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Test-retest reliability of a new self reported comprehensive questionnaire measuring frequencies of different modes of adolescents commuting to school and their parents commuting to work - the ATN questionnaire
Elling Bere, Line A Bj?rkelund
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-6-68
Abstract: A total of 106 pupils and 77 parents completed a questionnaire two times, 14 days apart. The questionnaire consisted of frequency items on how often the participants walk, cycle, go by car and go by public transportation to school (pupils) or work (parents). The questionnaire was divided into seasons and to/from school or work in order to cover seasonal and topographic variations. The average number of trips for each mode of commuting was calculated. Then the sample was categorised into mode of commuting: walkers, cyclists, car commuters or public transport commuters.The average numbers of trips did not differ for any of the commuting modes comparing test to retest data for any of the seasons. Test-retest correlation coefficients were high for all modes of commuting (Spearman correlation coefficient were 0.85-0.92 for pupils and 0.82-0.95 for parents). Most participants categorised into mode of commuting were categorized into the same mode at both time points (97% and 95% for pupils and parents respectively).This newly developed questionnaire appears to be a reliable tool for measuring active commuting to school and work.Active commuting (e.g. walking or cycling) are behaviours that might benefit both population [1] and planetary [2] health. A meta-analytic review stated recently that active commuting (among adults) was associated with an 11% reduction in cardiovascular risk [3]. An ecological study assessing the association between active commuting and obesity in Europe, North America and Australia reported that the countries with the highest prevalence of active commuting also were the countries with the lowest prevalence of obesity [4], and a study from China reported that those who acquired a car between 1989 and 1997 gained 1.8 kg in body weight compared to those not acquiring a car in the same period [5].Cycling for transportation has been reported to be associated with lower risk of all-cause mortality [6,7]. Active commuting to worksite has also been reporte
Changes in accessibility and preferences predict children's future fruit and vegetable intake
Elling Bere, Knut-Inge Klepp
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-2-15
Abstract: Data presented are based on baseline (September 2001) and follow-up (May/June 2002) surveys of 20 control schools in the Norwegian intervention study Fruits and Vegetables Make the Marks. A total of 816 pupils (77%) completed both baseline and follow-up questionnaires. The average age of the sample at baseline was 11.8 years. The research instrument assessing potential predictor variables was guided by Social Cognitive Theory, and included Accessibility at home, Accessibility at school, Modelling, Intention, Preferences, Self-Efficacy and Awareness of the 5-a-day recommendations. Multiple regression analyses were performed.All independent variables (measured at baseline) were significantly correlated to future fruit and vegetable intake (measured at follow-up). When reported fruit and vegetable intake at baseline (past intake) was included in this model, the effect of the other independent variables diminished. Together with past intake, the observed change in the independent variables from baseline to follow-up explained 43% of the variance in the reported intake at follow-up. Past intake remained the strongest predictor, but changes in accessibility at home and at school, as well as changes in preferences for fruits and vegetables, also explained significant amounts of the variance in fruit and vegetable intake at follow-up. In addition, baseline accessibility was found to moderate the relationship between change in preferences and change in intake.Change in accessibility and preferences appear to be important predictors of future fruit and vegetable intake among school children. Interventions should focus on strategies to modify these factors.Most children eat fewer fruits and vegetables than recommended. To be able to design effective interventions, in order to increase fruit and vegetable consumption, it is critical to understand the aetiology of the behaviour. An intervention should aim at changing the strongest determinants of the behaviour, in order to be su
Changes in screen time activity in Norwegian children from 2001 to 2008: two cross sectional studies
Nina C ?verby, Knut-Inge Klepp, Elling Bere
BMC Public Health , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-13-80
Abstract: Within the project Fruits and Vegetables Make the Marks (FVMM), 1488 6th and 7th grade pupils from 27 Norwegian elementary schools completed a questionnaire including a question about time spent on television viewing and personal computer use in 2001 and 1339 pupils from the same schools completed the same questionnaire in 2008. Data were analyzed by multilevel linear mixed models.The proportions of 6th and 7th grade pupils at the 27 schools that reported screen time activity outside school of 2 hours/day or more decreased from 55% to 45% (p<0.001) from 2001 to 2008 when adjusting for sex, grade level and parental education. The decrease was most evident in 6th graders (51% to 37%) and in children with highly educated parents (54% to 39%).The present study shows that there has been a marked reduction in screen time activity outside school in this group of Norwegian 10–12 year olds from 2001 to 2008.Over the past 20 years there has been an expansion in screen-based communication and entertainment available to adolescents [1]. Following this, there has been an emerging concern about the negative health effects of screen time activity in children and adolescents. These effects include less time for physical activity [2], poorer academic performance [3], aggressive behaviour [4], higher energy-intake [5], more physical complaints [6], higher risk of overweight [7,8] and other metabolic risk factors [9]. In addition, a recent review concluded that sedentary behaviours track at moderate levels from childhood to adolescence [10]. The WHO Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health identified physical inactivity together with poor nutrition as major risk factors for some of the leading causes of mortality [11].A systematic review on correlates of screen-viewing show that screen-viewing is not equally distributed across social and demographic groups [12]. A Norwegian study found differences in screen time activity between the sexes [13], that screen time increase w
Micro-level economic factors and incentives in Children’s energy balance related behaviours - findings from the ENERGY European cross-section questionnaire survey
Jensen J?rgen,Bere Elling,De Bourdeaudhuij Ilse,Jan Natasa
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-9-136
Abstract: Background To date, most research on obesogenic environments facing school children has focused on physical and socio-cultural environments. The role of economic factors has been investigated to a much lesser extent. Our objective was to explore the association of micro-level economic factors and incentives with sports activities and intake of soft drinks and fruit juice in 10-12 year-old school children across Europe, and to explore price sensitivity in children’s soft drink consumption and correlates of this price sensitivity. Methods Data for the study originate from a cross-sectional survey undertaken in seven European countries (Belgium, Greece, Hungary, Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia and Spain) in 2010 among 10-12 year-old school children and their parents. In total, 7234 child questionnaires and 6002 parent questionnaires were completed. The child questionnaire included questions addressing self-reported weekly intake of soft drinks and fruit juices and time spent on sports activities, perception of parental support for sports activities, use of pocket money for soft drinks and perceived price responsiveness. Parent questionnaires included questions addressing the role of budget and price considerations in decisions regarding children’s sports activities, soft drink consumption, home practices and rules and socio-demographic background variables. Data were analysed using multiple linear regression and discrete-choice (ordered probit) modelling. Results Economic factors were found to be associated with children’s sports participation and sugary drink consumption, explaining 27% of the variation in time for sports activities, and 27% and 12% of the variation in the children’s soft drink and juice consumption, respectively. Parents’ financial support was found to be an important correlate (Beta =0.419) of children’s sports activities. Children’s pocket money was a strong correlate (Beta =21.034) of soft drink consumption. The majority of the responding children reported to expect that significantly higher prices of soft drinks would lead them to buy less soft drinks with their own pocket money, but a majority of parents did not expect higher soft drink prices to reduce their children’s soft drink consumption. Conclusions We conclude that economic factors, especially parents’ financial support and amount of pocket money, appear to be of importance for children’s sports participation and soft drink consumption, respectively.
Changes in 10-12 year old's fruit and vegetable intake in Norway from 2001 to 2008 in relation to gender and socioeconomic status - a comparison of two cross-sectional groups
Marit Hilsen, Maartje M van Stralen, Knut-Inge Klepp, Elling Bere
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-8-108
Abstract: The baseline survey of the Fruits and Vegetables Make the Marks project was conducted in 2001 at 38 randomly chosen schools in two Norwegian counties. A second survey was conducted at the same schools in 2008. A total of 27 schools participated in both surveys (2001 n = 1488, 2008 n = 1339). FV intake was measured by four food frequency questions (times/week) in a questionnaire which the pupils completed at school. SES was based on parents' reports of their own educational level in a separate questionnaire. The main analyses were multilevel linear regression analyses.A significant year*parental educational level interaction was observed (p = 0.01). FV intake decreased among pupils of parents with lower educational level (13.9 vs. 12.6 times/week in 2001 and 2008, respectively), but increased among pupils of parents with higher education (14.8 vs. 15.0 times/week, respectively). This increasing SES disparity in FV intake was partly mediated by an increasing SES disparity in accessibility and preferences over time, wherein children with higher educated parents had a steeper increase in accessibility and preferences over time than children with lower educated parents. The year*sex interaction was not significant (p = 0.54).This study shows an increase in SES disparities in 6th and 7th graders FV intake from 2001 to 2008, partly mediated by an increasing SES disparity in accessibility and preferences of FV.Research shows that a diet high in fruits and vegetables (FV) reduces the risk of developing several chronic diseases [1] and that food habits and preferences established during childhood and adolescents track well into adulthood [2,3]. Childhood is therefore a crucial time point to initiate lifelong healthy eating habits and thereby achieve a maximum preventive effect against diet related chronic diseases. However, data shows that less than 50% of Norwegian 8th graders consume the recommended intake of FV per day. Only 11% of the 8th graders consumed more than 500 gr
Free school fruit – sustained effect three years later
Elling Bere, Marit B Veier?d, ?ivind Skare, Knut-Inge Klepp
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-4-5
Abstract: A total of 1950 (85%) 6th and 7th grade pupils from 38 Norwegian elementary schools participated in the project. Nine schools were selected as intervention schools and participated for free in the Norwegian School Fruit programme for a school year (October 2001 until June 2002). A baseline questionnaire survey was conducted in September 2001, and follow-up surveys were conducted in May 2002 and May 2005. FV intake was assessed by a written 24-h recall (reporting FV intake at school and FV intake all day), and by four food frequency questions (reporting usual FV intake). Data were analysed by a linear mixed model for repeated measures.The pupils in the free fruit group increased their FV intake compared to pupils in the control group as a result of the intervention. Some of the effect was sustained three years later. The estimated long-term effects for FV all day were 0.38 and 0.44 portion/day for boys and girls, respectively.The results show long-term effects of a free school fruit programme.Norwegian children consume less fruit and vegetables (FV) [1] and more added sugar [1,2] and saturated fat [1], than recommended. A number of intervention studies have demonstrated that it is possible to increase children's FV intake, even though effects have been small and the long-term persistence of such changes are unknown [3]. The more effective studies have been comprehensive multi-component interventions targeting several determinants. However, very few studies have been able to evaluate the effect of the separate components, and little is known about what mediate the effect observed. Studies of single intervention components, targeting specific strong determinants of intake, are largely missing. Recently, an extensive review of determinants of children's and adolescents' fruit and vegetable intake identified availability and accessibility among the strongest determinants [4], a finding also supported by Norwegian studies [5,6]. Thus, an intervention increasing the access
Study protocol: fit for delivery - can a lifestyle intervention in pregnancy result in measurable health benefits for mothers and newborns? A randomized controlled trial
Linda Reme Sagedal, Nina C ?verby, Hilde Lohne-Seiler, Elling Bere, Monica K Torstveit, Tore Henriksen, Ingvild Vistad
BMC Public Health , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-13-132
Abstract: Fit for Delivery is a randomized controlled trial that will include 600 women expecting their first child. To be eligible, women must be 18 years of age or older, of less than 20 weeks gestational age, with a singleton pregnancy, and have a Body Mass Index (BMI) ≥ 19 kg/m2. The women will be randomly allocated to either an intervention group or a control group. The control group will receive standard prenatal care. The intervention group will, in addition, receive nutritional counseling by phone, access to twice-weekly exercise sessions, and information on healthy eating and physical activity provided in pamphlets, evening meetings and an interactive website. Both groups will be monitored by weighing (including bioimpedance measurements of percent body fat), blood tests, self-report questionnaires and hospital record review.Weight gained in pregnancy affects the health of both the mother and her unborn child, and simple models for efficient intervention are in high demand. The Fit for Delivery intervention provides concrete advice on limiting energy intake and practical training in increasing physical activity. This lifestyle intervention is simple, reproducible, and inexpensive. The design of the study reflects the realities of clinical practice, where patients are free to choose whether or not they respond to health initiatives. If we find measurable health benefits associated with the intervention, it may be an easily adopted supplement to routine prenatal care, in the prevention of obesity.ClinicalTrial.gov, NCT01001689The health consequences of overweight and obesity have resulted in an increased interest in maternal weight gain during pregnancy. Several authorities, including the World Health Organization, have concluded that preventive efforts among pregnant women are required to make a long-term effect on the obesity epidemic [1,2]. The American Institute of Medicine (IOM) first suggested guidelines for weight gain during pregnancy in 1990, based on a woman’
Determinants of fruit and vegetable consumption among children and adolescents: a review of the literature. Part I: quantitative studies
Mette Rasmussen, Rikke Kr?lner, Knut-Inge Klepp, Leslie Lytle, Johannes Brug, Elling Bere, Pernille Due
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-3-22
Abstract: Papers were identified from Medline and PsycINFO by using all combinations of the search terms: "fruit(s) or vegetable(s)" and "children or adolescents". Quantitative research examining determinants of fruit and/or vegetable intake among children and adolescents aged 6–18 years were included. The selection and review process was conducted according to a four-step protocol resulting in information on country, population, design, methodology, theoretical basis, instrument used for measuring intake, statistical analysis, included independent variables, and effect sizes.Ninety-eight papers were included. A large number of potential determinants have been studied among children and adolescents. However, for many presumed determinants convincing evidence is lacking, mostly because of paucity of studies. The determinants best supported by evidence are: age, gender, socio-economic position, preferences, parental intake, and home availability/accessibility. Girls and younger children tend to have a higher or more frequent intake than boys and older children. Socio-economic position, preferences, parental intake, and home availability/accessibility are all consistently positively associated with intake.The determinants most consistently supported by evidence are gender, age, socio-economic position, preferences, parental intake and home availability/accessibility. There is a need for internationally comparative, longitudinal, theory-based and multi-level studies taking both personal and environmental factors into account.This paper is published as part of the special Pro Children series in the International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity. Please see [http://www.ijbnp.org/content/3/1/26 webcite] for the relevant editorial.A large body of epidemiological evidence suggests that a high fruit and vegetable intake helps to promote health and to prevent chronic disease [1-4]. In most Western countries, large population groups, including children and adolescent
The assessment of nutrient loading and retention in the upper segment of the Chinyika River, Harare: Implications for eutrophication control
T Bere
Water SA , 2007,
Abstract: The nutrient loading and retention in the upper catchment of the Chinyika River were assessed during the period October 2004 to February 2005. The river flow variables and water samples were collected monthly at 8 sampling stations along the river. The samples were analysed for concentrations of total nitrogen and total phosphorus, that when multiplied with river flow discharge, translates into nutrient loads. The nutrient loads were high below the sewage outflow generally decreasing with increasing distance from that point because of nutrient retention. The nutrient loads were high during the wet months compared to the dry months suggesting that organic matter was washed away from diffuse sources in the catchment into the river. The nutrients from the sewage effluent discharge and other diffuse sources in the catchment were retained over a distance of about 4km from the point of sewage outflow. High natural nutrient retention capacity of rivers ensures that the problem of wastewater disposal and diffuse pollution does not lead to eutrophication of downstream lakes and reservoirs. Management of the nutrient retention capacity of rivers is, therefore, central to sound watershed management practices.
The Permittivity for Anisotropic Dielectrics with Permanent Polarization
Ioan Bere
PIER M , 2012, DOI: 10.2528/PIERM11121604
Abstract: A new permittivity is defined for anisotropic dielectrics with permanent polarization, which allows obtaining simple connections between the quantities of electric field. As an application, using the defined quantity, we will demonstrate advantageous forms of the refraction theorems of the two-dimensional electric field lines at the separation surface of two anisotropic dielectrics with permanent polarization, anisotropic by orthogonal directions.
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