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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 8540 matches for " Else-Marie Bladbjerg "
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Plasma concentrations of extracellular matrix protein fibulin-1 are related to cardiovascular risk markers in chronic kidney disease and diabetes
Alexandra Scholze, Else-Marie Bladbjerg, Johannes J Sidelmann, Axel CP Diederichsen, Hans Mickley, Mads Nybo, W Scott Argraves, Peter Marckmann, Lars M Rasmussen
Cardiovascular Diabetology , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2840-12-6
Abstract: Plasma fibulin-1 was determined in subjects with chronic kidney disease (n?=?32; median age 62.5, inter-quartile range 51 – 73 years) and 60 age-matched control subjects. Among kidney disease patients serological biomarkers related to cardiovascular disease (fibrinogen, interleukin 6, C-reactive protein) were measured. Arterial applanation tonometry was used to determine central hemodynamic and arterial stiffness indices.We observed a positive correlation of fibulin-1 levels with age (r?=?0.38; p?=?0.033), glycated hemoglobin (r?=?0.80; p?=?0.003), creatinine (r?=?0.35; p?=?0.045), and fibrinogen (r?=?0.39; p?=?0.027). Glomerular filtration rate and fibulin-1 were inversely correlated (r?=??0.57; p?=?0.022). There was a positive correlation between fibulin-1 and central pulse pressure (r?=?0.44; p?=?0.011) and central augmentation pressure (r?=?0.55; p?=?0.001). In a multivariable regression model, diabetes, creatinine, fibrinogen and central augmentation pressure were independent predictors of plasma fibulin-1.Increased plasma fibulin-1 levels were associated with diabetes and impaired kidney function. Furthermore, fibulin-1 levels were associated with hemodynamic cardiovascular risk markers. Fibulin-1 is a candidate in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease observed in chronic kidney disease and diabetes.The extracellular matrix protein fibulin-1 is emerging as a new factor in cardiovascular disease. The plasma concentration of fibulin-1 is a predictor of all cause and cardiovascular mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus [1].Fibulin-1 belongs to a family of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins with functional associations with elastic fibers and basement membranes. Fibulin-1 interacts with a number of ECM molecules, but whether it serves a structural role has not yet been established [2]. Fibulin-1 is expressed in embryonic and adult vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) [3,4]. In adult blood vessels fibulin-1 is deposited in the medial layers surrounding
Sexual Dysfunction and Hyperprolactinemia in Male Psychotic Inpatients: A Cross-Sectional Study
Erik Johnsen,Rune Kroken,Else-Marie L?berg,Eirik Kjelby,Hugo A. J?rgensen
Advances in Urology , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/686924
Abstract: Introduction. Sexual dysfunction (SD) and hyperprolactinemia are frequently reported in patients with psychotic disorders and have the potential for severe complications but investigations in males are particularly scarce. The primary aims were to determine the prevalence of SD and hyperprolactinemia in male patients and to investigate whether associations exist between SD and prolactin levels. Methods. Cross-sectional data were obtained at discharge from the hospital or 6 weeks after admittance for patients acutely admitted for psychosis and treated with a second-generation antipsychotic drug. Results. Half the patients reported diminished sexual desire and more than a third reported erectile and ejaculatory dysfunctions with no differences among the drugs. More than half the sample was hyperprolactinemic. No association was found between prolactin levels and SD. Conclusion. High rates of SD and hyperprolactinemia were found in male patients and should be a treatment target. SD and hyperprolactinemia were not correlated. 1. Introduction Active psychosis affects most aspects of normal functioning and has been ranked the third most disabling disorder in the general population, and more disabling than paraplegia, blindness, or HIV infection [1]. The life-time prevalence of any psychotic disorder is about 3 in 100 persons [2]. In a substantial proportion of cases, the disorders are chronic and life long. The presence of psychosis will in most instances indicate the use of antipsychotic drugs. Both the nature of the disorders and antipsychotic drug treatment can profoundly affect sexual functioning. Main tolerability issues related to antipsychotic drug use have traditionally been the extrapyramidal syndrome (EPS) associated with the first-generation (typical) antipsychotics, and metabolic adverse effects associated mainly with the second-generation (atypical) agents [3, 4]. Sexual dysfunction (SD) has received far less attention, although these side effects have been reported among the most discomforting ones by patients with schizophrenia [5, 6]. SD is important also as it has negative impact on medication adherence. Antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia is commonly regarded as a frequent cause of SD. As demonstrated in a review by Byerly et al. [7], the findings of different studies are conflicting, however, with regards to associations between hyperprolactinemia and sexual side effects. While differential propensities among second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) in causing hyperprolactinemia are well documented [8], differences among the SGAs in
Anti-depressive effectiveness of olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone and ziprasidone: a pragmatic, randomized trial
Eirik Kjelby, Hugo A J?rgensen, Rune A Kroken, Else-Marie L?berg, Erik Johnsen
BMC Psychiatry , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-244x-11-145
Abstract: Adult patients acutely admitted to an emergency ward for psychosis were randomized to olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone or ziprasidone and followed for up to 2 years. Participants were assessed repeatedly using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale - Depression factor (PANSS-D) and the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS).A total of 226 patients were included. A significant time-effect showing a steady decline in depressive symptoms in all medication groups was demonstrated. There were no substantial differences among the SGAs in reducing the PANSS-D score or the CDSS sum score. Separate analyses of groups with CDSS sum scores > 6 or ≤6, respectively, reflecting degree of depressive morbidity, revealed essentially identical results to the primary analyses. There was a high correlation between the PANSS-D and the CDSS sum score (r = 0.77; p < 0.01).There was no substantial difference in anti-depressive effectiveness among olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone or ziprasidone in this clinically relevant sample of patients acutely admitted to hospital for symptoms of psychosis. Based on our findings we can make no recommendations concerning choice of any particular SGA for targeting symptoms of depression in a patient acutely admitted with psychosis.ClinicalTrials.gov ID; URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ webcite: NCT00932529Depressive symptoms are common in psychotic disorders, illustrated by point prevalence figures in patients with schizophrenia between 7-75% [1,2]. These figures vary due to different sub-populations and different definitions of depression. The modal rate has been estimated at 25% [2]. The identification of depression in this patient group is challenging for several reasons, including the overlap between depressive symptoms and the negative symptoms of psychosis and depressive features being common in the prodromal phase of schizophrenia [1]. Nevertheless, depression should be diagnosed and properly treated as it is associated with
QTc Prolongation in Patients Acutely Admitted to Hospital for Psychosis and Treated with Second Generation Antipsychotics
Erik Johnsen,Kristina Aanesen,Sanjeevan Sriskandarajah,Rune A. Kroken,Else-Marie L?berg,Hugo A. J?rgensen
Schizophrenia Research and Treatment , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/375020
Abstract: QTc interval prolongation is a side effect of several antipsychotic drugs, with associated risks of torsade de pointes arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. There is an ongoing debate of whether or not electrocardiogram (ECG) assessments should be mandatory in patients starting antipsychotic drugs. To investigate QTc prolongation in a clinically relevant patient group 171 adult patients acutely admitted to an emergency ward for psychosis were consecutively recruited. ECGs were recorded at baseline and then at discharge or after 6 weeks at the latest (discharge/6 weeks), thus reflecting the acute phase treatment period. The mean QTc interval was 421.1 (30.4)?ms at baseline and there was a positive association between the QTc interval and the agitation score whereas the QTc interval was inversely associated with the serum calcium level. A total of 11.6% had abnormally prolonged QTc intervals and another 14.3% had borderline prolongation. At discharge/6 weeks, the corresponding proportions were reduced to 4.2% and 5.3%, respectively. The reduction of the proportion with prolonged QTc intervals reached statistical significance (chi-square exact test: ). The finding of about one-quarter of the patients with borderline or prolonged QTc intervals could indicate mandatory ECG recordings in this population. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT00932529. 1. Introduction Prolongation of the heart rate-corrected QT (QTc) interval of the electrocardiogram (ECG) is a major concern because of the associated risk of torsade de pointes (TdP) arrythmias and sudden cardiac death [1]. QTc intervals longer than 500 milliseconds (ms) or increases of more than 60?ms of the QTc interval are established thresholds for clear concern of arrhythmia but increased risk is found also at lower levels of QTc prolongation [2]. The QT interval represents the onset of electrical depolarisation of the ventricles to the end of repolarisation of the heart [1, 2] and is influenced by both physiological and pathological factors including emotional stress, gender, obesity, food consumption, and electrolyte disturbances, as well as diseases of the heart muscle and coronary artery disease [2–4]. Moreover, several drugs including psychotropics can induce prolongation of the QTc interval principally by blocking the rapidly activating potassium current [2, 5, 6]. Antipsychotic drugs are associated with dose related QTc prolongation, and some agents have been intermittently or permanently withdrawn from the market for this reason [2, 5, 7]. Treatment recommendations for
Corrigendum: Patients with schizophrenia fail to up-regulate task-positive and down-regulate task-negative brain networks: an fMRI study using an ICA analysis approach
Merethe Nyg?rd,Tom Eichele,Else-Marie L?berg,Erik Johnsen,Rune A. Kroken,Kenneth Hugdahl
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fnhum.2013.00231
Abstract:
Patients with Schizophrenia Fail to Up-Regulate Task-Positive and Down-Regulate Task-Negative Brain Networks: An fMRI Study Using an ICA Analysis Approach
Merethe Nyg?rd,Tom Eichele,Else-Marie L?berg,Hugo A. J?rgensen,Erik Johnsen,Kenneth Hugdahl
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience , 2012, DOI: 10.3389/fnhum.2012.00149
Abstract: Recent research suggests that the cerebral correlates of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia are nested in the activity of widespread, inter-regional networks rather than being restricted to any specific brain location. One of the networks that have received focus lately is the default mode network. Parts of this network have been reported as hyper-activated in schizophrenia patients (SZ) during rest and during task performance compared to healthy controls (HC), although other parts have been found to be hypo-activated. In contrast to this network, task-positive networks have been reported as hypo-activated compared in SZ during task performance. However, the results are mixed, with, e.g., the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex showing both hyper- and hypo-activation in SZ. In this study we were interested in signal increase and decrease differences between a group of SZ and HC in cortical networks, assuming that the regulatory dynamics of alternating task-positive and task-negative neuronal processes are aberrant in SZ. We compared 31 SZ to age- and gender-matched HC, and used fMRI and independent component analysis (ICA) in order to identify relevant networks. We selected the independent components (ICs) with the largest signal intensity increases (STG, insula, supplementary motor cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and MTG) and decreases (fusiform gyri, occipital lobe, PFC, cingulate, precuneus, and angular gyrus) in response to a dichotic auditory cognitive task. These ICs were then tested for group differences. Our findings showed deficient up-regulation of the executive network and a corresponding deficit in the down-regulation of the anterior default mode, or effort network during task performance in SZ when compared with HC. These findings may indicate a deficit in the dynamics of alternating task-dependent and task-independent neuronal processes in SZ. The results may cast new light on the mechanisms underlying cognitive deficits in schizophrenia, and may be of relevance for diagnostics and new treatments.
An fMRI Study of Neuronal Activation in Schizophrenia Patients with and without Previous Cannabis Use
Else-Marie L?berg,Merethe Nyg?rd,Erik Johnsen,Rune A. Kroken,Hugo A. J?rgensen,Kenneth Hugdahl
Frontiers in Psychiatry , 2012, DOI: 10.3389/fpsyt.2012.00094
Abstract: Previous studies have mostly shown positive effects of cannabis use on cognition in patients with schizophrenia, which could reflect lower neurocognitive vulnerability. There are however no studies comparing whether such cognitive differences have neuronal correlates. Thus, the aim of the present study was to compare whether patients with previous cannabis use differ in brain activation from patients who has never used cannabis. The patients groups were compared on the ability to up-regulate an effort mode network during a cognitive task and down-regulate activation in the same network during a task-absent condition. Task-present and task-absent brain activation was measured by functional magnetic resonance neuroimaging (fMRI). Twenty-six patients with a DSM-IV and ICD-10 diagnosis of schizophrenia were grouped into a previous cannabis user group and a no-cannabis group. An auditory dichotic listening task with instructions of attention focus on either the right or left ear stimulus was used to tap verbal processing, attention, and cognitive control, calculated as an aggregate score. When comparing the two groups, there were remaining activations in the task-present condition for the cannabis group, not seen in the no-cannabis group, while there was remaining activation in the task-absent condition for the no-cannabis group, not seen in the cannabis group. Thus, the patients with previous cannabis use showed increased activation in an effort mode network and decreased activation in the default mode network as compared to the no-cannabis group. It is concluded that the present study show some differences in brain activation to a cognitively challenging task between previous cannabis and no-cannabis schizophrenia patients.
Amphetamine-induced psychosis - a separate diagnostic entity or primary psychosis triggered in the vulnerable?
J?rgen G Bramness, ?ystein Gundersen, Joar Guterstam, Eline Rognli, Maija Konstenius, Else-Marie L?berg, Sigrid Medhus, Lars Tanum, Johan Franck
BMC Psychiatry , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-244x-12-221
Abstract: The complex relationship between amphetamine use and psychosis has received much attention but is still not adequately explored. Our paper reviews the literature in this field and proposes a stress-vulnerability model for understanding the relationship between amphetamine use and psychosis.Amphetamine and methamphetamine (hereafter amphetamines) can prolong wakefulness, increase focus and feelings of energy as well as decrease fatigue. They can produce euphoria, induce anorexia, and be used to treat narcolepsy and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Adverse effects include anxiety, aggression, paranoia, hyperactivity, reduced appetite, tachycardia, increased breathing rate, dilated pupils, increased blood pressure, headache, insomnia, palpitations, arrhythmia and others [1].Amphetamines inhibit dopamine reuptake by interacting with the dopamine transporter (DAT), thereby increasing the concentration of dopamine in the synaptic cleft [2]. Amphetamines also interact with the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2), leading to increasing amounts of dopamine in the cytosol, a possible mechanism of action for the neurotoxicity of amphetamines. Neurotoxic effects are seen also in serotonergic and noradrenergic neurons.Amphetamines are highly addictive drugs. Both amphetamine and methamphetamine act directly on the mesolimbic dopaminergic “reward system” [3] by inducing release of dopamine, and to some extent norepinephrine, in the synaptic clefts of the Nucleus Accumbens (NAc) and other terminal areas provoking a euphoric state, but also addiction.Abuse of amphetamines is widespread in the general population [4-9]. It is also common among psychiatric patients [10,11], where a high percentage test positive for amphetamines [12].There is overwhelming evidence that patients with psychotic disorders have an increased vulnerability to compulsive use of drugs of abuse [13,14], including psycho stimulants like amphetamines [15]. This may be especially true for pat
Bokanmeldelse: Tekstil stetik – nytolkning af dansk kulturarv
Else Marie Halvorsen
FORMakademisk , 2010,
Abstract:
Fort llinger om forf relse og seksualmoral i 1800-tallets bondesamfund
Else Marie Kofod
Kulturstudier , 2010,
Abstract: Et samfunds gteskabsideal aff der nogle mere eller mindre uskrevne regler for, hvad der er tilladt og - m ske is r - hvad der ikke er tilladt med hensyn til udenoms gteskabelige forhold. Det var ogs tilf ldet i 1800-tallets bondesamfund, hvor det at indlede et seksuelt forhold til en anden person end den, man var forlovet eller gift med, ikke alene kunne v re en trussel for de enkelte par, men for hele landsbyf llesskabet. Seksuelle emner er ofte tabubelagte. I denne artikel vil jeg vise, hvordan bondesamfundets seksualmoral blev kommunikeret igennem s vel omgangsformer, ritualer og traditioner som igennem sagn om bjergfolk og ellefolk. Tales of seduction and sexual moralityin 19th-century rural society. The marital ideal of a society generates certain more or less unwritten rules forwhat is permissible and - perhaps especially - impermissible in terms of extramaritalrelations. This was also the case in the rural society of the 19th century,where engaging in a sexual relationship with someone other than the person to whom you were married or betrothed could be a threat not only to the individual couple but to the whole village community. Although the village community in 18th-century rural society underwent a number of changes in the course of the century, it was apparently still important to strengthen the authority of the community or at any rate to give the appearance that it existed. The community in the rural village meant not just something communal in general, but a particular way of performing certain communal actions, including - and perhaps especially - certain social conventions. More fundamentally,'community' therefore refers to the farmer-dominated village's culturally protected norm for what was right and wrong.Besides the norms that were communicated through the unwritten socialconventions, one could also express what was right and wrong through the stories that were told. In the tales it was also possible to engage with sexual themes.The tales that are most relevant in this study are legends of mountain spirits andelves, where human beings engage in some kind of interaction with the supernatural beings. There are a good 300 of these legends. Looking at the consequences such relations could have for the protagonists of the legends enables us to gain insight into how extramarital relations were regarded in rural society. In 19th-century rural society the norms of the village for sexual morality were thus communicated both through games and traditions and through the tales thatwere told of mountain spirits and elves. Both forms of expre
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