problems including indeterminate boundaries of stool lands, poor record keeping which often results in multiple sales and chieftaincy disputes that invariably affect the security of tenure of purchasers and for that matter the productive use of land. Given the constitutional importance of stool lands, this research investigates the impact of stool land revenue in rural areas using Toase and Nkawie Stools of the Atwima Nwabiagya District of the Ashanti Region. To this end, the research assessed the performance of key stakeholders like the Stools, District Assembly and Office of the Administrator of Stool Lands (OASL) Regional Office.
Housing tenure, residential moves and children’s educational performance in Accra, Ghana
C Mahama, B Campion
Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana) , 2011,
Abstract: Research has shown that non-conventional factors like housing and residential experiences during childhood have impacts on children’s success. Given the critical importance of human capital accumulation in Ghana, it is significant from policy standpoint to recognise factors and mechanisms that are relevant to the next generation’s educational performance. This paper attempts to identify the impacts of housing tenure and residential moves on the educational performance of children. The research focused on Junior Secondary School (JSS) leavers in Accra. Chronological information of the Pupils during childhood on residential moves and their educational performance between the ages of 12- 17 (JSS level) was collected. The results of the analysis indicate large disparities in educational outcomes between children with different housing tenures and strong residential mobility experiences. Even after taking into consideration a set of rich endogenous factors, a positive home ownership effect and a negative residential moves effect remain with significant magnitudes.
The Concept of eGovernment: ICT Policy Guidelines for the Policy Makers of Ghana  [PDF]
S. K. Mahama Ewurah
Journal of Information Security (JIS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jis.2017.82008
Abstract: It is obvious that no government or business operation can be done without some kinds of involvement of ICTs in the process. However, research shows that, the policies and implementation of ICTs in delivering public services face several challenges in different countries due to country level peculiarities and cultures. These challenges are socio-technical from the prospective of soft and hard implications of the eGovernment systems. This paper tries to follow the soft or social issues limiting the efforts in designing and implementing ICT policies in Ghana. We identify some of the challenges in respect of the policy makers and back and front office users of ICT systems. This paper has therefore, elaborated the concept of eGovernment within context of the understanding of the lay ICT policy maker and systems users of Ghana. The issues addressed in this article range from development to the sustainability of eGovernment systems, policies and stages that resonate with norms and culture, political and the administrative style of Ghana.
Does Household Food Insecurity Affect the Nutritional Status of Preschool Children Aged 6–36 Months?
Mahama Saaka,Shaibu Mohammed Osman
International Journal of Population Research , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/304169
Abstract: Introduction. This study used three dependent measures of food security to assess the magnitude of household food insecurity and its consequences on the nutritional status of children 6–36 months in Tamale Metropolis of Northern Ghana. Methods. An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 337 mother/child pairs in June 2012. Food access was measured as household food insecurity access scale (HFIAS), household dietary diversity score (HDDS), and food consumption score (FCS). Results. The magnitude of household food insecurity depended on the food access indicator, with HFIAS yielding the highest household food insecurity of 54%. Of the three food access indicators, 30-day HFIAS was not related to any of the nutrition indices measured. HDDS and FCS were both significantly associated with BMI of mothers and chronic malnutrition (stunted growth) but not acute malnutrition (wasting) with FCS being a stronger predictor of nutritional status. Compared to children in food insecure households, children in food secure households were 46% protected from chronic malnutrition ( , 95% CI: 0.31–0.94). Conclusions and Recommendations. The results of this study show that different measures of household food insecurity produce varied degree of the problem. Efforts at reducing chronic child malnutrition should focus on improving the adequacy of the diet. 1. Introduction Child undernutrition continues to be a major public health problem in developing countries including Ghana. According to the Ghana Demographic and Health Survey, there is substantial regional variation of malnutrition in Ghana, with some of the poorest indicators found in the Northern part of the country. The estimated prevalence of chronic malnutrition, for example, in the Northern Region is 32.4% compared with a national average of 28% [1]. A recent UNICEF Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) conducted in 2011 showed that the prevalence of chronic under-nutrition in northern region of Ghana has increased from 32% in 2008 to 37% in 2011 [2]. According to the WHO (2000) classification of malnutrition, the malnutrition situation can be described as serious state in the northern region. The persistent prevalence of chronic malnutrition in Northern Ghana is of particular concern that requires urgent attention and immediate action. To be able to address the problem adequately, it is important that the context-specific risk factors for malnutrition are identified for appropriate interventions to be implemented. The risk factors of malnutrition are multifaceted and complex, and the
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