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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2589 matches for " Elliott Parker "
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The Effect of Federal Government Size on Long-Term Economic Growth in the United States, 1791-2009  [PDF]
Federico Guerrero, Elliott Parker
Modern Economy (ME) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/me.2012.38120
Abstract: We consider whether there is statistical evidence for a causal relationship between federal government expenditures and growth in real GDP in the United States, using available data going back to 1791. After studying the time-series properties of these variables for stationarity and cointegration, we investigate Granger causality in detail in the context of a Vector Error Correction Model. While we find causal evidence that faster GDP growth leads to faster growth in government spending, we find no evidence supporting the common assertion that a larger government sector leads to slower economic growth.
A Bioinformatics Approach for Determining Sample Identity from Different Lanes of High-Throughput Sequencing Data
Rachel L. Goldfeder, Stephen C. J. Parker, Subramanian S. Ajay, Hatice Ozel Abaan, Elliott H. Margulies
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0023683
Abstract: The ability to generate whole genome data is rapidly becoming commoditized. For example, a mammalian sized genome (~3Gb) can now be sequenced using approximately ten lanes on an Illumina HiSeq 2000. Since lanes from different runs are often combined, verifying that each lane in a genome's build is from the same sample is an important quality control. We sought to address this issue in a post hoc bioinformatic manner, instead of using upstream sample or “barcode” modifications. We rely on the inherent small differences between any two individuals to show that genotype concordance rates can be effectively used to test if any two lanes of HiSeq 2000 data are from the same sample. As proof of principle, we use recent data from three different human samples generated on this platform. We show that the distributions of concordance rates are non-overlapping when comparing lanes from the same sample versus lanes from different samples. Our method proves to be robust even when different numbers of reads are analyzed. Finally, we provide a straightforward method for determining the gender of any given sample. Our results suggest that examining the concordance of detected genotypes from lanes purported to be from the same sample is a relatively simple approach for confirming that combined lanes of data are of the same identity and quality.
Flaws, Fallacies and Facts: Reviewing the Early History of the Lipid and Diet/Heart Hypotheses  [PDF]
J. Elliott
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2014.519201
Abstract: The lipid hypothesis of coronary heart disease proposes that a high total cholesterol level has a causative role in coronary heart disease (CHD), specifically in the development of atherosclerosis. It forms the basis for formulating target levels of serum cholesterol and hence the widespread use of statins for lowering cholesterol. An extension of the lipid hypothesis is the diet/heart hypothesis of coronary heart disease. This theory combines two ideas—that saturated fat raises cholesterol levels, and that a reduced saturated fat intake will lower cholesterol levels, thereby inhibiting the development of atherosclerosis and manifestations of CHD. Those who make diet recommendations or prescribe medication to reduce cholesterol may be unaware of the underpinning science. The original research behind these recommendations has given us “healthy heart” guidelines and preventive measures we assume to be true. While the lipid and diet/heart hypotheses are often presented as fact, they remain inadequately proven theories that have little agreement from experts. Historical perspectives can help us understand the basis of current-day beliefs. In the lipid hypothesis case, research from the 1950s and 60s was instrumental in its formation. This early work should not be considered irrelevant, outdated or obsolete because current recommendations from national heart associations in many countries continue to be shaped by these studies. This paper examines evidence used to formulate the lipid hypothesis and, subsequently, the diet/ heart hypothesis. By critically evaluating steps in the formation of the theory, inconsistencies, mistakes and alternate explanations become apparent and cast doubt on its validity.
The assessment of atrial function by velocity-encoded magnetic resonance imaging  [PDF]
Charles C. Vu, John F. Heitner, Igor Klem, Peter J. Cawley, Anna Lisa C. Crowley, Manesh R. Patel, Jonathan W. Weinsaft, Michele A. Parker, Michael Elliott, Robert M. Judd, Raymond J. Kim, Joseph C. Greenfield Jr.
World Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases (WJCD) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/wjcd.2013.32A003

Introduction: The purpose of this study was to assess velocity-encoded cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (Ve-CMR) in a population of patients referred for cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR), to determine the variability of atrial function, and to identify clinical parameters associated with left atrial function. Methods: This is a prospective study evaluating patients who were referred to our CMR center for a clinical CMR. Left atrial function was obtained via Ve-CMR thru-plane images across the mitral valve after acquiring 2 perpendicular in-plane images as “scouts”. The atrial function and mitral inflow were quantified by computer analysis (Argus, Siemens). Atrial function was defined as atrial contraction (A-wave) volume divided by total inflow volume. Left atrial volumes were calculated via computer analysis. Mitral regurgitation and left ventricular ejection fractions were assessed visually. Results: Thirty-nine patients, with mean age 56 +/- 10 years, were enrolled. The mean left atrial function was 22.9% +/-14.5%; the range in left atrial function was 0% - 57%. There was a significant positive correlation between atrial function and increased left ventricular ejection fraction (r = 0.44, P < 0.01). There was a significant negative correlation between atrial function and severity of mitral regurgitation (r = -0.60, P < 0.01), as well as left atrial volume (r = -0.36, P = 0.02). Conclusion: Our results indicate a wide variability in left atrial function and a significant association between left atrial function and left ventricular ejection fraction, left atrial volume and mitral regurgitation.

Cancer Immunothearapy More than Vaccines “Psychoneuro-Immunooncology: Cancer, the Host, and the Surgeon”  [PDF]
Robert Lange Elliott
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2011.23055
Abstract: Cancer immunology is extremely complex with numerous interactions between the tumor and the host. It is time for those that treat cancer, especially surgeons, to learn more about these complex interactions. We need to know more about host immunity and immunosuppressive mechanisms which are not directly related to the disease, but caused by stress and therapy of the disease. The diagnosis of cancer initiates stress that can be very detrimental to the host immune system. Most cancer physicians (surgical, medical, and radiation oncologist) do not appreciate the impact on host cell mediated immunity (CMI) caused by cancer therapy, and definitely do not know how devastating, psychic stress is on host immunity. This communication is an attempt to bring awareness to this problem.
An Alternative Funding Model for Agribusiness Research in Canada  [PDF]
Adam Dale, Elliott Currie
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/as.2015.69093
Abstract: Canadian governments have moved towards a matching funding model for agricultural research. Agricultural organizations can take advantage of this if Canadian Controlled Private Corporations are established to fund research through matching grants, tax credits and investments. A low risk options strategy is presented which uses index options and is a diagonal put spread where an in-the-money put is bought which expires in 1 to 2 years and out-of-the-money puts are sold which expire monthly. In summary, “A small Canadian Controlled Private Corporation can, for a $100,000 up front initial investment, generate at least $100,000 annually in research funding, in perpetuity”.
When Does My Future Begin? Student Debt and Intragenerational Mobility  [PDF]
William Elliott, Emily Rauscher
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2018.82015
Abstract: Higher education financing policy largely assumes that college graduates enjoy equal opportunities for economic mobility regardless of how they finance their degrees. To examine this contention, this study uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 to compare the time it takes to move up the economic ladder for young adult college graduates who acquired student debt and those who did not. Findings reveal that those who acquired student debt take longer to reach the midpoint of the net worth distribution than those who did not acquire student debt. In fact, even after controlling for key demographic differences, acquiring $10,000 in student loans—only one-third of the average student debt load—is associated with an 18% decrease in the rate of achieving median net worth. Additionally, student debt may be associated with a slower rate of reaching median income; here, an additional $10,000 in student loans is associated with a 9% decrease in the rate of achieving median income, although graphical evidence suggests these differences do not emerge until about age 35. These findings reveal inequities in current education financing policy.
Business Strategy and Leadership Style: Impact on Organizational Performance in the Manufacturing Sector of Ghana  [PDF]
John Parker Yanney
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management (AJIBM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajibm.2014.412083
Abstract: This study sought to investigate the impact of leadership styles and business strategy on the organizational performance of small medium scale enterprises (SMEs) in the manufacturing sector of Ghana. This had become necessary due to the fact that available literature on the subject matter lacked precision in terms of the specific leadership style and strategy which could better be employed to improve performance in the chosen area of study. A field survey (by means of questionnaires) was conducted in Accra, involving 60 CEOs and senior managers drawn from 10 organizations, which were randomly sampled for the study. In addition, a time series data from 2008 to 2013 on sales, profits before tax and employment from the 10 organizations were collected to develop performance indices for the organizations. Regression and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were then run to examine the relationship between leadership, strategy and organizational performance. The study revealed that leadership and business strategy statistically and significantly impacted on organizational performance but strategy had greater influence. Again, transformational leadership style and cost leadership significantly influenced organizational behaviour (p = 0.000 < 0.01) but transactioanal leadership style, differentiation and focus strategies did not. The study recommends that SMEs should take advantage of transformational leadership style and cost leadership to enhance growth and induce greater organizational performance.
Valuation and Risk Assessment of a Portfolio of Variable Annuities: A Vector Autoregression Approach  [PDF]
Albina Orlando, Gary Parker
Journal of Mathematical Finance (JMF) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jmf.2018.82023
Abstract: This paper focuses on assessing the financial position of an insurer issuing a portfolio of Variable Annuities (VAs). Two multivariate models for the underlying and the interest rate are considered. The first model uses a single total rate of return for the basket of assets. The second one, jointly models the rates of return on the n assets in the basket. For simplicity, the insurer is assumed to be able to implement a static hedging programme to manage the risk. As an example, a homogeneous portfolio of VAs with GMDB and GMMB guarantees offering different investment opportunities to the policyholders is studied. The insurer can choose to rebalance the basket of assets regularly or not. Results for these two cases are presented.
Bryophyte mass to stem length ratio: A potential metric for eco-physiological response to land use  [PDF]
Jason A. Hubbart, Elliott Kellner
Open Journal of Ecology (OJE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/oje.2013.31001

Methods of analysis are needed that quantitatively characterize the response of organisms to anthropogenic disturbance. Herein a method is presented that characterizes bryophyte morphological variability in response to timber harvest treatments (clearcut and partial cut). Samples (n = 6196) of the semi-aquatic bryophyte Brachythecium frigidum were collected from clearcut, partial cut and full forest stream reaches between August 2003 and October 2005 and analyzed to obtain mass to stem length ratios (M:SL). Results show that relative to a full forest (i.e. full canopy cover condition), average M:SL ratios were reduced approximately 18% in the partial cut and 37% in the clearcut, indicating a decrease in biomass per unit stem length with increasing harvest intensities. Increased light intensities and higher air temperatures resulting from decreased canopy cover in the harvest treatments corresponded to lower M:SL ratios (0.31 and 0.24 for the partial cut and clearcut, respectively). Results quantify the morphological response of B. frigidum to habitat perturbation, thereby validating the method as a useful assessment of anthropogenic disturbance in post-timber harvest environments. Additional work should be conducted to test the method in other physiographic regions and to isolate bryophyte response to alterations of distinct environmental variables.

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