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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1483 matches for " Emiliano Mancini "
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HIV Reservoirs and Immune Surveillance Evasion Cause the Failure of Structured Treatment Interruptions: A Computational Study
Emiliano Mancini, Filippo Castiglione, Massimo Bernaschi, Andrea de Luca, Peter M. A. Sloot
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0036108
Abstract: Continuous antiretroviral therapy is currently the most effective way to treat HIV infection. Unstructured interruptions are quite common due to side effects and toxicity, among others, and cannot be prevented. Several attempts to structure these interruptions failed due to an increased morbidity compared to continuous treatment. The cause of this failure is poorly understood and often attributed to drug resistance. Here we show that structured treatment interruptions would fail regardless of the emergence of drug resistance. Our computational model of the HIV infection dynamics in lymphoid tissue inside lymph nodes, demonstrates that HIV reservoirs and evasion from immune surveillance themselves are sufficient to cause the failure of structured interruptions. We validate our model with data from a clinical trial and show that it is possible to optimize the schedule of interruptions to perform as well as the continuous treatment in the absence of drug resistance. Our methodology enables studying the problem of treatment optimization without having impact on human beings. We anticipate that it is feasible to steer new clinical trials using computational models.
Insertion polymorphisms of SINE200 retrotransposons within speciation islands of Anopheles gambiae molecular forms
Federica Santolamazza, Emiliano Mancini, Frédéric Simard, Yumin Qi, Zhijian Tu, Alessandra della Torre
Malaria Journal , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-7-163
Abstract: A SINE-PCR approach was carried out on thirteen SINE200 insertions in M and S females collected along the whole range of distribution of A. gambiae s.s. in sub-Saharan Africa. Ten specimens each for Anopheles arabiensis, Anopheles melas, Anopheles quadriannulatus A and 15 M/S hybrids from laboratory crosses were also analysed.Eight loci were successfully amplified and were found to be specific for A. gambiae s.s.: 5 on 2L chromosome and one on X chromosome resulted monomorphic, while two loci positioned respectively on 2R (i.e. S200 2R12D) and X (i.e. S200 X6.1) chromosomes were found to be polymorphic. S200 2R12D was homozygote for the insertion in most S-form samples, while intermediate levels of polymorphism were shown in M-form, resulting in an overall high degree of genetic differentiation between molecular forms (Fst = 0.46 p < 0.001) and within M-form (Fst = 0.46 p < 0.001). The insertion of S200 X6.1 was found to be fixed in all M- and absent in all S-specimens. This led to develop a novel easy-to-use PCR approach to straightforwardly identify A. gambiae molecular forms. This novel approach allows to overcome the constraints associated with markers on the rDNA region commonly used for M and S identification. In fact, it is based on a single copy and irreversible SINE200 insertion and, thus, is not subjected to peculiar evolutionary patterns affecting rDNA markers, e.g. incomplete homogenization of the arrays through concerted evolution and/or mixtures of M and S IGS-sequences among the arrays of single chromatids.The approach utilized allowed to develop new easy-to-use co-dominant markers for the analysis of genetic differentiation between M and S-forms and opens new perspectives in the study of the speciation process ongoing within A. gambiae.Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (s.s.) is the most important vector of human malaria in Africa, causing 90% of the fatalcases worldwide [1]. It is believed that the differentiation of this very synanthropic and anthrop
Comparative analyses reveal discrepancies among results of commonly used methods for Anopheles gambiaemolecular form identification
Federica Santolamazza, Beniamino Caputo, Maria Calzetta, José L Vicente, Emiliano Mancini, Vincenzo Petrarca, Jo?o Pinto, Alessandra della Torre
Malaria Journal , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-10-215
Abstract: The genotyping of more than 400 A. gambiae specimens from nine African countries, and the sequencing of the IGS-amplicon of 115 of them, highlighted discrepancies among results obtained by the different approaches due to different kinds of biases, which may result in an overestimation of MS putative hybrids, as follows: i) incorrect match of M and S specific primers used in the allele specific-PCR approach; ii) presence of polymorphisms in the recognition sequence of restriction enzymes used in the PCR-RFLP approaches; iii) incomplete cleavage during the restriction reactions; iv) presence of different copy numbers of M and S-specific IGS-arrays in single individuals in areas of secondary contact between the two forms.The results reveal that the PCR and PCR-RFLP approaches most commonly utilized to identify A. gambiae M and S forms are not fully interchangeable as usually assumed, and highlight limits of the actual definition of the two molecular forms, which might not fully correspond to the two A. gambiae incipient species in their entire geographical range. These limits are discussed and operational suggestions on the choice of the most convenient method for large-scale M- and S-form identification are provided, also taking into consideration technical aspects related to the epidemiological characteristics of different study areas.The mosquito vector species responsible for most Plasmodium falciparum-malaria transmission in sub-Saharan Africa, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (hereafter A. gambiae), is ongoing a process of ecological diversification and adaptive lineage splitting which is changing patterns of malaria transmission and affecting vector control strategies in West Africa [1-4]. Two morphologically indistinguishable incipient species (provisionally named M and S molecular forms) have been described within A. gambiae, based on form-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the intergenic spacer (IGS) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region
Molecular evolution of a gene cluster of serine proteases expressed in the Anopheles gambiae female reproductive tract
Emiliano Mancini, Federica Tammaro, Francesco Baldini, Allegra Via, Domenico Raimondo, Phillip George, Paolo Audisio, Igor V Sharakhov, Anna Tramontano, Flaminia Catteruccia, Alessandra della Torre
BMC Evolutionary Biology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2148-11-72
Abstract: The analysis of polymorphisms and divergence of these female-expressed proteases in closely related species of the A. gambiae complex revealed a high level of replacement polymorphisms consistent with relaxed evolutionary constraints of duplicated genes, allowing to rapidly fix novel replacements to perform new or more specific functions. Adaptive evolution was detected in several codons of the 3 genes and hints of episodic selection were also found. In addition, the structural modelling of these proteases highlighted some important differences in their substrate specificity, and provided evidence that a number of sites evolving under selective pressures lie relatively close to the catalytic triad and/or on the edge of the specificity pocket, known to be involved in substrate recognition or binding. The observed patterns suggest that these proteases may interact with factors transferred by males during mating (e.g. substrates, inhibitors or pathogens) and that they may have differently evolved in independent A. gambiae lineages.Our results - also examined in light of constraints in the application of selection-inference methods to the closely related species of the A. gambiae complex - reveal an unexpectedly intricate evolutionary scenario. Further experimental analyses are needed to investigate the biological functions of these genes in order to better interpret their molecular evolution and to assess whether they represent possible targets for limiting the fertility of Anopheles mosquitoes in malaria vector control strategies.Sexual reproduction in organisms with internal fertilization is known to be mediated by a series of molecular interactions between the male ejaculate and female reproductive factors [1,2]. Since these interactions are fundamental to fertilization and, thus, for organismal fitness, molecular coevolution has been suggested to arise between male components and interacting female proteins [1,3,4]. While rapid evolution driven by positive selectio
Molecular characterization and evolution of a gene family encoding male-specific reproductive proteins in the African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae
Emiliano Mancini, Francesco Baldini, Federica Tammaro, Maria Calzetta, Aurelio Serrao, Phillip George, Isabelle Morlais, Daniel Masiga, Igor V Sharakhov, David W Rogers, Flaminia Catteruccia, Alessandra della Torre
BMC Evolutionary Biology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2148-11-292
Abstract: Genetic analysis of 6 species of the A. gambiae complex revealed the existence of a third paralog (68-78% of identity), that we named AgAcp34A-3. FISH assays showed that this gene maps in the same division (34A) of chromosome-3R as the other two paralogs. In particular, immuno-fluorescence assays targeting the C-terminals of AgAcp34A-2 and AgAcp34A-3 revealed that these two proteins are localized in the posterior part of the MAG and concentrated at the apical portion of the mating plug. When transferred to females, this part of the plug lies in proximity to the duct connecting the spermatheca to the uterus, suggesting a potential role for these proteins in regulating sperm motility. AgAcp34A-3 is more polymorphic than the other two paralogs, possibly because of relaxation of purifying selection. Since both unequal crossing-over and gene conversion likely homogenized the members of this gene family, the interpretation of the evolutionary patterns is not straightforward. Although several haplotypes of the three paralogs are shared by most A. gambiae s.l. species, some fixed species-specific replacements (mainly placed in the N- and C-terminal portions of the secreted peptides) were also observed, suggesting some lineage-specific adaptation.Progress in understanding the signaling cascade in the A. gambiae reproductive pathway will elucidate the interaction of this MAG-specific protein family with their female counterparts. This knowledge will allow a better evaluation of the relative importance of genes involved in the reproductive isolation and fertility of A. gambiae species and could help the interpretation of the observed evolutionary patterns.Across many taxa, genes encoding proteins involved in reproductive processes often evolve rapidly and can contribute to the establishment of barriers to fertilization that might ultimately lead to speciation [1,2]. Male seminal fluid proteins transferred during mating induce a series of physiological and behavioral changes in
Seroprevalencia de hantavirus en roedores y casos humanos en el sur de la Argentina
Larrieu, Edmundo;Herrero, Eduardo;Cachau, Mariela Garcia;Labanchi, Jose Luis;Mancini, Sergio;Padula, Paula;Cantoni, Gustavo;Cavagion, Laura;Alvarez, Emiliano;Bruni, Maria;Albarracin, Silvina;Arellano, Odila;
Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S1415-790X2003000100009
Abstract: in the province of río negro, argentina, human cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps) have occurred in the region of the patagonian andean range. the andes virus has been identified in the region, both in the rodent oligoryzomys longicaudatus and in human beings, demonstrating mainly transmission from rodents to human and the possibility of person-to-person transmission. the goal of this paper is to present new information on hantavirus rodent carrier species in argentina, the prevalence of antibodies to hantavirus (1999-2001 period) and the relationship of the rodent population size and seroprevalence with the occurrence of human cases (1996-2001 period). to this end, a total of 3,973 sherman type traps for capturing live rodents were placed in six campaigns from october 1999 to may 2001. rodent blood samples were obtained and processed by means of enzymoimmunoassay with antigens developed from the andes virus. a summary of results indicates 397 captured rodents, with a 10% trapping success rate and a 1.0% prevalence of antibodies to hantavirus. considerable differences were observed in species captured in each region. seropositive o. longicaudatus and a. olivaceus specimens, as well as potential hantavirus o. flavescens and c. laucha carriers, were captured. six human cases were recorded during the 1993-1995 period (corresponding to retrospective studies), while 21 cases were reported in 1996-1998 and 6 in 1999-2001. the correlation between occurrence of human cases, seroprevalence in rodents and trapping success is analyzed.
Eliciting Guilty Feelings: A Preliminary Study Differentiating Deontological and Altruistic Guilt  [PDF]
Barbara Basile, Francesco Mancini
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.22016
Abstract: Guilt has been identified as both an intrapsychic and an interpersonal emotion. The current study presents evidence of the existence of two senses of guilt, deontological and altruistic guilt, induced through different experimental paradigms. Deontological guilt evolves from having slighted moral authority or norms, while altruistic guilt arises from selfish behavior and the distress of others. We hypothesize that specific stimuli would evoke, separately, deontological guilt and altruistic/interpersonal guilt feelings. Two different procedures were used to test our hypothesis, adding two emotions as control conditions (i.e. anger and sadness). Results clearly indicate that two different guilt emotions can be evoked separately, by appropriate stimulation. Findings and possible clinical implications are discussed.
Clinical, radiological and histological diagnoses of periapical periodontitis spreading to the adjacent tooth: A case of endodontic failure  [PDF]
Luigi Cianconi, Manuele Mancini
Open Journal of Stomatology (OJST) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojst.2013.35048
Abstract:

Aims: This article describes the apical infection in endodontically treated tooth 4.5 that spread to adjacent tooth 4.4. Case Report: A 52-year-old woman was referred for the presence of radiolucency extending from tooth 4.5 and mental foramen. Spontaneous symptoms were present. Tooth 4.5 showed poor-quality endodontics. The vitality of tooth 4.4 was negative, even though no mechanical trauma had been reported, nor was caries present. Both teeth were sensitive to percussion. Endodontic re-treatment of 4.5 and endodontic treatment of 4.4 were performed in a single visit. A large amount of endodontic sealer squeezed mesially from the root of tooth 4.5, where a partial horizontal root fracture was hypothesized. 6-, 12-, and 18-month radiographic follow-ups, by both periapical and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) analyses, showed incomplete osseous healing. CBCT excluded root fracture on 4.5. Local symptoms were still present. Clinical and radiological conditions led to extractions, and a cystic lesion was enucleated for histopathologic analyses. Histopathologic diagnosis was a periapical cyst. The supposed partial horizontal root fracture of 4.5 was actually a large lateral canal. Although the root canal treatments followed high standards in terms of quality, a persistent chronic infection developed histologically. The cystic lesion was one consistent reason for the unsuccessful healing of 4.5.

SEM evaluation of apical intraradicular dentine cleanliness and degree of erosion after the application of three irrigating solutions  [PDF]
Manuele Mancini, Luigi Cianconi
Open Journal of Stomatology (OJST) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojst.2013.32030
Abstract:

Aims: The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy of 37% phosphoric acid, 12% nitric acid, 17% EDTA in endodontic smear layer removal and degree of erosion in the apical third of endodontic canals. Methods and Material: One hundred and four extracted single-rooted human teeth were randomized into four groups (n = 26) and instrumented using ProTaper Universal Ni-Ti rotary instruments. Each canal was irrigated with one of the following solutions: 37% phosphoric acid, 12% nitric acid, 17% EDTA, 5.25% NaOCl (control). All specimens were then irrigated with 5 mL distilled water and dried with sterile paper points. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-WhitneyU statistical tests were used. Results: Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) evaluation showed no significant differences among test reagents in smear layer removal. However, the efficacy of 12% nitric acid and 17% EDTA in removing the smear layer was significantly greater than 5.25% NaOCl (control). Degree of erosion could not be evaluated. Conclusion: Protocols used in this study were not sufficient to completely remove the smear layer in the apical third of shaped root canals.

Simulacros: arte, subjetividad y resistencia
Sacchi,Emiliano;
Discusiones Filosóficas , 2010,
Abstract: in this paper i intend to show how it is possible starting with a rupture with the platonic model of thought to give rise to a consideration of aesthetics and subjectivity as fields of politic experimentation. such field of experimentation can be considered in the very core of platonic work, out of the dispute that this maintains with the artist and that leads him to expel them from the polis. in this expulsion of pretense plato intends to secure the good order of the city, to enclose art within the limits of mimesis and representation. this paper suggests to think about art and politics beyond representation because only overcoming plato's condemnation, art opens the field of resistance by which it introduces what is not presentable: the new.
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