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Quantum Theory of a Radiating Harmonically Bound Charge  [PDF]
Emilio Fiordilino
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2010.14040
Abstract: A phenomenological Hamiltonian giving the equation of motion of a non relativistic charges that accelerates and radiates is quantized. The theory is applied to the harmonic oscillator. To derive the decay time the physical parameters entering the calculations are obtained from the theory of the hydrogen atom; the agree- ment of the predicted value with the experiments is striking although the mathematics is very simple.
Role of Ligand Reorganization and Conformational Restraints on the Binding Free Energies of DAPY Non-Nucleoside Inhibitors to HIV Reverse Transcriptase  [PDF]
Emilio Gallicchio
Computational Molecular Bioscience (CMB) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/cmb.2012.21002
Abstract: The results of computer simulations of the binding of etravirine (TMC125) and rilpivirine (TMC278) to HIV reverse transcriptase are reported. It is confirmed that consistent binding free energy estimates are obtained with or without the application of torsional restraints when the free energies of imposing the restraints are taken into account. The restraints have a smaller influence on the thermodynamics and apparent kinetics of binding of TMC125 compared to the more flexible TMC278 inhibitor. The concept of the reorganization free energy of binding is useful to understand and categorize these effects. Contrary to expectations, the use of conformational restraints did not consistently enhance convergence of binding free energy estimates due to suppression of binding/unbinding pathways and due to the influence of rotational degrees of freedom not directly controlled by the restraints. Physical insights concerning the thermodynamic driving forces for binding and the role of “jiggling” and “wiggling” motion of the ligands are discussed. Based on these insights we conclude that an ideal inhibitor, if chemically realizable, would possess the electrostatic charge distribution of TMC125, so as to form strong interactions with the receptor, and the larger and more flexible substituents of TMC278, so as to minimize reorganization free energy penalties and the effects of resistance mutations, suitably modified, as in TMC125, so as to disfavor the formation of non-binding competent extended conformations when free in solution.
Spot Reading of the Absolute Paleointensity of the Geomagnetic Field Obtained from Potsherds (Age Ca. 500-430 AD) in Teotihuacan, Mexico  [PDF]
Emilio Herrero-Bervera
Archaeological Discovery (AD) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ad.2015.32008
Abstract: Archaeointensity data have been obtained successfully using the Thellier-Coe protocol from twelve potsherds recovered from the vicinity of the “Piramide del Sol”, Teotihuacan, Mexico. In order to understand the magnetic behavior of the samples, we have conducted low-field versus temperature (k-T) experiments to determine the magnetic carriers of the pre-Columbian artefacts, as well as Saturation Isothermal Remanent Magnetization (SIRM), hysteresis loops and back-fields TESTS. The Curie temperatures indicate the presence of at least three magnetic mineral phases (238°C - 276°C, 569°C - 592°C, and 609°C - 624°C). The predominant Curie temperatures for these samples are typical of Ti-poor magnetite. The results of the magnetic grain size analyses indicate that if the magnetic mineral in a sample is only magnetite, the distribution on the modified Day et al. (1977) diagram yields specimens in the Single (SD), Pseudo (PSD) and Superparamagnetic (SP) domain ranges. The successfully absolute paleointensity determinations in this study using the Thellier-Coe protocol have yielded an average paleointensity of 38.871 +/- 1.833 m-Teslas (N = 12), and a virtual geomagnetic dipole moment of 8.682 +/- 0.402 × 1022 A/m2 which is slightly lower than the present field strength and which corresponds to an age interval between 500 and 430 AD. Thus, our results correlate well with the recently published CALS3K.4 curve and the incipient archaeointensity reference curve for the Mesoamerican paleo-field results. Therefore, the age of the artefacts would correlate well with absolute the early classic Teotihuacan cultural period.
On the Possibility of Obtaining a High Resolution Relative Paleointensity Record of the Pringle Falls Excursion at the Type Locality of Pringle Falls, Oregon, USA  [PDF]
Emilio Herrero-Bervera
Natural Science (NS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2016.83015
Abstract: In order to further understand the full vector excursional details of the geomagnetic field, a paleomagnetic and rock magnetic study of four sites has been conducted at the type locality of Pringle Falls, Oregon where 827 samples were drilled and spaced along a distance of 5 km, for their detailed directional and relative paleointensity studies. The profiles have registered a high-reso- lution (>10 cm/kyr) paleomagnetic record of the excursion (ca. 211+/13 ka) as recorded by diatomaceous lacustrine sediments. Remanence as well as induced magnetization experiments to investigate the reproducibility of the signal throughout the profiles have been conducted. In addition, low-field susceptibility vs. temperature analysis was performed indicating that the main magnetic carrier is pure magnetite (Curie point 575 ℃). The magnetic grain size also has indicated Single Domain-Multi-Domain (SD-MD) magnetite. The demagnetization was done by alternating field (a.f.) experiments, and the mean directions were determined by principal component analyses. In addition, induced magnetic tests were done, such as magnetic susceptibility (x) analyses, saturation IRM, anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM70) as well as the normalization of J17.5 mT/ARM70 to attempt to obtain relative paleointensity records of these sediments in question. The results of the induced rock magnetic tests such as the normalization studies indicate a direct correlation between the decrease of the relative paleointensity variations (i.e. lows) with respect to the directional changes. The detailed behavior of the paleosignal is highly consistent, since they are rapidly deposited sediments providing a detailed representation of the paleofield. The dissected VGP paths in 3 different phases are highly internally consistent and are defined by clockwise and anticlockwise loops traveling from the high northern latitudes over eastern North America and the North Atlantic to South America and then to high southern latitudes. They then return to the high northern latitudes through the Pacific and over to Kamchatka. This VGP behavior defines the geomagnetic signature of the Pringle Falls excursion as recorded at the type locality.
Gender Dignity in the Colombian Labor Market (2000-2013)  [PDF]
ángel Emilio Mu?oz Cardona
Open Journal of Political Science (OJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojps.2014.44020
Abstract: The following research paper seeks to observe how gender equality has evolved in the Colombian labor market over the past 13 years, during which the Government has signed thirteen free trade agreements1. The paper focuses at the central research question: How has it benefited the woman in the Colombian labor market with economic globalization? To answer this research question, we will show what the behavior of macroeconomic variables GDP, unemployment, industrial growth rate and population growth rate has been. From this frame of reference we will make a statistical analysis of the behavior of the labor market by gender in Colombia so as income levels as of schooling. The database of statistical information is provided by the General Household Survey conducted by the Department of National Statistics, DANE.
The Social Game between the Vote and the Democracy  [PDF]
ángel Emilio Mu?oz Cardona
Open Journal of Political Science (OJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojps.2014.43010
From models of game theory, this paper attempts to question the nature collusion oligopolistic in imperfect markets vote and its true social benefit. Search to give reasons for ethical content which serves to change the electoral moral conduct and improves well-being in the public distribution of goods and services. In other words, answer the question, what should be the role of society in achieving better governance, or what must we do to improve as a community of voters? The priority challenge of contemporary societies is to instruct citizens for democracy, citizens with ability to choose and be elected. Educate political leaders, businessmen and society willing to work for the welfare of a nation without exception, not accepting corruption as a way of governing and being governed. That is the subject of this nodal essay research1.
The New Public Management in Sabaneta, Antioquia  [PDF]
ángel Emilio Mu?oz Cardona
Open Journal of Political Science (OJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojps.2014.43019
During the decades of the 80s and 90s three international events that marked the history political, social and economic at the beginning of XXI century took place: the fall of the Berlin Wall and Perestroika; Environmental Summit in Rio de Janeiro and the European Union. These historical events deepened new forms of public administration within the developed and developing countries. International events that were and are answer to the demands of citizens by governments more responsive in the management of their needs of participation are: political decisions, environmental protection and economic security. But, how did these three events alter the economic, political and social order in Colombia, and how have these new trends in public management been incorporated into the municipality of Sabaneta, Antioquia? Visualizing the changes of governance since the late 80s and 90s in Colombia, illustration of the good performance achieved by the municipality of Sabaneta in the period from 2003 to 2013, is the subject of this research essay1.
The Justice and the Colombia Peace Talks  [PDF]
ángel Emilio Mu?oz Cardona
Open Journal of Political Science (OJPS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojps.2016.63024
Abstract: The purpose of this research paper is to feed the reflection elicited by the peace talks in Colombia for that serve the construction a better country and a better society of the post-conflict to start from citizens’ confidence in its institutions of justice. To achieve this, it is necessary to begin by the concepts of justice that makes Adam Smith in “Lessons of Jurisprudence” and is associated with the concept of utilitarianism of John Stuart Mill as search for the general happiness. The investigation goes to do traceability exhaustive of the Peace Accords in Colombia to compare them with those achieved by other societies of the post-conflict in two countries in Europe and one from Latin America. A historical and theoretical count, that allows us to conclude in the need for a peace agreement to Colombia based in the justice, in other words, respectful of the rights of victims and territories affected by the armed conflict. An agreement for the peace that prohibits at the demobilized is political representatives by popular voting, as show of support at the victims. Punishment of citizen value over those who committed heinous crimes against humanity.
The Long-Run Dynamic of the Nexus between Military Strength and National Power: An Econometric Analysis
Emilio Casetti
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society , 2008, DOI: 10.1155/2008/286836
Abstract: A number of literatures suggest that military strength has been losing centrality and importance to nonmilitary factors of national power. In this paper, logistic regressions and data from the Correlates of War (COW) project are used to investigate whether over the 1820–2000 time horizon, for the great powers and their proximate contenders, the importance of military capabilities to national power has declined vis-à-vis that of economic capabilities. Estimation was carried out using generalized estimating equations (GEEs). The overall picture that emerges from the analysis is that of a transition in progress from a systemic state in which military capabilities were the dominant determinants of national power to a state in which economic capabilities will become the dominant ones. The analysis is concerned with long-run trends, and its results are not necessarily applicable to specific countries and circumstances.
How Behavioral Constraints May Determine Optimal Sensory Representations
Emilio Salinas
PLOS Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0040387
Abstract: The sensory-triggered activity of a neuron is typically characterized in terms of a tuning curve, which describes the neuron's average response as a function of a parameter that characterizes a physical stimulus. What determines the shapes of tuning curves in a neuronal population? Previous theoretical studies and related experiments suggest that many response characteristics of sensory neurons are optimal for encoding stimulus-related information. This notion, however, does not explain the two general types of tuning profiles that are commonly observed: unimodal and monotonic. Here I quantify the efficacy of a set of tuning curves according to the possible downstream motor responses that can be constructed from them. Curves that are optimal in this sense may have monotonic or nonmonotonic profiles, where the proportion of monotonic curves and the optimal tuning-curve width depend on the general properties of the target downstream functions. This dependence explains intriguing features of visual cells that are sensitive to binocular disparity and of neurons tuned to echo delay in bats. The numerical results suggest that optimal sensory tuning curves are shaped not only by stimulus statistics and signal-to-noise properties but also according to their impact on downstream neural circuits and, ultimately, on behavior.
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