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Background and Objectives:
In clinical practice, spirometry plays a key role in the diagnosis of chronic
obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), however, it provides no information about
structural pulmonary abnormality. The aim of this study
was to evaluate whether there is a relation between the clinical criteria and chest
radiography or CT studies in differentiating chronic bronchitis from emphysema
in COPD. Patients and methods: In a prospective study, data analysis on 165 COPD
subjects who were enrolled between September, 2011 and December 2012 was completed.
Data were collected including clinical characteristics of stable COPD, pulmonary
function tests, chest X-ray and multidetector computerized tomography (MDCT) findings.
Results: Emphysema was diagnosed in 90 (55%)
of 165 CT scans. The median emphysema score was 58 (range 48 - 72) and significantly
correlated with lower FEV1 values (r = 0.542, p = 0.003). In chronic bronchitis, bronchial wall thickening
was diagnosed approximately as often in chest radiography (56%) as in CT (64%) as
a major finding. Body mass index (BMI), forced expiratory volume in the first second
(FEV1), and diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide
(DL,CO) were significantly
lower, whereas total lung capacity (TLC) was higher in patients with emphysema.
Cardiovascular diseases and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) were more
common in chronic bronchitis group. Conclusions: Chest radiography is a valuable,
inexpensive means of diagnosing emphysema or bronchial wall thickening in chronic
bronchitis. Emphysematous patients show a worse pulmonary function and a greater
dyspnea. Greater comorbidity in chronic bronchitis may require specific treatment
strategies in this subgroup.
involving industrial radiography are the most frequent cause of severe or fatal
overexposure to workers and the public. On May 5, 2000, a radiation accident happened at a
construction site in a gamma radiography practice at the village of Meet
Halfa-Egypt. The accident was a severe overdose of non-radiation workers due to
external exposure of Ir-192. This paper provides a methodology for calculating
doses and dose rates from the most commonly used industrial γ-sources: 192Ir, 60Co, 134Cs, 137Cs and 131I. For this purpose, MCNP computer code based on Monte Carlo
technique is used. The applied method helps firstly in studying and analyzing
the doses from the above mentioned sources. Secondly, it provides a lead
container design in a trial to reduce the dose rate within the permissible.
Computer models were used to simulate the 192Ir Meet Halfa accident.
To verify these models, the calculated doses were compared with a well-known empirical formula to convert source
activity into dose rate and then the models were applied at different distances
to analyze the factors that affect the deposited dose in the human body to find
out the dose received by the victims.
The following article has been retracted due to
the investigation of complaints received against it. The Editorial Board found
that substantial portions of the text came from other published papers. The scientific
community takes a very strong view on this matter, and the OJAnes treats all
unethical behavior such as plagiarism seriously. This paper published in Vol.3
No. 8, 367-373（pages）, 2013, has
been removed from this site.