Abstract:
We describe here a large new subfamily of TRIMs in teleosts, called finTRIMs, identified in rainbow trout as virus-induced transcripts. FinTRIMs are formed of nearly identical RING/B-box regions and C-termini of variable length; the long variants include a B30.2 domain. The zebrafish genome harbors a striking diversity of finTRIMs, with 84 genes distributed in clusters on different chromosomes. A phylogenetic analysis revealed different subsets suggesting lineage-specific diversification events. Accordingly, the number of fintrim genes varies greatly among fish species. Conserved syntenies were observed only for the oldest fintrims. The closest mammalian relatives are trim16 and trim25, but they are not true orthologs. The B30.2 domain of zebrafish finTRIMs evolved under strong positive selection. The positions under positive selection are remarkably congruent in finTRIMs and in mammalian antiviral TRIM5α, concentrated within a viral recognition motif in mammals. The B30.2 domains most closely related to finTRIM are found among NOD-like receptors (NLR), indicating that the evolution of TRIMs and NLRs was intertwined by exon shuffling.The diversity, evolution, and features of finTRIMs suggest an important role in fish innate immunity; this would make them the first TRIMs involved in immunity identified outside mammals.Newly discovered players in the antiviral immunity field are the proteins belonging to the tripartite motif (TRIM) family. The TRIM proteins are characterized by a tripartite motif that comprises from the N- to C-terminus, a RING zinc finger domain, one or two B-boxes and a coiled-coil domain. They are therefore also known as RBCC proteins [1]. The RING finger and B-box are cysteine-rich domains and both domains bind zinc atoms, suggesting interaction with other proteins, RNA and DNA [2-5]. They are usually encoded as a single exon, and together form the 'RBB' region. In addition, the RING finger has E3 ubiquitin ligase activity [6]. The coiled-coil reg

Abstract:
The purpose of the present expository paper is to give an account of the recent progress and present status of the classification of solvable Lie groups admitting an Einstein left invariant Riemannian metric, the only known examples so far of noncompact Einstein homogeneous manifolds. The problem turns to be equivalent to the classification of Ricci soliton left invariant metrics on nilpotent Lie groups.

Abstract:
We prove that the Ricci flow g(t) starting at any metric on the euclidean space that is invariant by a transitive nilpotent Lie group N, can be obtained by solving an ODE for a curve of nilpotent Lie brackets. By using that this ODE is the negative gradient flow of a homogeneous polynomial, we obtain that g(t) is type-III, and, up to pull-back by time-dependent diffeomorphisms, that g(t) converges to the flat metric, and the rescaling |R(g(t))|g(t) converges smoothly to a Ricci soliton, uniformly on compact sets. The Ricci soliton limit is also invariant by some transitive nilpotent Lie group, though possibly non-isomorphic to N.

Abstract:
We study curvature flows in the locally homogeneous case (e.g. compact quotients of Lie groups, solvmanifolds, nilmanifolds) in a unified way, by considering a generic flow under just a few natural conditions on the broad class of almost-hermitian structures. As a main tool, we use an ODE system defined on the variety of 2n-dimensional Lie algebras, called the bracket flow, whose solutions differ from those to the original curvature flow by only pull-back by time-dependent diffeomorphisms. The approach, which has already been used to study the Ricci flow on homogeneous manifolds, is useful to better visualize the possible pointed limits of solutions, under diverse rescalings, as well as to address regularity issues. Immortal, ancient and self-similar solutions arise naturally from the qualitative analysis of the bracket flow. The Chern-Ricci flow and the symplectic curvature flow are considered in more detail.

Abstract:
Let V be the vector space of all skew-symmetric (non-associative) complex algebras of dimension n and L the algebraic subset of V of all Lie algebras. We consider the moment map for the action of GL(n) on the projective space P(V) and study the critical points of the functional F:square norm of the moment map, in order to understand the stratification of L defined by the negative gradient flow of F. We obtain a description of the critical points which lie in L in terms of those which are nilpotent, as well as the minima and maxima of F on L. A characterization of the critical points modulo isomorphism, as the finite union of categorical quotients of suitable actions is considered, and some applications to the study of L are given.

Abstract:
Let N be a nilpotent Lie group and let S be an invariant geometric structure on N (cf. symplectic, complex or hypercomplex). We define a left invariant Riemannian metric on N compatible with S to be "minimal", if it minimizes the norm of the invariant part of the Ricci tensor among all compatible metrics with the same scalar curvature. We prove that minimal metrics (if any) are unique up to isometry and scaling, they develop soliton solutions for the invariant Ricci flow and are characterized as the critical points of a natural variational problem. The uniqueness allows us to distinguish geometric structures with Riemannian data, giving rise to a great deal of invariants. Our approach proposes to vary Lie brackets and our main tool is the moment map for the action of a reductive Lie group on the algebraic variety of all Lie algebras, which we show to coincide with the Ricci operator. We therefore can use strong results from geometric invariant theory to study compatible metrics and the moduli space of isomorphism classes of geometric structures.

Abstract:
Let (N,g) be a nilpotent Lie group endowed with an invariant geometric structure (cf. symplectic, complex, hypercomplex or any of their `almost' versions). We define a left invariant Riemannian metric on N compatible with g to be minimal, if it minimizes the norm of the invariant part of the Ricci tensor among all compatible metrics with the same scalar curvature. We prove that minimal metrics (if any) are unique up to isometry and scaling, they develop soliton solutions for the `invariant Ricci' flow and are characterized as the critical points of a natural variational problem. The uniqueness allows us to distinguish two geometric structures with Riemannian data, giving rise to a great deal of invariants. Our approach proposes to vary Lie brackets rather than inner products; our tool is the moment map for the action of a reductive Lie group on the algebraic variety of all Lie algebras, which we show to coincide in this setting with the Ricci operator. This gives us the possibility to use strong results from geometric invariant theory.

Abstract:
A left invariant metric on a nilpotent Lie group is called minimal, if it minimizes the norm of the Ricci tensor among all left invariant metrics with the same scalar curvature. Such metrics are unique up to isometry and scaling and the groups admitting a minimal metric are precisely the nilradicals of (standard) Einstein solvmanifolds. If $N$ is endowed with an invariant symplectic, complex or hypercomplex structure, then minimal compatible metrics are also unique up to isometry and scaling. The aim of this paper is to give more evidence of the existence of minimal metrics, by presenting several explicit examples. This also provides many continuous families of symplectic, complex and hypercomplex nilpotent Lie groups. A list of all known examples of Einstein solvmanifolds is also given.

Abstract:
We study Einstein manifolds admitting a transitive solvable Lie group of isometries (solvmanifolds). It is conjectured that these exhaust the class of noncompact homogeneous Einstein manifolds. J. Heber has showed that under certain simple algebraic condition called standard (i.e. the orthogonal complement of the derived algebra is abelian), Einstein solvmanifolds have many remarkable structural and uniqueness properties. In this paper, we prove that any Einstein solvmanifold is standard, by applying a stratification procedure from geometric invariant theory due to F. Kirwan.

Abstract:
All known examples of nontrivial homogeneous Ricci solitons are left-invariant metrics on simply connected solvable Lie groups whose Ricci operator is a multiple of the identity modulo derivations (called solsolitons, and nilsolitons in the nilpotent case). The tools from geometric invariant theory used to study Einstein solvmanifolds, turned out to be useful in the study of solsolitons as well. We prove that, up to isometry, any solsoliton can be obtained via a very simple construction from a nilsoliton together with any abelian Lie algebra of symmetric derivations of its metric Lie algebra. The following uniqueness result is also obtained: a given solvable Lie group can admit at most one solsoliton up to isometry and scaling. As an application, solsolitons of dimension at most 4 are classified.