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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 636 matches for " Emanuela Zannin "
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Changes in the mechanical properties of the respiratory system during the development of interstitial lung edema
Raffaele L Dellacà, Emanuela Zannin, Giulio Sancini, Ilaria Rivolta, Biagio E Leone, Antonio Pedotti, Giuseppe Miserocchi
Respiratory Research , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1465-9921-9-51
Abstract: We studied 17 paralysed and mechanically ventilated closed-chest rats (325–375 g). Total input respiratory system impedance (Zrs) was derived from tracheal flow and pressure signals by applying forced oscillations with frequency components from 0.16 to 18.44 Hz distributed in two forcing signals. In 8 animals interstitial lung edema was induced by intravenous infusion of saline solution (0.75 ml/kg/min) for 4 hours; 9 control animals were studied with the same protocol but without infusion. Zrs was measured at the beginning and every 15 min until the end of the experiment.In the treated group the lung wet-to-dry weight ratio increased from 4.3 ± 0.72 to 5.23 ± 0.59, with no histological signs of alveolar flooding. Resistance (Rrs) increased in both groups over time, but to a greater extent in the treated group. Reactance (Xrs) did not change in the control group, while it decreased significantly at all frequencies but one in the treated. Significant changes in Rrs and Xrs were observed starting after ~135 min from the beginning of the infusion. By applying a constant phase model to partition airways and tissue mechanical properties, we observed a mild increase in airways resistance in both groups. A greater and significant increase in tissue damping (from 603.5 ± 100.3 to 714.5 ± 81.9 cmH2O/L) and elastance (from 4160.2 ± 462.6 to 5018.2 ± 622.5 cmH2O/L) was found only in the treated group.These results suggest that interstitial edema has a small but significant impact on the mechanical features of lung tissues and that these changes begin at very early stages, before the beginning of accumulation of extravascular fluid into the alveoli.The functional organisation of the lung extracellular matrix comprises basically two large macromolecular families. The fibrillar components, including collagen I and III and elastic fibers, provide the elasticity of the lung tissue on stretching and de-stretching which is mechanically defined as lung compliance, that is the ratio be
Optimizing positive end-expiratory pressure by oscillatory mechanics minimizes tidal recruitment and distension: an experimental study in a lavage model of lung injury
Emanuela Zannin, Raffaele L Dellaca, Peter Kostic, Pasquale P Pompilio, Anders Larsson, Antonio Pedotti, Goran Hedenstierna, Peter Frykholm
Critical Care , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/cc11858
Abstract: We studied six pigs in which lung injury was induced by bronchoalveolar lavage. The animals were ventilated with a tidal volume of 6 ml/kg. Forced oscillations at 5 Hz were superimposed on the ventilation waveform. Pressure and flow were measured at the tip and at the inlet of the endotracheal tube respectively. Respiratory system reactance (Xrs) was computed from the pressure and flow signals and expressed in terms of oscillatory elastance (EX5). Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) was increased from 0 to 24 cm H2O in steps of 4 cm H2O and subsequently decreased from 24 to 0 in steps of 2 cm H2O. At each PEEP step CT scans and EX5 were assessed at end-expiration and end-inspiration.During deflation the relationship between both end-expiratory and end-inspiratory EX5 and PEEP was a U-shaped curve with minimum values at PEEP = 13.4 ± 1.0 cm H2O (mean ± SD) and 13.0 ± 1.0 cm H2O respectively. EX5 was always higher at end-inspiration than at end-expiration, the difference between the average curves being minimal at 12 cm H2O. At this PEEP level, CT did not show any substantial sign of intra-tidal recruitment/derecruitment or expiratory lung collapse.Using FOT it was possible to measure EX5 both at end-expiration and at end-inspiration. The optimal PEEP strategy based on end-expiratory EX5 minimized intra-tidal recruitment/derecruitment as assessed by CT, and the concurrent attenuation of intra-tidal variations of EX5 suggests that it may also minimize tidal mechanical stress.Current strategies for mechanical ventilation of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) include low tidal volumes and increased positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) [1]. The physiological basis for these strategies is still under debate, but may involve the reduction of forces of stress and strain on the parenchyma [2]. The ARDSNet protocol is a table-based approach of setting PEEP and the fraction of inspired oxygen (FIO2) levels to achieve an oxygenation target [3]. The a
Positive end-expiratory pressure optimization with forced oscillation technique reduces ventilator induced lung injury: a controlled experimental study in pigs with saline lavage lung injury
Peter Kostic, Emanuela Zannin, Marie Andersson Olerud, Pasquale P Pompilio, G?ran Hedenstierna, Antonio Pedotti, Anders Larsson, Peter Frykholm, Raffaele L Dellaca
Critical Care , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/cc10236
Abstract: 17 pigs, in which acute lung injury (ALI) was induced by saline lavage, were studied. Animals were randomized into two groups: in the first PEEP was titrated according to Xrs (FOT group), in the control group PEEP was set according to the ARDSNet protocol (ARDSNet group). The duration of the trial was 12 hours. In both groups recruitment maneuvers (RM) were performed every 2 hours, increasing PEEP to 20 cmH2O. In the FOT group PEEP was titrated by monitoring Xrs while PEEP was reduced from 20 cmH2O in steps of 2 cmH2O. PEEP was considered optimal at the step before which Xrs started to decrease. Ventilatory parameters, lung mechanics, blood gases and hemodynamic parameters were recorded hourly. Lung injury was evaluated by histopathological analysis.The PEEP levels set in the FOT group were significantly higher compared to those set in the ARDSNet group during the whole trial. These higher values of PEEP resulted in improved lung mechanics, reduced driving pressure, improved oxygenation, with a trend for higher PaCO2 and lower systemic and pulmonary pressure. After 12 hours of ventilation, histopathological analysis showed a significantly lower score of lung injury in the FOT group compared to the ARDSNet group.In a lavage model of lung injury a PEEP optimization strategy based on maximizing Xrs attenuated the signs of ventilator induced lung injury. The respiratory system reactance measured by FOT could thus be an important component in a strategy for delivering protective ventilation to patients with ARDS/acute lung injury.Mechanical ventilation is a mainstay of intensive care for patients with acute lung injury (ALI) and the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). A ventilation strategy based on tidal volumes of 6 ml.kg-1 and pre-defined positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) settings has been shown to reduce morbidity and mortality probably due to less ventilation-induced lung injury (VILI) [1-3]. Various protocols using higher levels of PEEP in combination
Evaluation of the Acoustic Environment in a Protestant Church Based on Measurements of Acoustic Descriptors  [PDF]
Samuel Ansay, Paulo Henrique Trombetta Zannin
Journal of Building Construction and Planning Research (JBCPR) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jbcpr.2016.43011
Abstract: The new guidelines of the Catholic Church are in line with the guidelines adopted by Protestant churches since the Reformation, unifying appreciation for the liturgical practices of preaching and congregational singing. These guidelines require that the room, in this case the church, provides appropriate acoustic characteristics, which can be characterized by acoustic descriptors such as Reverberation Time (RT), Clarity (C80) and Definition (D50). In this article, we analyzed the acoustic quality of a protestant church whose design tried to follow these guidelines. Our findings revealed the poor quality of the acoustic environment in terms of both speech intelligibility and music. These findings emphasized the need to adopt not only Reverberation Time but also other acoustic descriptors such as Clarity and Definition in church design.
Assessment of Indoor and Outdoor Noise Pollution at a University Hospital Based on Acoustic Measurements and Noise Mapping  [PDF]
Paulo Henrique Trombetta Zannin, Fernanda Ferraz
Open Journal of Acoustics (OJA) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/oja.2016.64006
Abstract: This paper describes an analysis of the sound pressure levels at the exterior façade and inside the Hospital de Clínicas of the Federal University of Paraná. Measurements were taken at a total of 45 points, 24 at the exterior facade and 21 points inside the hospital on all the floors of the main building and in the maternity building. These 45 measurements were used to calculate the acoustic map of the hospital, which is located on General Carneiro Street, in the city of Curitiba, state of Paraná, Brazil. A comparison of the measured outdoor sound pressure levels against those established by Curitiba Municipal Law No. 10625 revealed that they all exceeded the daytime limit of 55 dB(A) permitted for areas around hospitals. The indoor sound pressure measurements and the noise levels for acoustic comfort established by the Brazilian technical standard ABNT NBR 10152 were compared, indicating that all the measured points, including those in the neonatal intensive care unit, exceeded the established limit of 35 dB(A) to 45 dB(A).
Quality of Life, Physical Activity and Risk Behaviors: A Case Study in Mechanical Engineering Students  [PDF]
Gustavo Levandoski, Luiz Alberto Pilatti, Paulo Henrique Trombetta Zannin
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2016.410002
Abstract: This paper describes a transversal study involving 296 undergraduate mechanical engineering students, using a descriptive probabilistic approach. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the level of life quality and physical activity of the participants, comparing them to variables indicative of health risk factors. It was found that 70.6% of the study population evaluated their life quality standard as good or very good. With respect to their level of physical activity, 38.8% of the participants are physically inactive in their leisure time. As for the prevalence of risk factors, 3.7% of them belong to high risk groups: sedentary, overweight, and/or smokers. In addition, the hypothesis of a direct correlation between the level of physical fitness and life quality is confirmed.
Environmental Policy and Firm Investment Behaviour when Energy Saving Technologies are Available  [PDF]
Emanuela Giusi Gaeta
Technology and Investment (TI) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/ti.2010.13020
Abstract: This paper investigates upon the effects of taxation on firm investment behaviour in presence of alternative energy (oil) saving technologies and scarce resources in competitive markets. Socially optimal policies are compared to a decentralized regulatory framework: the paper shows that taxation affects the adoption of different energy saving technologies hence the aggregate amount of energy saving. To our knowledge, there are few works that underline the relationship between environmental policies and firms’ incentives to adopt oil saving technologies. For this reason, we follow the theoretical literature focusing on the effects of environmental policy applied to pollution and climate change by adapting it to the energy saving perspective. We perform a static comparison of environmental policies to show that different levels of the same instrument lead to different results in terms of the number of firms adopting energy saving technologies; multiple equilibrium are possible but there is only one which is socially optimal.
Environmental Policies and Firm Behavior with Endogenous Investment in R & D  [PDF]
Emanuela Giusi Gaeta
Technology and Investment (TI) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/ti.2010.12009
Abstract: This paper investigates upon the optimal amount of oil usage in an economy characterized by competitive firms and by a monopolistic innovator. It is close in spirit to Denicolo 1999 and Parry 2003. There are two alternative oil saving technologies: the conventional one is promptly available to firms while the advanced one, providing more efficiency in oil saving, must be paid to the monopolistic innovator. By assuming that innovation follows a Poisson process, whose arrival rate depends on the amount of resources invested in R & D, we show that central authority provides higher level of social welfare than market instruments.
Avalia??o da polui??o sonora no parque Jardim Botanico de Curitiba, Paraná, Brasil
Zannin, Paulo Henrique Trombetta;Szeremetta, Bani;
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X2003000200037
Abstract: this study focuses on noise pollution in the botanical garden in curitiba, paraná, brazil. equivalent noise levels (leq) were measured at 21 points throughout the park, and interviews were conducted with park visitors. some 47.6% of the measurement sites presented leq levels over 65db(a), considered by preventive medicine as the maximum tolerable exposure level without risk of health impairment,, and 90.5% of the sites failed to comply with municipal ordinance 8,583, setting 55db(a) as the maximum noise emission level for green areas. the results of interviews with visitors showed that 78% visit the park at least twice a week and that 96% come for physical activity. during their activities in the botanical garden, 24% of interviewees identified noise pollution as a source of annoyance, as compared to 22% who complained of insufficient park security.
Avalia o da polui o sonora no parque Jardim Botanico de Curitiba, Paraná, Brasil
Zannin Paulo Henrique Trombetta,Szeremetta Bani
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 2003,
Abstract: Foi realizado um estudo da polui o sonora no parque Jardim Botanico de Curitiba. Efetuaram-se medi es do nível sonoro equivalente Leq em dB(A), em 21 pontos espalhados dentro da área do parque, além de entrevistas com os freqüentadores do local. Constatou-se que 47,6% dos pontos de medi o apresentaram níveis sonoros acima de Leq = 65dB(A), considerado pela medicina preventiva como o nível máximo a que um cidad o pode se expor sem riscos à saúde, e 90,5% dos pontos avaliados n o satisfizeram à Lei Municipal no 8.583, que fixa o limite de 55dB(A) como nível máximo de emiss es sonoras em áreas verdes. O resultado do questionário aplicado na forma de entrevistas aos freqüentadores do parque mostrou que 78% dos entrevistados costumam visitar o parque pelo menos duas vezes na semana e que 96% buscam a realiza o de uma atividade física. Durante a prática de suas atividades no parque, 24% dos entrevistados apontam a polui o sonora e 22% a seguran a no local como fatores de perturba o.
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