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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2687 matches for " Ellen McDonald "
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Attenuated Expression of DFFB is a Hallmark of Oligodendrogliomas with 1p-Allelic Loss
J Matthew McDonald, Valerie Dunmire, Ellen Taylor, Raymond Sawaya, Janet Bruner, Gregory N Fuller, Kenneth Aldape, Wei Zhang
Molecular Cancer , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1476-4598-4-35
Abstract: Oligodendroglial tumors with allelic losses on 1p usually display loss of relatively long regions, a phenomenon that has made the identification of putative 1p tumor suppressor genes difficult [1-6]. However, the vast majority of reported oligodendroglioma cases with 1p-loss have involved the 1p36 region, with several breakpoints within the region observed [5-9]. It is important to note that several apoptotic genes have been mapped to 1p36. Diminished apoptosis has been recognized as one of the hallmarks of most types of cancer, representing one of the major ways known for a tumor-cell population to expand [10]. Therefore, we tested TP73, TNFRSF9, TNFRSF25, DFFA, and DFFB, all of which are 1p genes involved in apoptosis, for differential expression in 1p-status subsets of oligodendroglioma. QRTPCR analysis of match-paired samples demonstrated that levels of DFFB were decreased in all 1p-allelic loss cases. In contrast, the other tested genes showed heterogeneous patterns of expression. This result suggests DFFB to be a key molecule affected by 1p-deletion in oligodendroglioma.The records of 177 patients who underwent treatment for oligodendroglial tumors at the University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center (UTMDACC) between 1981 and 2002 were collected and reviewed. These patients were initially diagnosed as having low-grade oligodendroglioma or mixed oligoastrocytoma, anaplastic oligodendroglioma or mixed oligoastrocytoma, or glioblastoma multiforme with significant oligodendroglial component by neuropathologists from UTMDACC and later confirmed by two of the authors (KA and GF). Mixed tumors were included in this study since clear pathologic discrimination between glioma subtypes is sometimes difficult, and as a group, oligoastrocytomas often have 1p deletions [4]. In fact, both the oligodendroglial and astrocytic components of mixed tumors have been observed to have this genetic signature [4].Tissue for DNA isolation was obtained from paraffin-embedded samples.
The Modigliani-Miller Theorem with Financial Intermediation  [PDF]
John F. McDonald
Modern Economy (ME) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/me.2011.22022
Abstract: This paper shows that, if firms borrow at an interest rate that is greater than the rate at which they can lend, the value of a firm declines with the amount borrowed. The model assumes the possibility that a firm may go bankrupt, which introduces the need for financial intermediation. A modified version of the homemade lev-erage examples introduced by Modigliani and Miller [2] is used to introduce the concept. A state-preference model is used for a more formal proof.
A Model of Mixed Land Use in Urban Areas  [PDF]
John F. McDonald
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2012.21018
Abstract: The paper provides a model that explains mixed land use patterns in urban areas. The paper contains a proof of the ex-istence of competitive market equilibrium in a market for land in a small zone where more than one land use may be present. The model includes the possibility that external effects (both negative and positive) exist among the land uses. Brouwer’s fixed point theorem is used for the proof. Conditions are derived in which mixed land use is an equilibrium pattern in a monocentric city.
The Modigliani-Miller Theorem for Equity Participation  [PDF]
John F. McDonald
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2012.24066
Abstract: The paper shows that the use of an equity participation loan has no effect on the value of the firm, and that taxation of the borrowing firm and lender reduces firm value. The paper includes the assumption that firms borrow at an interest rate that is greater than the rate at which they can lend, so the value of the firm declines with the amount borrowed. Also, it is assumed that the firm may go bankrupt, which introduces the need for financial intermediation, as discussed by McDonald [1]. A state-preference model is employed.
Equity Participation without Equity: An Analysis of Hope Notes  [PDF]
John F. McDonald
Modern Economy (ME) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/me.2013.45038
Abstract:

The paper examines the case of splitting a defaulted mortgage loan on a commercial property into an A note that earns interest and a B note that earns a return only if the value of the property increases. The B note is known as a “hope note.” The paper shows that the current methods for structuring such a deal often produce a B note that is worthless. A state-preference model is employed.

Detecting myocardial infarction in critical illness using screening troponin measurements and ECG recordings
Wendy Lim, Paula Holinski, PJ Devereaux, Andrea Tkaczyk, Ellen McDonald, France Clarke, Ismael Qushmaq, Irene Terrenato, Holger Schunemann, Mark Crowther, Deborah Cook
Critical Care , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/cc6815
Abstract: We enrolled consecutive patients admitted to a general medical-surgical ICU over two months. All patients underwent systematic screening with cTn measurements and ECGs on ICU admission, then daily for the first week in ICU, alternate days for up to one month and weekly thereafter until ICU death or discharge, for a maximum of two months. Patients without these investigations ordered during routine clinical care underwent screening for study purposes but these results were unavailable to the ICU team. After the study, all ECGs were interpreted independently in duplicate for ischaemic changes meeting ESC/ACC criteria supporting a diagnosis of MI. Patients were classified as having MI (elevated cTn and ECG evidence supporting diagnosis of MI), elevated cTn only (no ECG evidence supporting diagnosis of MI), or no cTn elevation.One hundred and three patients were admitted to the ICU on 112 occasions. Overall, 37 patients (35.9 per cent) had an MI, 15 patients (14.6 per cent) had an elevated cTn only and 51 patients (49.5 per cent) had no cTn elevation. Patients with MI had longer duration of mechanical ventilation (p < 0.0001), longer ICU stay (p = 0.001), higher ICU mortality (p < 0.0001) and higher hospital mortality (p < 0.0001) compared with those with no cTn elevation. Patients with elevated cTn had higher hospital mortality (p = 0.001) than patients without cTn elevation. Elevated cTn was associated with increased hospital mortality (odds ratio 27.3, 95 per cent CI 1.7 – 449.4), after adjusting for APACHE II score, MI and advanced life support. The ICU team diagnosed 18 patients (17.5 per cent) as having MI on clinical grounds; four of these patients did not have MI by adjudication. Thus, screening detected an additional 23 MIs not diagnosed in practice, reflecting 62.2 per cent of MIs ultimately diagnosed. Patients with MI diagnosed by the ICU team had similar outcomes to patients with MI detected by screening alone.Systematic screening detected elevated cTn measu
Association of Multiple Sclerosis Susceptibility Variants and Early Attack Location in the CNS
Ellen M. Mowry, Robert F. Carey, Maria R. Blasco, Jean Pelletier, Pierre Duquette, Pablo Villoslada, Irina Malikova, Elaine Roger, R. Phillip Kinkel, Jamie McDonald, Peter Bacchetti, Emmanuelle Waubant
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0075565
Abstract: Objective The anatomic location of subsequent relapses in early multiple sclerosis (MS) appears to be predicted by the first attack location. We sought to determine if genetic polymorphisms associated with MS susceptibility are associated with attack location. Methods 17 genome-wide association study-identified MS susceptibility polymorphisms were genotyped in 503 white, non-Hispanic patients seen within a year of MS onset. Their association with the CNS location of the first two MS attacks was assessed in multivariate repeated measures analyses (generalized estimating equations with robust standard errors). Results The IL12A polymorphism was independently associated with increased odds of attacks involving the spinal cord (OR = 1.52, 95% CI 1.11, 2.07, p = 0.009), as was the IRF8 polymorphism (OR = 2.40, 95% CI [1.04, 5.50], p = 0.040). The IL7R polymorphism was associated with reduced odds of attacks involving the brainstem/cerebellum (OR = 0.46, 95% CI 0.22, 0.97, p = 0.041), as were the TNFRSF1A and IL12A polymorphisms. The CD6 polymorphism conferred reduced odds of optic neuritis as an attack location (OR = 0.69, 95% CI [0.49, 0.97], p = 0.034). Several other genes showed trends for association with attack location. Conclusions Some of the MS susceptibility genes may be associated with MS attack location. The IL12A polymorphism is of particular interest given that interferon beta therapy appears to influence IL12 levels. These findings may lead to improved understanding of MS pathogenesis and treatment.
Multiple Sclerosis Susceptibility Genes: Associations with Relapse Severity and Recovery
Ellen M. Mowry, Robert F. Carey, Maria R. Blasco, Jean Pelletier, Pierre Duquette, Pablo Villoslada, Irina Malikova, Elaine Roger, R. Phillip Kinkel, Jamie McDonald, Peter Bacchetti, Emmanuelle Waubant
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0075416
Abstract: Objective Patients with early multiple sclerosis (MS) have stereotyped attack severity and recovery. We sought to determine if polymorphisms in MS susceptibility genes are associated with these attack features or with the risk of a second attack. Methods 503 white subjects evaluated within a year of MS onset were included in the study. The severity of and recovery from the first two attacks were determined based on published definitions. Seventeen MS susceptibility genes were genotyped at the UCSF MS Genetics laboratory. Each polymorphism was evaluated in multivariate ordinal models, adjusted for the other polymorphisms, for its association with attack severity and recovery. We also assessed if these polymorphisms were associated with increased risk of a second attack. Results The MPHOSPH9 polymorphism was associated with greater attack severity (odds ratios [OR] = 1.47, 95% CI [1.11, 1.94], p = 0.008), while the RGS1 and TNFRSF1A polymorphisms tended to be associated with reduced attack severity. The CD6 polymorphism tended to be associated with increased odds of worse attack recovery (OR = 1.25, 95% CI [0.93, 1.68], p = 0.13). In those who were HLA-DRB1-negative, the EVI5 polymorphism was associated with attacks of less severity; in HLA-DRB1 positive patients, EVI5 was associated with attacks of greater severity and worse recovery. The IL7R, TNFRSF1A, and GPC5 polymorphisms tended to be associated with having a second event within a year. Conclusions Some MS susceptibility polymorphisms may be associated with attack severity, recovery, or frequency. Further characterization of these genes may lead to a better understanding of MS pathogenesis and to a more individualized treatment approach.
E-mentoring as a Critical E-learning Approach: The Impact of Social Presence on E-mentoring  [PDF]
Ellen A. Ensher
Communications and Network (CN) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/cn.2013.53B1001
Abstract: One important form of e-learning is e-mentoring. Virtual mentoring can occur within the context of formal organiza- tional programs or develop spontaneously between individuals online. While e-mentoring is burgeoning as a practice, theoretical research related to this important phenomenon has been limited. The purpose of this paper is to suggest that social presence theory presents a useful conceptual framework for understanding mentors’ willingness to participate in e-mentoring relationship and on their satisfaction. In sum, mentoring relationships that offer a blended approach with both high and low social presence forms of computer-mediated-communication (CMC) will be more satisfying to men- tors than those with low social presence CMC forms only. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
The Complexities of Resistance to Bevacizumab  [PDF]
Han Shen, Kerrie L. McDonald
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2012.35064
Abstract: Glioblastoma is a highly malignant primary tumor of the central nervous system tumor with a poor survival rate. The treatment of glioblastoma is shifting from a purely cytotoxic approach to one that incorporates anti-angiogenic agents. Bevacizumab (Avastin\"\"; Roche) was approved in the United States for the treatment of recurrent glioblastoma in May 2009 and showed encouraging results. However, “rebound” tumor progression with accelerated clinical decline has been observed after cessation of bevacizumab therapy in patients with high-grade gliomas and there is no effective treatment for the recurrent glioblastoma after bevacizumab failure. This review summarizes the characteristics of glioblastoma as well as the possible mechanisms of recurrence after anti-angiogenic therapy. Furthermore, alterations of the key molecular pathways and glycometabolic remodeling in glioblastoma are also discussed within. A better understanding of the complexities underpinning the resistance to bevacizumab and the combination of targeting cancer metabolism and anti-VEGF therapy may ultimately result in new modes of treatment, which hopefully improve the overall survival for patients diagnosed with glioblastoma.
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