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The Role of Ethanolic Extracts of Leaves and Roots of Lantana camara (L.) in the Management of Pests of Okra Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench  [PDF]
Philip Kweku Baidoo, Emelia Adu, Sampson Peprah
Advances in Entomology (AE) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ae.2017.53010
Abstract: The cultivation of many crops in Africa is negatively affected by a number of constraints, the most important of which is the incidence of pests and diseases. In many areas of the world, the most preferred option in the management of pests is the application of synthetic chemical pesticides. Due to the negative effects of pesticides on humans and the environment as a whole, efforts are being made to find alternatives for pest management. Ethanolic extracts of the leaves and roots of Lantana camara were tested against the major pests of okra, Abelmoschus esculentus. The plant extracts were compared with a standard chemical insecticide, Mektin (a.i 18 g/L abamectin) in a randomly complete block design with four treatments and three replications. Parameters studied included the major pests of the plant and the damage caused, leaf area, plant height as well as yield of okra. Cotton aphids, Aphis gossypii, the tobacco whitefly Bemisia tabaci and the cotton flea beetle, Podagrica puncticollis were the major pests encountered on okra plants. Aphis gossypii and B. tabaci populations were significantly lower on the L. camara-sprayed plots compared with the control plots. Similarly, P. puncticollis numbers were significantly smaller on the L. camara-sprayed plots than the control plots. There were no significant differences between the treatments and the control for plant height, leaf area and yield. The significant reduction in pests numbers on the L. camara-sprayed plots indicates its potential as an alternative to chemical insecticides, thereby reducing the reliance on chemical insecticides in the management of insect pests.
Malignant and Pre-Malignant Manifestations of Xeroderma Pigmentosum in Ghanaians  [PDF]
Emmanuel J. K. Adu
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines (JBM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2016.43005

Introduction: Xeroderma pigmentosum is an autosomal recessive disease with sun sensitivity, photophobia, early onset of freckling, and subsequent neoplastic changes on sun-exposed surfaces. There is cellular hypersensitivity to UV radiation and to certain chemicals in association with abnormal DNA repair. Patients with defective DNA nucleotide excision repair (NER) have defects in one of seven NER genes; xeroderma pigmentosum variants have normal NER and a defect in a polymerase gene. Study design: This is a case presentation of five patients with the features of xeroderma pigmentosum, aged 48, 26, 15, 14 and 8 years. The first and last patients were males. Each of the first four patients presented with areas of hyper- and hypo-pigmentation over sun exposed body surfaces. Each of them had a minimum of two cutaneous malignancies, distributed on the upper chest, face or scalp. The fifth patient had skin atrophy, with mottled hyperpigmentation and hypopigmentation but had no malignant lesions. Result: The first, second and fourth patients had their lesions surgically excised and the defects were skin grafted. The third patient was treated with radiotherapy. All the lesions were confirmed histologically as squamous cell carcinoma. No recurrence has been observed. Conclusion: Xeroderma pigmentosum in Ghanaians presents with squamous cell carcinoma involving the head, neck and upper trunk. A minimum period of exposure to UV radiation, not precisely known, is required for the development of the lesions. Education on sun avoidance and protective clothing is necessary to prevent morbidity and mortality.

The Use of Organic Waste as an Eco-Efficient Energy Source in Ghana  [PDF]
Robert Ohene Adu, Reiner Lohmueller
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2012.37066
Abstract: The problem of municipal solid waste (MSW) management has been an issue of global concern in recent times and has engaged governments and local authorities in their quest to manage solid waste in a sustained manner. One proposition which has the potential of solving three problems at the same time is the use of the biodegradable component of MSW as a source of energy to augment energy supply. This research therefore assessed the use of the organic fraction of MSW as an eco-efficient energy source in Ghana. A study of Ghana’s solid waste profile was undertaken and the fraction of biodegradable component was found to be approximately 60%, with a heating value of 17 MJ/kg and a moisture content of 50%. Moreover, it was established that 0.5 kg of solid waste is generated daily by each Ghanaian, meaning that about 5610 tons of the organic fraction could be made available every day to generate energy to the national grid. It was also established that waste disposal in Ghana is largely by way of open dumping as primary collection of waste from households in Ghana is limited to high-income communities which represent only 11% of the population, whereas secondary collection from transfer points to the disposal facilities is inefficient. With representative power output of 1.66 MWh/tonne a total of 3320 GWh of energy can be produced annually from the 4 proposed plants, generating net revenue of about $111,600,000. As an optimizing step, a waste incineration scheme was suggested in which the off-gases produced from organic waste combustion could be used to produce electrical power with steam in a multi-stage heat exchanger-steam turbine configuration, and the off gases again used for pre-drying of the organic waste in a cycle. A state-of-the art waste incineration technology was used as a model and adapted to suit Ghana’s tropical conditions. MSW combustion releases less CO2 for the same power output (837 Ib/MWh) than any of the other conventional fuels do, and is therefore a good fuel for the fight against climate change.
Quality Assessment of Artemether/Lumefantrine Tablets Sampled from Pharmacies in Accra, Using the MVHimagePCv8.exe Color Software  [PDF]
Ebenezer Adu Nyarko, Henry Nettey
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2013.48081
Abstract: Background: Widespread resistance has been recorded with the use of monotherapy in the management of malaria. In 2000, Ghana initiated the process of using Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) following the World Health Organization’s (WHO) recommendation. Globally and in Ghana, there stands a high risk of development of resistance to the ACTs due to the act of counterfeiting or substandard drugs. In 2009, there was a report that fake Coartem, an ACT had been found in Ghana by the Drug Quality and Information (DQI) Program; this is a serious national problem that needs redress thus the need to conduct this study to check if there are any substandard or counterfeit Artemether/ Lumefantrine tablets on the Ghanaian market. Method: Using Representative sampling method, a total of nine different brands or samples of artemether/lumefantrine tablets were sampled from nine different Pharmacies in Accra. The samples were analyzed using a validated MVHimagePCv8.exe colour software technology. Results: The International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) and United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) recommend that for assay of tablets, the percentage concentration should fall within 80%-120%. After the analysis, seven out of the nine samples passed the test to varying degrees. Two samples (AL-S4 and AL-S6) however failed the test with AL-S4 recording artemether concentration (126.07%) above and Lumefantrine concentration (78.38%) below the recommended figure while AL-S6’s 51.53% failed to meet the minimum allowable concentration for lumefantrine in a tablet. Conclusion: The results presented show that some Artemether/Lumefantrine tablets on the Ghanaian market still have issues with regards to quality or level of active ingredients. There would therefore be the need for further studies to be conducted into these products especially those that failed the test.
The virology of the Polio virus
FD Adu
Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine , 2005,
Management of contractures: A five-year experience at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in Kumasi
Ghana Medical Journal , 2011,
Abstract: Background: Contractures are common complications of wounds healing by secondary intention; some cases are idiopathic and a few are congenital. Contractures cause significant morbidity to patients. Objective: The study was undertaken to document the pattern, spectrum and management of patients with contractures of various types and aetiologies presenting at a Plastic and Reconstructive Surgical Unit in Ghana. Design: Prospective study from January 2004 to December 2008. Setting: Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH) in Kumasi Patients and Methods: The age, sex, site, extent and cause of contracture was documented. The patients were examined and functional impairment recorded. A clinical photograph was taken. Patients requiring surgery had their contractures released and the defect repaired with an appropriate reconstructive technique. Patients with minimal functional impairment underwent physical therapy without surgery. Results: Sixty-eight patients comprising 44 males and 24 females were seen. Male to female ratio is 1.83:1. Their ages ranged from 0.66 to 60 years, mean age was 22.53 years. Seventy-six contractures were studied. Fifty-eight of the lesions were in the upper part of the body. Burns, infections and trauma were the main aetiological causes. Seventy-one surgical procedures were performed including release and flap repair (33), full thickness skin graft (23) and partial thickness skins graft and splinting (six). Conclusions: Thermal burns and soft tissue infections are the commonest causes of contractures presenting at KATH in Kumasi. These causes of contractures are preventable by early and adequate treatment of the acute conditions.
Improving Production of Zebra Fish Embryos in the Lab  [PDF]
Robert Ohene Adu, Jens Peter Thomsen
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2011.210157
Abstract: The utilization of fish embryos in toxicity testing of hazardous chemicals has recently been adopted in order to satisfy stricter rules and regulations related to using adult animals in toxicity testing. This paper presents optimising steps towards improving zebra fish embryo production in the laboratory. Culture conditions were maintained in the aquaria as stipulated in the OECD draft proposal for a new guideline on fish embryo tests. Furthermore, a sequence of steps were adopted and followed to improve upon previous work done in the lab in 2006. About 200 eggs were produced in one spawn trap within an hour of onset of light, an improvement over the 50 - 60 eggs produced in the previous work. This result demonstrates that with the right culture conditions and proper optimisation of procedure the required number of embryos needed for toxicity testing can be obtained.
Enhancing the Hygienic Quality of Some Ghanaian Food Products by Gamma Irradiation  [PDF]
Abraham Adu-Gyamfi, Victoria Appiah
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2012.32032
Abstract: The microbiological quality (microbial load and profile) of 6 Ghanaian food products was determined before and after irradiation (0 kGy, 5 kGy, 7.5 kGy, 10 kGy) using standard microbiological methods. The microbial load was estimated by the total viable count (TVC) and moulds and yeasts count (MYC). The range of TVC and MYC of the un-irradiated products were 103 cfu/g - 106 cfu/g and 0 cfu/g - 106 cfu/g respectively. Un-irradiated Banku Mix Powder, Fermented Maize Powder and Cassava Dough Powder had relatively low microbial load (TVC ? 6.1 × 103 cfu/g; MYC ? 4.9 × 102 cfu/g). Un-irradiated Fermented Maize Dough, Kokonte Powder and Cassava Dough had relatively high TVC of >106 cfu/g. Eleven and 3 microbial isolates were detected in the un-irradiated and irradiated products respectively and the most common were Aspergillus niger and Bacillus spp. Irradiation dose of 10 kGy eliminated all microorganisms from the products. Doses of 5 and 7.5 kGy reduced the microbial loads of the products by approximately 1 to 6 log cycles to meet national and international standards. The use of low dose gamma radiation by the local food industry could improve the hygienic quality, extend shelf-life and enhance the competitiveness of the Ghanaian food products in domestic and export markets.
Development and Feeding Behaviour of Spodoptera exigua L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Different Food Plants
A.B. Idris,O. Emelia
Journal of Biological Sciences , 2001,
Abstract: The development and feeding behaviour of Spodoptera exigua L. (BAW) were studied on different food plants. Five types of plants used were Lycopersicon esculentum var. MT11 (tomato), Allium cepa var. Ascolonium (onion), Abelmoschus esculentus var. MKBe1 (okra), Solanum melongena var. Pintung Long (brinjal) and Capsicum annum var. MC11 (chilli). Development time of S. exigua s larvae differed significantly among treatments. Development time was shorter for larvae fed on onion and okra compared to other treatments. Interestingly, larva fed on brinjal died on first instar stage. Mean of feacal produced per larvae was differed significantly among treatments. There was a significant and positive correlation (r = 0.9576) feacal between produced and development time of larvae. The number of larvae, pupae, adult emergence and eggs lay differed significantly (p<0.05) among treatments. Survival rate of larvae and fecundity of adult emerged fed on onion and okra were higher than in other treatments. In choice test, the larval feeding time differed significantly among treatments. Larvae were observed to feed only on onion, okra and chilli. In no choice test, larvae were observed to feed on food plants tested including brinjal and tomato. As in choice test, larval feeding time on okra and onion was longer than on other treatments. Similar study on other plants should be conducted to find more plants that could negatively affect development and feeding behaviour of S. exigua. Futher study on the effect of brinjal on egg laying behaviour of S. exigua adults could confirm the possible use of the plant to be intercroped with other crops that is preferred by S. exigua.
Family communication about HIV/AIDS and sexual behaviour among senior secondary school students in Accra, Ghana
Samuel Adu-Mireku
African Health Sciences , 2003,
Abstract: Background: Sexually active adolescents in Ghana are increasingly at risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. As a primary agent of socialization, the family can exert a strong influence on adolescent sexual behaviour. Therefore, to aid in the design and implementation of effective prevention programmes, it is important to understand the role of the family in influencing sexual behaviour among school-going adolescents. Objectives: To evaluate the relationship between family communications about HIV/AIDS and sexual activity and condom use among school-going adolescents in Accra, Ghana. Method: A sample of 894 students (56.9% girls, 43.1% boys; mean age = 17.4 years, SD = 1.40) at two senior secondary schools in Accra completed a modified version of the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) questionnaire, a self-administered instrument developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Analytical techniques utilized included logistic regression and chi-square. Results: Twenty-five percent of the participants reported being sexually experienced, and 73.6% had talked about HIV/AIDS with parents or other family members. Of the sexually experienced students, 64.7% initiated first sexual intercourse by age 16; and 55.7% did not use a condom at last sexual intercourse. Bivariate analysis showed significant gender differences in sexual activity, condom use, and family communication about HIV/AIDS. Logistic regression analysis showed that student-family communication about HIV/AIDS was not associated with sexual activity. However, communication about HIV/AIDS between students and parents or other family members increased the odds of using a condom at last sexual intercourse. Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest that prevention programmes that seek to educate Ghanaian school-going adolescents about sexual risk behaviour must strongly encourage communication about HIV/AIDS between students and family members.
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