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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4218 matches for " Emmanuel Grellety "
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Learning lessons from field surveys in humanitarian contexts: a case study of field surveys conducted in North Kivu, DRC 2006-2008
Rebecca F Grais, Francisco J Luquero, Emmanuel Grellety, Heloise Pham, Benjamin Coghlan, Pierre Salignon
Conflict and Health , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1752-1505-3-8
Abstract: In media and agency reports on complex emergencies, an estimate of the number of people who have died, the prevalence of childhood malnutrition and other key health indicators are often quoted. Although a discriminating reader may understand that these are estimates, we rarely question how or from where these numbers come. In most cases, estimates are obtained by means of field surveys which are subject to a number of limitations. In the past, the application of standard survey methods by various humanitarian actors has been criticised [1]. Currently, different methods of conducting field surveys are the subject of debate among epidemiologists and their strengths and weakness have been described in the literature [2-6]. Beyond the technical arguments, decision makers may find it difficult to conceptualize what the estimates actually mean. For instance, what makes this particular situation an emergency? And how should the operational response - humanitarian, political, even military - be adapted accordingly [7,8]? This brings into question not only the quality of the survey methodology, but also the difficulties epidemiologists face in interpreting results and selecting the most important information to guide operations.As a case study, we reviewed publicly available field surveys of a current acute-on-chronic humanitarian crisis - North Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) - to examine the methodologies employed, the findings presented, the interpretation of the results and the recommendations made. The eastern DRC Province of North Kivu has been the scene of conflict that has erupted sporadically for over a decade (Figure 1). The most recent renewal of violence has forced some 250,000 people to flee their homes since August 2008 [9].We searched PubMed/Medline for articles published from January 1, 2006 to January 1, 2009, in English, French, German, and Spanish using the key words ["mortality" (major topic) OR "nutrition" (major topic)] AND ["Congo" (text word)
Observational Bias during Nutrition Surveillance: Results of a Mixed Longitudinal and Cross-Sectional Data Collection System in Northern Nigeria
Emmanuel Grellety, Francisco J. Luquero, Christopher Mambula, Hassana H. Adamu, Greg Elder, Klaudia Porten
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0062767
Abstract: Background The Sahel is subject to seasonal hungry periods with increasing rates of malnutrition. In Northern Nigeria, there is no surveillance system and surveys are rare. The objectives were to analyse possible observational bias in a sentinel surveillance system using repeated mixed longitudinal/cross-sectional data and estimate the extent of seasonal variation. Methods Thirty clusters were randomly selected using probability proportional to size (PPS) sampling from Kazaure Local Government Area, Jigawa State. In each cluster, all the children aged 6–59 months within 20 randomly selected households had their mid-upper arm circumference measured and were tested for oedema. The surveys were repeated every 2 or 4 weeks. At each survey round, three of the clusters were randomly selected to be replaced by three new clusters chosen at random by PPS. The seasonal variation of acute malnutrition was assessed using cyclical regression. The effect of repeated visits to the same cluster was examined using general linear mixed effects models adjusted for the seasonal change. Results There was a significant seasonal fluctuation of Global Acute Malnutrition (GAM) with a peak in October. With each repeat survey of a cluster, the prevalence of GAM decreased by 1.6% (95% CI: 0.4 to 2.7; p = 0.012) relative to the prevalence observed during the previous visit after adjusting for seasonal change. Conclusions Northern Nigeria has a seasonal variation in the prevalence of acute malnutrition. Repeated surveys in the same cluster-village, even if different children are selected, lead to a progressive improvement of the nutritional status of that village. Sentinel site surveillance of nutritional status is prone to observational bias, with the sentinel site progressively deviating from that of the community it is presumed to represent.
Effect of Mass Supplementation with Ready-to-Use Supplementary Food during an Anticipated Nutritional Emergency
Emmanuel Grellety, Susan Shepherd, Thomas Roederer, Mahamane L. Manzo, Stéphane Doyon, Eric-Alain Ategbo, Rebecca F. Grais
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0044549
Abstract: Background Previous studies have shown the benefits of ready-to-use supplementary food (RUSF) distribution in reducing the incidence and prevalence of severe acute malnutrition. Methods and Findings To compare the incidence of wasting, stunting and mortality between children aged 6 to 23 mo participating and not participating in distributions of RUSF, we implemented two exhaustive prospective cohorts including all children 60 cm to 80 cm, resident in villages of two districts of Maradi region in Niger (n = 2238). Villages (20) were selected to be representative of the population. All registered children were eligible for the monthly distributions between July and October 2010. Age, sex, height, weight, and Mid-Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC) were measured at baseline and two weeks after each distribution; the amount and type of distribution and the amount shared and remaining were also assessed. We compared the incidence of wasting, stunting, and mortality among children participating in the distribution (intervention) of RUSF versus children not participating in the distribution (comparison). The absolute rate of wasting was 4.71 events per child-year (503 events/106.59 child-year) in the intervention group and 4.98 events per child-year (322 events/64.54 child-year) in the comparison group. The intervention group had a small but higher weight-for-length Z-score gain (?0.2z vs. ?0.3z) and less loss of MUAC than the comparison group (?2.8 vs. ?4.0 mm). There was no difference in length gain (2.7 vs. 2.8 cm). Mortality was lower for children whose households received the intervention than those who did not (adjusted HR 0.55, 95% CI: 0.32–0.98). Conclusions Short-term distribution with RUSF for children 6 to 23 months improve the nutritional status of children at risk for malnutrition. Fewer children who participated in the RUSF distribution died than those who did not.
Violence against civilians and access to health care in North Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo: three cross-sectional surveys
Kathryn P Alberti, Emmanuel Grellety, Ya-Ching Lin, Jonathan Polonsky, Katrien Coppens, Luis Encinas, Marie-No?lle Rodrigue, Biagio Pedalino, Vital Mondonge
Conflict and Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1752-1505-4-17
Abstract: In May 2009, we conducted three cross-sectional surveys among 200 000 resident and displaced people in North Kivu (Kabizo, Masisi, Kitchanga). The recall period covered an eight month period from the beginning of the most recent offensives to the survey date. Heads of households provided information on displacement, death, violence, theft, and access to fields and health care.Crude mortality rates (per 10 000 per day) were below emergency thresholds: Kabizo 0.2 (95% CI: 0.1-0.4), Masisi 0.5 (0.4-0.6), Kitchanga 0.7 (0.6-0.9). Violence was the reported cause in 39.7% (27/68) and 35.8% (33/92) of deaths in Masisi and Kitchanga, respectively. In Masisi 99.1% (897/905) and Kitchanga 50.4% (509/1020) of households reported at least one member subjected to violence. Displacement was reported by 39.0% of households (419/1075) in Kitchanga and 99.8% (903/905) in Masisi. Theft affected 87.7% (451/514) of households in Masisi and 57.4% (585/1019) in Kitchanga. Access to health care was good: 93.5% (359/384) of the sick in Kabizo, 81.7% (515/630) in Masisi, and 89.8% (651/725) in Kitchanga received care, of whom 83.0% (298/359), 87.5% (451/515), and 88.9% (579/651), respectively, did not pay.Our results show the impact of the ongoing war on these civilian populations: one third of deaths were violent in two sites, individuals are frequently subjected to violence, and displacements and theft are common. While humanitarian aid may have had a positive impact on disease mortality and access to care, the population remains exposed to extremely high levels of violence.A 5-year war that ravaged the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) officially ended with the endorsement of peace agreements and withdrawal of troops in 2003. The war had a devastating impact; millions of civilians died, many due to lack of access to health care[1-5]. Although a national peace process has been held and elections were conducted in 2006, the eastern regions of the country have yet to see the end of hostili
Pierre Mendès France, French Security Politics, and the European Defense Community  [PDF]
Emmanuel Konde
Open Journal of Political Science (OJPS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojps.2013.31004

This paper examines the role of Pierre Mendès France in the decision of the French National Assembly to reject the European Defense Community (EDC) proposed by René Pleven in October 1950 and signed by the [Antoine] Pinay government in 1952. Since the signing of the EDC treaty in 1952, successive governments of the Fourth Republic delayed action on ratification of the treaty until 1954 when Mendès France assumed the office of prime minister and, acting against conventional wisdom, forced the National Assembly to vote on it. The EDC was a collective attempt by western European powers, with the full support of the United States, to counterbalance the overwhelming conventional military ascendancy of the Soviet Union in Europe by forming a supranational European army. This collective security plan had its origins in the French government of René Pleven in 1950. Why the French signed the treaty establishing the EDC two years later in 1952, and then rejected it in 1954 after four years of debate, is of central concern to this paper, which explores the intersection and interplay of various factors that contributed to the negative French vote.

Rethinking Leadership Theories  [PDF]
Emmanuel Mango
Open Journal of Leadership (OJL) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojl.2018.71005
Leadership is governed by over 66 theories which leaves many leaders and leadership scholars searching for an inclusive leadership theory. The existence of too many leadership theories obstructs progressive practice and research of leadership, hence there is need for leadership theory consolidation. This paper is an attempt to integrate leadership theories. The integration efforts are based on representative leadership theories and the review of the wider relevant leader-ship literature. Initially, the integration was to be built around 66 leadership theories but with further study 44 theories were eliminated to avoid either repetition or miniature issues and it was established that the 22 leadership theories are a good representation of the concepts captured in leadership theories. The review of the 22 leadership theories was enriched with insights from the wider leadership literature. The review and synthesis of leadership theories and the wider relevant leadership literature revealed that leadership is built on six (6) foundational domains, namely: character, characteristics, people practices, institutional practices, context and outcomes (CCPICO). The six domains occasioned the development of an integrative leadership model: ethical and effective leadership (EEL). As a consequence of the EEL model, one, the EEL subdomains are highlighted, two, leadership development based on EEL model is proposed, three, leadership definition that is in line with EEL model is suggested.
Beyond Leadership  [PDF]
Emmanuel Mango
Open Journal of Leadership (OJL) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojl.2018.71007
The crisis of leadership, like other crises in most critical human endeavours, is not occasioned by lack of definitive theories or knowledge, it is elicited by failure to put the existing theories and knowledge into practice. Besides, the assumption advanced by most of the proponents of leadership theories, that by revealing to leaders what leadership is and what leaders should do, then inevitably the leaders will utilize the acquired knowledge and skills to impact their followers and the society, does not stand the test of scrutiny. There is a gap between leadership knowledge and practice, meaning that there are missing elements which translate leadership theories, knowledge and skills into impact. This paper (beyond leadership) seeks to bridge the gap between knowledge and practice. Beyond leadership answers the question, why are some people (leaders) more ethical and effective than other? The paper proposes and discusses 7 elements (purpose, conviction, moral authority, passion, commitment, courage and learning) which distinguish impactful leaders from the rest. Many more elements may be needed on the leadership journey but without the 7 elements of beyond leadership, any other additional element may not matter much.
Capital Flows, Trade and the Role of the Financial System  [PDF]
Emmanuel Amissah
Modern Economy (ME) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/me.2018.99099
Abstract: In this study, we examine the crucial role played by financial development in the relationship between trade and capital flows. We examine this relationship for 130 countries from 1980 to 2005 for different types of capital flows. We show that the relationship depends on the type of capital flows and the level of financial development. We observe a positive interaction between trade liberalisation and financial development for portfolio flows. In the case of FDI (Foreign Direct Investment), we observe an insignificant relationship. The FDI flows bypass the financial system as it flows into such countries because of other factors as side the level of the financial development.
Pricing Services in a Grid of Computers Using Priority Segmentation  [PDF]
Emmanuel Fragniere, Francesco Moresino
Journal of Service Science and Management (JSSM) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jssm.2010.33040
Abstract: In the past decade many grids of computers have been built among non-profit institutions. These grids are built on a voluntary participation and the resources are not charged to the users. When a resource is given free of charge its allocation is in general not optimal. In this paper, we propose an original mechanism that allows an optimal resource allocation without cash exchanges. We develop a pricing scheme where the service is segmented according to the priority level. The optimal prices of the different services are obtained by solving a Markov Decision Process (MDP). Each participant receives a credit that is proportional to its contribution that enables him to have access to services offered by the grid.
Environmental Consequences of Rapid Urbanisation: Bamenda City, Cameroon  [PDF]
Emmanuel M. Nyambod
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2010.11003
Abstract: Human settlement conditions in many parts of the world, particularly the developing countries, are deteriorating. Natu-ral hazards now occur right at our door steps and the frequency of occurrence and magnitude of damages that they cause is seen to be on an increase especially in poor urban communities. The natural environment is deteriorating at a rate faster than the rate at which natural occurring processes and resources available within the environment can re-plenish. If left unabated, landslides, flooding, sporadic fire outbreaks, collapse of major road axis, houses and bridges have the potential of plunging urban centre’s into an abyss of environmental chaos. This paper chooses Bamenda city- Cameroon, a rapidly expanding city in the third world as an example. The paper therefore assesses the overall situation of deteriorating urban quality by randomly selecting some of the quarters within Bamenda city that are generally con-sidered as hazard prone. It was noticed that deteriorating urban quality stems from the phenomenon of rural exodus. The situation is further exacerbated by inappropriate systems of land administration, poverty and an overall anarchy and ignorance in the handling of environmental issues. This paper therefore calls for a multidisciplinary and holistic range of approaches to solving present day environmental hazards of Bamenda. It calls for the adoption of modern technology and the systematization of the processes of land acquisition and registration especially at state and local government levels.
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