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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 499010 matches for " Ellen M. H. Mitchell "
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Utilization of HIV and Tuberculosis Services by Health Care Workers in Uganda: Implications for Occupational Health Policies and Implementation
Esther Buregyeya, Fred Nuwaha, Rhoda K. Wanyenze, Ellen M. H. Mitchell, Bart Criel, Suzanne Verver, Simon Kasasa, Robert Colebunders
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0046069
Abstract: Background Access to HIV testing and subsequent care among health care workers (HCWs) form a critical component of TB infection control measures for HCWs. Challenges to and gaps in access to HIV services among HCWs may thus compromise TB infection control. This study assessed HCWs HIV and TB screening uptake and explored their preferences for provision of HIV and TB care. Methods A cross-sectional mixed-methods study involving 499 HCWs and 8 focus group discussions was conducted in Mukono and Wakiso districts in Uganda between October 2010 and February 2011. Results Overall, 5% of the HCWs reported a history of TB in the past five years. None reported routine screening for TB disease or infection, although 89% were willing to participate in a TB screening program, 77% at the workplace. By contrast, 95% had previously tested for HIV; 34% outside their workplace, and 27% self-tested. Nearly half (45%) would prefer to receive HIV care outside their workplace. Hypothetical willingness to disclose HIV positive status to supervisors was moderate (63%) compared to willingness to disclose to sexual partners (94%). Older workers were more willing to disclose to a supervisor (adjusted prevalence ratio [APR] = 1.51, CI = 1.16–1.95). Being female (APR = 0.78, CI = 0.68–0.91), and working in the private sector (APR = 0.81, CI = 0.65–1.00) were independent predictors of unwillingness to disclose a positive HIV status to a supervisor. HCWs preferred having integrated occupational services, versus stand-alone HIV care. Conclusions Discomfort with disclosure of HIV status to supervisors suggests that universal TB infection control measures that benefit all HCWs are more feasible than distinctions by HIVstatus, particularly for women, private sector, and younger HCWs. However, interventions to reduce stigma and ensuring confidentiality are also essential to ensure uptake of comprehensive HIV care including Isoniazid Preventive Therapy among HCWs.
Does Money Matter? Parental Income and Living Satisfaction among ‘Boomerang’ Children during Coresidence
Andrew V. Wister,Barbara A. Mitchell,Ellen M. Gee
Canadian Studies in Population , 1997,
Returning to the Parental ‘Nest’: Exploring a Changing Canadian Life Course
Ellen M. Gee,Barbara A. Mitchell,Andrew V. Wister
Canadian Studies in Population , 1995,
Home leaving trajectories in Canada: exploring cultural and gendered dimensions
Wister, Andrew V.,Mitchell, Barbara A.,Gee, Ellen M.
Canadian Studies in Population , 2003,
Abstract: English In this exploratory study, we profile variations in home leaving, homereturning,and home staying behaviour among four ethnocultural groups in Canada -British, Chinese, Indian, and South European. Data collected in a 1999-2000survey of 1,907 young adults (ages 19-35) residing in the Vancouver area areused. Our principal foci are ethnocultural and gendered aspects of home leavingtrajectories, specifically: ages at home leaving and returning, and reasons forhome leaving, home returning and home staying. Special attention is paid toreturners/boomerangers, given an increasing overall trend in home returning inCanada. We find that: (a) both ethnocultural origin and gender are importantdeterminants of home leaving trajectory, (b) there is a distinct (but far from tidy)difference between European-origin and Asian-origin groups in home leavingtrajectory, (c) British-Canadians leave home at the youngest ages and Indo-Canadians at the oldest ages, (d) the main reason for home leaving isindependence for British-Canadians; schooling for Chinese-Canadians, andmarriage for Indo-Canadians, (e) among all four groups, home returners leavehome initially at younger ages and, with the exception of Indo-Canadian youngmen, who typically leave home for school, and (f) gender differences in homeleaving trajectory are larger among the Chinese and Indo-Canadians than amongpersons of European origins. Overall, we conclude that the theorized trend of theindividualized family life course holds for only some ethnocultural groups inCanada. We conclude with suggestions for future research directions on thetopic of ethnicity and the home leaving life course transitions. French Dans cette étude préliminaire, nous donnons le profil de plusieurscomportements relatifs au fait de quitter la maison, d’y retourner et d’y rester dequatre groupes ethnoculturels au Canada, notamment les Britanniques, lesChinois, les Indiens et les ressortissants du sud de l’Europe. On s’est servi dedonnées recueillies lors d’un sondage effectué en 1999-2000 auprès de 1907jeunes adultes (agés de 19 à 35 ans) vivant dans la région de Vancouver. Nousétions particulièrement intéressés par les aspects ethnoculturels et ceux quitiennent compte du r le des hommes et des femmes dans les trajectoires qui lesmènent à quitter la maison, plus précisément à quel age ils la quittent et yreviennent, quelles sont les raisons qui les poussent à partir, à y revenir et à yrester. Une attention toute spéciale est accordée aux enfants boomerang (ceuxqui reviennent après avoir quitté la maison) vu que cette tendance se manifest
Exaggerated Intergroup Bias in Economical Decision Making Games: Differential Effects of Primary and Secondary Psychopathic Traits
Steven M. Gillespie, Ian J. Mitchell, Ian Johnson, Ellen Dawson, Anthony R. Beech
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0069565
Abstract: Psychopathic personality traits are linked with selfish and non-cooperative responses during economical decision making games. However, the possibility that these responses may vary when responding to members of the in-group and the out-group has not yet been explored. We aimed to examine the effects of primary (selfish, uncaring) and secondary (impulsive, irresponsible) psychopathic personality traits on the responses of non-offending participants to the in-group and the out-group (defined in terms of affiliation to a UK University) across a series of economical decision making games. We asked a total of 60 participants to act as the proposer in both the dictator game and the ultimatum game. We found that across both tasks, those who scored highly for secondary psychopathic traits showed an elevated intergroup bias, making more generous offers toward members of the in-group relative to the out-group. An exaggerated intergroup bias may therefore represent a motivational factor for the antisocial behavior of those with elevated secondary psychopathic traits.
Ellen C. Giese,Robert F. H. Dekker,Aneli M. Barbosa
BioResources , 2008,
Abstract: Orange bagasse comprising pulp tissues, rind, and seeds, constitutes a major industrial food waste arising from processing oranges for juice, and represents a fermentation feedstock for the production of enzymes. Botryosphaeria rhodina MAMB-05 grown on essential oils-extracted orange bagasse in submerged (SmF) and solid-state fermentation (SSF) with and without added nutrients produced pectinase and laccase. Highest enzyme titres (pectinase, 32 U ml-1; laccase, 46 U ml-1) occurred in SSF without added nutrients, indicating nutrient sufficiency of orange bagasse at a solids concentration of 16 % (w v-1) to sustain growth and high enzyme titres. Orange essential oil extract added to nutrient medium containing 1 % glucose in SmF strongly inhibited fungal growth with consequent lower laccase and pectinase activities. The results demonstrate the need to remove the essential oils fraction before citrus waste can be successfully used as a fermentation substrate for enzyme production.
Measuring disability and monitoring the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities: the work of the Washington Group on Disability Statistics
Madans Jennifer H,Loeb Mitchell E,Altman Barbara M
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-s4-s4
Abstract: The Washington Group on Disability Statistics is a voluntary working group made up of representatives of over 100 National Statistical Offices and international, non-governmental and disability organizations that was organized under the aegis of the United Nations Statistical Division. The purpose of the Washington Group is to deal with the challenge of disability definition and measurement in a way that is culturally neutral and reasonably standardized among the UN member states. The work, which began in 2001, took on added importance with the passage and ratification of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities since the Convention includes a provision for monitoring whether those with and without disabilities have equal opportunities to participate in society and this will require the identification of persons with disabilities in each nation. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) developed by the World Health Organization provided a framework for conceptualizing disability. Operationalizing an ICF-based approach to disability has required the development of new measurement tools for use in both censuses and surveys. To date, a short set of six disability-related questions suitable for use in national censuses has been developed and adopted by the Washington Group and incorporated by the United Nations in their Principles and Recommendations for Population and Housing Censuses. A series of extended sets of questions is currently under development and some of the sets have been tested in several countries. The assistance of many National and International organizations has allowed for cognitive and field testing of the disability questionnaires in multiple languages and locations. This paper will describe the work of the Washington Group and explicate the applicability of its approach and the questions developed for monitoring the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.
On Combining Data From Genome-Wide Association Studies to Discover Disease-Associated SNPs
Ruth M. Pfeiffer,Mitchell H. Gail,David Pee
Statistics , 2010, DOI: 10.1214/09-STS286
Abstract: Combining data from several case-control genome-wide association (GWA) studies can yield greater efficiency for detecting associations of disease with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) than separate analyses of the component studies. We compared several procedures to combine GWA study data both in terms of the power to detect a disease-associated SNP while controlling the genome-wide significance level, and in terms of the detection probability ($\mathit{DP}$). The $\mathit{DP}$ is the probability that a particular disease-associated SNP will be among the $T$ most promising SNPs selected on the basis of low $p$-values. We studied both fixed effects and random effects models in which associations varied across studies. In settings of practical relevance, meta-analytic approaches that focus on a single degree of freedom had higher power and $\mathit{DP}$ than global tests such as summing chi-square test-statistics across studies, Fisher's combination of $p$-values, and forming a combined list of the best SNPs from within each study.
Better Safe than Sorry - Socio-Spatial Group Structure Emerges from Individual Variation in Fleeing, Avoidance or Velocity in an Agent-Based Model
Ellen Evers, Han de Vries, Berry M. Spruijt, Elisabeth H. M. Sterck
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0026189
Abstract: In group-living animals, such as primates, the average spatial group structure often reflects the dominance hierarchy, with central dominants and peripheral subordinates. This central-peripheral group structure can arise by self-organization as a result of subordinates fleeing from dominants after losing a fight. However, in real primates, subordinates often avoid interactions with potentially aggressive group members, thereby preventing aggression and subsequent fleeing. Using agent-based modeling, we investigated which spatial and encounter structures emerge when subordinates also avoid known potential aggressors at a distance as compared with the model which only included fleeing after losing a fight (fleeing model). A central-peripheral group structure emerged in most conditions. When avoidance was employed at small or intermediate distances, centrality of dominants emerged similar to the fleeing model, but in a more pronounced way. This result was also found when fleeing after a fight was made independent of dominance rank, i.e. occurred randomly. Employing avoidance at larger distances yielded more spread out groups. This provides a possible explanation of larger group spread in more aggressive species. With avoidance at very large distances, spatially and socially distinct subgroups emerged. We also investigated how encounters were distributed amongst group members. In the fleeing model all individuals encountered all group members equally often, whereas in the avoidance model encounters occurred mostly among similar-ranking individuals. Finally, we also identified a very general and simple mechanism causing a central-peripheral group structure: when individuals merely differed in velocity, faster individuals automatically ended up at the periphery. In summary, a central-peripheral group pattern can easily emerge from individual variation in different movement properties in general, such as fleeing, avoidance or velocity. Moreover, avoidance behavior also affects the encounter structure and can lead to subgroup formation.
The EMO-Model: An Agent-Based Model of Primate Social Behavior Regulated by Two Emotional Dimensions, Anxiety-FEAR and Satisfaction-LIKE
Ellen Evers, Han de Vries, Berry M. Spruijt, Elisabeth H. M. Sterck
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0087955
Abstract: Agent-based models provide a promising tool to investigate the relationship between individuals’ behavior and emerging group-level patterns. An individual’s behavior may be regulated by its emotional state and its interaction history with specific individuals. Emotional bookkeeping is a candidate mechanism to keep track of received benefits from specific individuals without requiring high cognitive abilities. However, how this mechanism may work is difficult to study in real animals, due to the complexity of primate social life. To explore this theoretically, we introduce an agent-based model, dubbed EMO-model, in which we implemented emotional bookkeeping. In this model the social behaviors of primate-like individuals are regulated by emotional processes along two dimensions. An individual’s emotional state is described by an aversive and a pleasant dimension (anxiety and satisfaction) and by its activating quality (arousal). Social behaviors affect the individuals’ emotional state. To implement emotional bookkeeping, the receiver of grooming assigns an accumulated affiliative attitude (LIKE) to the groomer. Fixed partner-specific agonistic attitudes (FEAR) reflect the stable dominance relations between group members. While the emotional state affects an individual’s general probability of executing certain behaviors, LIKE and FEAR affect the individual’s partner-specific behavioral probabilities. In this way, emotional processes regulate both spontaneous behaviors and appropriate responses to received behaviors, while emotional bookkeeping via LIKE attitudes regulates the development and maintenance of affiliative relations. Using an array of empirical data, the model processes were substantiated and the emerging model patterns were partially validated. The EMO-model offers a framework to investigate the emotional bookkeeping hypothesis theoretically and pinpoints gaps that need to be investigated empirically.
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