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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4286 matches for " Emmanuel Japhet "
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Penetrating Abdominal Trauma: Experience in A Teaching Hospital, Calabar, Southern Nigeria  [PDF]
Maurice Asuquo, Mark Umoh, Victor Nwagbara, Gabriel Ugare, Cyril Agbor, Emmanuel Japhet
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2012.35079
Abstract: Background: Penetrating abdominal trauma (PAT) typically involves the violation of the abdominal cavity by a gun-shot wound (GSW) or stab wound Recently several studies have favored a more conservative approach as opposed to mandatory exploratory laparotomy. Methods: Patients admitted in the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital (UCTH), Calabar, with PAT from January 2008 to December 2010 were prospectively studied based on a questionnaire. The total number of patients with PAT was compared with total number of emergencies, traumatic injuries and abdominal trauma seen during the same period. Results: A total of 48 patients presented with abdominal trauma: PAT 29 (60%) and blunt abdominal trauma (BAT) 19 (40%). The ages of the patients (28 male, 1 female) ranged from 3 - 62 years (mean 28.1 years). Gunshot wound (GSW) 11 (38%) patients, stab wound 8 (27.6%) patients and machete cut 4 (13.8%) patients ranked first, second and third respectively as causes of PAT. The commonest organ injury was perforation of the small intestine. Four (13.8%) patients were managed conservatively while 25 (86.2%) patients had laparotomy. The duration of admission ranged from 2 - 19 days (mean 10.5 days). Morbidity [surgical site infection (SSI)] and mortality were recorded in 2 (6.9%) and 3 (10.3%) patients respectively. Conclusion: Key areas that require attention have been highlighted. Revamping the ailing economy and gainful employment for youths are paramount areas that require prompt, dedicated and sustained intervention for reduction in violent crimes.
Blunt Abdominal Trauma in a Teaching Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria  [PDF]
Maurice Asuquo, Victor Nwagbara, Mark Umoh, Gabriel Ugare, Cyril Agbor, Emmanuel Japhet, Anthonia Ikpeme
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2012.37124

Background: Road traffic injury remains a major source of blunt abdominal trauma (BAT). Road traffic injury and other forms of trauma have become a major health problem throughout the world especially in low and middle-income countries. In a previous study (2005-2007), abdominal trauma constituted 79 (4.8%) of trauma cases; BAT, 40 (53%) and penetrating abdominal trauma (PAT), 39 (47%). Effective policies on road safety should be developed based on local research and not on adapted models. We present this study to highlight the possible effect of legislation on the ban of the use of motorcycles on blunt abdominal trauma. Methods: Patients that presented to the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar with BAT from 2008-2010 were prospectively studied based on a questionnaire following the legislation prohibiting the use of motorcycles. Results: A total of 12,083 patients presented during the study period, trauma patients totaled 4942 (41%), of this, 48 (1%) suffered abdominal trauma: BAT 19 (40%), penetrating abdominal trauma (PAT) 29 (60%). The age range of the patients was from 5 to 48 years (mean 26.6 years) with a M:F = 5.3:1. Road traffic accident (RTA) 17 (90%) [Motorvehicle 7 (37%), motorcycles 10 (53%)] was the commonest cause of trauma. The spleen was the commonest injured organ 14 (74%). Conclusion: Road traffic injury constitutes a public health challenge and the hallmark is prevention. Legislation prohibiting the use of motorcycles may have been responsible for the reduction in BAT.

Hepatitis B Core IgM antibody (anti-HBcIgM) among hepatitis B Surface antigen (HBsAg) negative blood donors in Nigeria
Margaret Japhet, Olufisayo Adesina, Emmanuel Donbraye, Moses Adewumi
Virology Journal , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1743-422x-8-513
Abstract: Between July and August 2009, 92 blood donors were enrolled for the study. The prevalence of 5 different markers of Hepatitis B virus infection was detected using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Demographic factors were assessed during the study.HBsAg and its antibody (anti-HBs) was detected in 18 (19.6%) and 14(15.2%) of the 92 blood donors respectively. Anti-HBc IgM was found in 12(13.0%) of the 92 blood donors while Hepatitis B envelope antigen (HBeAg) and its antibody (anti-HBe) were detected in 4(8.9%) and 12(26.7%) respectively from 45 donors sampled. HBeAg is a marker of high infectivity and appears after HBsAg. At least one serological marker was detected in 30(32.6%) of the blood donors. Five (5.4%) of the 92 donors had anti-HBc IgM as the only serological evidence of hepatitis B virus infection.The result of this study shows that five donors have anti-HBcIgM as the only serological evidence of HBV infection. Inclusion of anti-HBcIgM in routine screening of blood donors in Nigeria should be encouraged. This is the first study to assess anti-HBcIgM in the country.Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection with its associated sequel is a disease of major public health importance, being the 10th leading cause of death globally [1,2]. HBV infection accounts for 500,000 to 1.2 million deaths each year [3]. Of the approximately 2 billion people infected worldwide, more than 350 million are chronic carriers of HBV [4]. Approximately 15-40% of infected patients will develop cirrhosis, liver failure or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) [5,6]The aetiological agent (Hepatitis B virus) is a member of the family Hepadnaviridae and the genus Orthohepadnavirus [7]. It is a double stranded circular DNA virus composed of an outer envelope containing hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and an inner nucleocapsid consisting of hepatitis B envelope antigen (HBeAg) and hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg). Corresponding antibodies to each of these antigens are Hepatitis B surface ant
Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C among Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infected Patients at a District Hospital in Mwanza, Tanzania  [PDF]
Mariam M. Mirambo, Benson R. Kidenya, Vitus Silago, Emmanuel Mkumbo, Awadh Mujuni, Kennedy J. Mmanga, Japhet J. Mwihambi, Shimba Henerico, Carolyne A. Minja, Stephen E. Mshana
World Journal of AIDS (WJA) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/wja.2019.91001
Abstract: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections have been a major public health problem. HIV patients with HBV and HCV infection are at high risk of liver diseases which is associated with increased mortality. This study aims at determining the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), HCV antibodies and HBV antibodies (anti-HBsAg) among HIV seropositive adults attending care and treatment clinic at Sengerema district hospital in Mwanza, Tanzania. A cross-sectional hospital based study was conducted between February and March 2017 among 243 HIV adult patients at Sengerema designated district hospital, Mwanza, Tanzania. Socio-demographic and other relevant information were collected using pre-tested questionnaires. Detection of HBsAg and HCV antibodies was done by commercial rapid immunochromatographic test while the detection of anti-HBsAg was done using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Data were analyzed by using STATA version 13. The median age of the study participants was 43, interquartile range (IQR): 37 - 51 years. The majority 172 (70.8) of study participants were female and the majority (88%) of participants had CD4 count of greater than 200 counts/μl. The prevalence of HBsAg, HCV antibodies and anti-HBsAg were 26/243 (10.7%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 7 - 14), 20/243 (8.2%, 95% CI: 4.7 - 11.6) and (100/243) 41.2%, 95% CI: 35
Implications of Land Use Land Cover Change and Climate Variability on Future Prospects of Beef Cattle Production in the Lake Victoria Basin  [PDF]
Japhet Joel Kashaigili, Emmanuel Zziwa, Siwa Ernest, Emma Laswai, Bernard Musana Segatagara, Denis Mpairwe, Reuben Mpuya Joseph Kadigi, Cyprian Ebong, Samuel Katambi Mugasi, Germana Henry Laswai, Mutimura Mupenzi, Polycarp Jacob Ngowi, Ibrahim Lwaho Kadigi
American Journal of Climate Change (AJCC) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajcc.2015.45037
Abstract: This paper presents the lessons learnt from a research project titled “Improving Beef Cattle Productivity for Enhanced Food Security and Efficient Utilization of Natural Resources in the Lake Victoria Basin” which includes Tanzania, Uganda and Rwanda. The key focus is on the implications of land use land cover change and climate variability on the future prospects of beef cattle production in this region. The study utilizes information and data from natural resources and climate components to deduce the impact of land use and land cover changes on climate variability. Additional analysis is conducted to summarize the land use and land cover data to carry out analysis on climate data using the Mann-Kendal test, linear regression and moving averages to reveal patterns of change and trends in annual and seasonal rainfall and temperature. The findings reveal that the study areas of Rwanda, Uganda and Tanzania in the Lake Victoria Basin (LVB) have changed over time following land cover manipulations and land use change, coupled with climate variability. The grazing land has been converted to agriculture and settlements, thereby reducing cattle grazing land which is the cheapest and major feed source for ruminant livestock production. Although the cattle population has been on the increase in the same period, it has been largely attributed to the fact that the carrying capacity of available grazing areas had not been attained. The current stocking rates in the LVB reveal that the rangelands are greatly overstocked and overgrazed with land degradation already evidenced in some areas. Climate variability coupled with a decrease in grazing resources is driving unprecedented forage scarcity which is now a major limiting factor to cattle production. Crop cultivation and settlement expansion are major land use types overtaking grazing lands; therefore the incorporation of crop residues into ruminant feeding systems could be a feasible way to curtail rangeland degradation and increase beef cattle production.
Evaluation for the Performance of the CORDEX Regional Climate Models in Simulating Rainfall Characteristics over Mbarali River Catchment in the Rufiji Basin, Tanzania  [PDF]
Edmund Mutayoba, Japhet J. Kashaigili
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2017.54011
Abstract: This study aims to evaluate the performance of the individual Regional Climate Models (RCMs) used in Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) and the ensemble average of the four RCMs to feign the characteristics of the rainfall pattern for the Mbarali River catchment in Rufiji Basin for the period of 1979 to 2005. Statistical analysis for model performance such as Root mean square error, Mean error, Pearson correlation coefficient, Mean, Median, standard deviation and trend analysis are used. In addition to the statistical measure of model performance, the models are tested on their ability to capture the observed annual cycles and interannual variability of rainfall. Results indicated that the RCMs from the CORDEX indicated a better performance to reproduce the rainfall characteristics over Mbarali River catchment in Rufiji Basin. They reproduced fairly the Era Interim annual cycle and inter-annual variability of rainfall. The ensemble average performed better than individual models in representing rainfall over Mbarali River catchment in Rufiji Basin. These suggest that rainfall simulation from the ensemble average will be used for the assessment of the hydrological impact studies over Mbarali River catchment in Rufiji Basin.
M. Japhet
Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies , 2012, DOI: 10.5787/9-4-724
Abstract: Everyone is aware of the existence of the arms trade but few have any idea of the nature of its workings or of its implications, both actual and potential. Some information as to the methods employed in the sale of arms was made available via the Lockheed and Northrop scandals, but by and large this was information that could not be evaluated in terms of all the elements of the system. It is the aim of this article to provide some insight into the various facets that go together to make up the arms trade, in this way by no means giving an all-embracing account but merely providing some interesting facts and figures.
M. Japhet
Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies , 2012, DOI: 10.5787/10-4-692
Abstract: A basic tenet of transport management must be the efficient operation of all constituent parts of the transport function. In recognition of the growing urgency of the energy problem as a primary goal and of the need to maintain a high level of combat readiness at the same time, this article will look, albeit briefly, at the various aspects of road transport that need to be dealt with in the search for cost-effectiveness. Five major elements of road transport management are: Purchasing policy; maintenance; driver training and control; movements planning and procedures; and Research and Development.
M. Japhet
Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies , 2012, DOI: 10.5787/8-4-756
Abstract: Growth of Military States As late as 1961 the African image had not been tarnished to any great extent by the incidence of military coups. Indeed, a field study tour conducted in 1960- 1 - the year of independence as it has been called - to investigate the place of the armed forces in societies in Africa did not provide the evidence on which to forecast the eventual spate of coups. Togo was the first country in West Africa to experience a military coup when on 13 January 1963 Togolese soldiers, recently demobilised from the French colonial armies and facing unemployment as a result of refusal of their applications to join 'the miniscule Togolese army, staged an armed coup that led to the assassination of President Sylvanus Olympio. At the time Africa's reaction to the coup in Zaire was one of severe disapproval, manifested by vociferous verbal attacks on the junta and international ostracism of the new government until it had legitimated itself through national elections. This can be seen to be largely motivated by the insecurity many civilian governments in Africa were experiencing and was to some considerable extent intended to be an object lesson to aspiring military commanders. At the same time the Organisation for African Unity discussed proposals covering measures to prevent the spread of coups or the legitimation of military regimes, however no common policy was produced.
Pattern of childhood burn injuries and their management outcome at Bugando Medical Centre in Northwestern Tanzania
Phillipo L Chalya, Joseph B Mabula, Ramesh M Dass, Geofrey Giiti, Alphonce B Chandika, Emmanuel S Kanumba, Japhet M Gilyoma
BMC Research Notes , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-4-485
Abstract: A cross sectional study was conducted at Bugando Medical Centre (in Northwestern Tanzania) over a 3-year period from January 2008 to December 2010. Data was collected using a pre-tested coded questionnaire and statistical analyses performed using SPSS software version 15.0.A total of 342 burned children were studied. Males were mainly affected. Children aged = 2 were the majority accounting for 45.9% of cases. Intentional burn injuries due to child abuse were reported in 2.9% of cases. Scald was the most common type of burns (56.1%). The trunk was the most commonly involved body region (57.3%). Majority of patients (48.0%) sustained superficial burns. Eight (2.3%) patients were HIV positive. Most patients (89.8%) presented to the hospital later than 24 h. The rate of burn wound infection on admission and on 10th day were 32.4% and 39.8% respectively.Staphylococcus aureus were more common on admission wound swabs, with Pseudomonas aeruginosa becoming more evident after 10th day. MRSA was detected in 19.2% of Staphylococcus aureus. Conservative treatment was performed in 87.1% of cases. Surgical treatment mainly skin grafting (65.9%) was performed in 44 (12.9%) of patients. The overall average of the length of hospital stay (LOS) was 22.12 ± 16.62 days. Mortality rate was 11.7%. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis; age of the patient, type of burn, delayed presentation, clothing ignition, %TBSA and severity of burn were found to be significantly associated with LOS (P < 0.001), whereas mortality rate was found to be independently and significantly related to the age of the patient, type of burn, HIV positive with stigmata of AIDS, CD4 count, inhalation injury, %TBSA and severity of burn (P < 0.001).Childhood burn injuries still remain a menace in our environment with virtually unacceptable high morbidity and mortality. There is need for critical appraisal of the preventive measures and management principles currently being practiced.Burn injuries constitut
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