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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 402594 matches for " Ellen M. Dotson "
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The epidemiologic importance of Triatoma brasiliensis as a Chagas disease vector in Brazil: a revision of domiciliary captures during 1993-1999
Costa Jane,Almeida Carlos Eduardo,Dotson Ellen M,Lins Ant?nia
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2003,
Abstract: To clarify the epidemiologic importance of Triatoma brasiliensis, the most important Chagas disease vector in the Northeastern of Brazil, capture data related to this species, its distribution, capture index, and percentages of natural infection by Trypanosoma cruzi were examined in 12 different Brazilian states. The Brazilian National Health Foundation collected these data from 1993 to 1999, a period during which a total of 1,591,280 triatomines (21 species) were captured in domiciles within the geographic range of T. brasiliensis. Of this total, 422,965 (26.6%) were T. brasiliensis, 99.8% of which were collected in six states, and 54% in only one state (Ceará). The percentage of bugs infected with T. cruzi varied significantly among states, ranging from 0% (Goiás, Maranh o, Sergipe, and Tocantins) to more than 3% (Alagoas, Minas Gerais, and Rio Grande do Norte) with an average of 1.3%. This latter value represents a dramatic reduction in the natural infection percentages since 1983 (6.7%) suggesting that, despite the impossibility of eradicating this native species, the control measures have significantly reduced the risk of transmission. However, the wide geographic distribution of T. brasiliensis, its high incidence observed in some states, and its variable percentages of natural infection by T. cruzi indicate the need for sustained entomological surveillance and continuous control measures against this vector.
The epidemiologic importance of Triatoma brasiliensis as a Chagas disease vector in Brazil: a revision of domiciliary captures during 1993-1999
Costa, Jane;Almeida, Carlos Eduardo;Dotson, Ellen M;Lins, Ant?nia;Vinhaes, Márcio;Silveira, Ant?nio Carlos;Beard, Charles Ben;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02762003000400002
Abstract: to clarify the epidemiologic importance of triatoma brasiliensis, the most important chagas disease vector in the northeastern of brazil, capture data related to this species, its distribution, capture index, and percentages of natural infection by trypanosoma cruzi were examined in 12 different brazilian states. the brazilian national health foundation collected these data from 1993 to 1999, a period during which a total of 1,591,280 triatomines (21 species) were captured in domiciles within the geographic range of t. brasiliensis. of this total, 422,965 (26.6%) were t. brasiliensis, 99.8% of which were collected in six states, and 54% in only one state (ceará). the percentage of bugs infected with t. cruzi varied significantly among states, ranging from 0% (goiás, maranh?o, sergipe, and tocantins) to more than 3% (alagoas, minas gerais, and rio grande do norte) with an average of 1.3%. this latter value represents a dramatic reduction in the natural infection percentages since 1983 (6.7%) suggesting that, despite the impossibility of eradicating this native species, the control measures have significantly reduced the risk of transmission. however, the wide geographic distribution of t. brasiliensis, its high incidence observed in some states, and its variable percentages of natural infection by t. cruzi indicate the need for sustained entomological surveillance and continuous control measures against this vector.
Temperature, Larval Diet, and Density Effects on Development Rate and Survival of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)
Jannelle Couret, Ellen Dotson, Mark Q. Benedict
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0087468
Abstract: Many environmental factors, biotic and abiotic interact to influence organismal development. Given the importance of Aedes aegypti as a vector of human pathogens including dengue and yellow fever, understanding the impact of environmental factors such as temperature, resource availability, and intraspecific competition during development is critical for population control purposes. Despite known associations between developmental traits and factors of diet and density, temperature has been considered the primary driver of development rate and survival. To determine the relative importance of these critical factors, wide gradients of conditions must be considered. We hypothesize that 1) diet and density, as well as temperature influence the variation in development rate and survival, 2) that these factors interact, and this interaction is also necessary to understand variation in developmental traits. Temperature, diet, density, and their two-way interactions are significant factors in explaining development rate variation of the larval stages of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. These factors as well as two and three-way interactions are significantly associated with the development rate from hatch to emergence. Temperature, but not diet or density, significantly impacted juvenile mortality. Development time was heteroskedastic with the highest variation occurring at the extremes of diet and density conditions. All three factors significantly impacted survival curves of experimental larvae that died during development. Complex interactions may contribute to variation in development rate. To better predict variation in development rate and survival in Ae. aegypti, factors of resource availability and intraspecific density must be considered in addition, but never to the exclusion of temperature.
Hidden Sylvatic Foci of the Main Vector of Chagas Disease Triatoma infestans: Threats to the Vector Elimination Campaign?
Leonardo A. Ceballos equal contributor,Romina V. Piccinali equal contributor,Paula L. Marcet equal contributor,Gonzalo M. Vazquez-Prokopec equal contributor,M. Victoria Cardinal equal contributor,Judith Schachter-Broide,Jean-Pierre Dujardin,Ellen M. Dotson,Uriel Kitron,Ricardo E. Gürtler
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001365
Abstract: Background Establishing the sources of reinfestation after residual insecticide spraying is crucial for vector elimination programs. Triatoma infestans, traditionally considered to be limited to domestic or peridomestic (abbreviated as D/PD) habitats throughout most of its range, is the target of an elimination program that has achieved limited success in the Gran Chaco region in South America. Methodology/Principal Findings During a two-year period we conducted semi-annual searches for triatomine bugs in every D/PD site and surrounding sylvatic habitats after full-coverage spraying of pyrethroid insecticides of all houses in a well-defined rural area in northwestern Argentina. We found six low-density sylvatic foci with 24 T. infestans in fallen or standing trees located 110–2,300 m from the nearest house or infested D/PD site detected after insecticide spraying, when house infestations were rare. Analysis of two mitochondrial gene fragments of 20 sylvatic specimens confirmed their species identity as T. infestans and showed that their composite haplotypes were the same as or closely related to D/PD haplotypes. Population studies with 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci and wing geometric morphometry consistently indicated the occurrence of unrestricted gene flow between local D/PD and sylvatic populations. Mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite sibship analyses in the most abundant sylvatic colony revealed descendents from five different females. Spatial analysis showed a significant association between two sylvatic foci and the nearest D/PD bug population found before insecticide spraying. Conclusions Our study shows that, despite of its high degree of domesticity, T. infestans has sylvatic colonies with normal chromatic characters (not melanic morphs) highly connected to D/PD conspecifics in the Argentinean Chaco. Sylvatic habitats may provide a transient or permanent refuge after control interventions, and function as sources for D/PD reinfestation. The occurrence of sylvatic foci of T. infestans in the Gran Chaco may pose additional threats to ongoing vector elimination efforts.
Phylogeographic Pattern and Extensive Mitochondrial DNA Divergence Disclose a Species Complex within the Chagas Disease Vector Triatoma dimidiata
Fernando A. Monteiro, Tatiana Peretolchina, Cristiano Lazoski, Kecia Harris, Ellen M. Dotson, Fernando Abad-Franch, Elsa Tamayo, Pamela M. Pennington, Carlota Monroy, Celia Cordon-Rosales, Paz Maria Salazar-Schettino, Andrés Gómez-Palacio, Mario J. Grijalva, Charles B. Beard, Paula L. Marcet
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0070974
Abstract: Background Triatoma dimidiata is among the main vectors of Chagas disease in Latin America. However, and despite important advances, there is no consensus about the taxonomic status of phenotypically divergent T. dimidiata populations, which in most recent papers are regarded as subspecies. Methodology and Findings A total of 126 cyt b sequences (621 bp long) were produced for specimens from across the species range. Forty-seven selected specimens representing the main cyt b clades observed (after a preliminary phylogenetic analysis) were also sequenced for an ND4 fragment (554 bp long) and concatenated with their respective cyt b sequences to produce a combined data set totalling 1175 bp/individual. Bayesian and Maximum-Likelihood phylogenetic analyses of both data sets (cyt b, and cyt b+ND4) disclosed four strongly divergent (all pairwise Kimura 2-parameter distances >0.08), monophyletic groups: Group I occurs from Southern Mexico through Central America into Colombia, with Ecuadorian specimens resembling Nicaraguan material; Group II includes samples from Western-Southwestern Mexico; Group III comprises specimens from the Yucatán peninsula; and Group IV consists of sylvatic samples from Belize. The closely-related, yet formally recognized species T. hegneri from the island of Cozumel falls within the divergence range of the T. dimidiata populations studied. Conclusions We propose that Groups I–IV, as well as T. hegneri, should be regarded as separate species. In the Petén of Guatemala, representatives of Groups I, II, and III occur in sympatry; the absence of haplotypes with intermediate genetic distances, as shown by multimodal mismatch distribution plots, clearly indicates that reproductive barriers actively promote within-group cohesion. Some sylvatic specimens from Belize belong to a different species – likely the basal lineage of the T. dimidiata complex, originated ~8.25 Mya. The evidence presented here strongly supports the proposition that T. dimidiata is a complex of five cryptic species (Groups I–IV plus T. hegneri) that play different roles as vectors of Chagas disease in the region.
Diminishing demandingness of parents; children with recurrent infections  [PDF]
Ellen van der Gaag, Miriam Münow
Health (Health) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/health.2012.48077
Abstract: Background and Method: Parenting and parenting styles are in favor of authoritative parents compared with non-authoritative parents. These parents display higher levels of both responsiveness and demandingness. We studied the aspect of demandingness using a questionnaire aimed at children aged between 1 and 4 years. 82 Children with recurrent respiratory infections (RRI) and 399 control children were included. Results: Parents of RRI children regulated the quantitative dietary intake of their child less; likewise they gave less stimulation to their children to eat. They also taught their children less on what they can or cannot touch and they argued more with their children (all p < 0.05). However, when it comes to simple rules like watching television or not, the parents of RRI children were very clear. There were however no differences in rules about television watching, computer time or bedtimes. Conclusions: Our study shows that parents of children with RRI are less demanding in complex pedagogic situations that ask for creativity from the parents. However, they are demanding with respect to simple rules. We found no child factors that could explain why children give their parents a hard time. We hypothesize that the parents of RRI children could be less capable of handling complex pedagogic situations (even more complicated by the infections) instead of being unwilling.
Hospitalization Can Correct Behavioral Feeding Disorders in Children by Resetting the Pedagogic Climate  [PDF]
Ellen van der Gaag, Miriam Münow
Open Journal of Pediatrics (OJPed) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojped.2014.42019
Abstract:

Background: Behavioral feeding disorders are common among children, which sometimes become progressive, and consequently, children may refuse to eat anything. Parents have lots of difficulties to reset such a disturbed eating pattern. The aim of this study was to perform an analysis of clinical intervention in behavioral feeding disorders in young children. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of data of 28 children aged 1 - 9 years with behavioral feeding disorders. A pediatrician and pediatric social worker conducted the training in two groups: outpatient or inpatient setting. Both groups were treated with parental education and guidance. The inpatient group also had a temporarily (2 weeks) resetting of the pedagogic climate in a pediatric ward of a general hospital under guidance of a pediatric social worker. Results: Almost all parents were inconsistent in applying appropriate behavioral contingencies during meals. Eleven patients followed 8 months of outpatient treatment and 25 patients followed 2 weeks of inpatient treatment. The overall success rate of outpatient treatment after 2 weeks was 18%, and that of inpatient treatment after 8 months was 88%. The corrected relapse rates are 18% and 56% respectively after 6 months. Conclusion: Short clinical intervention in a structured pedagogic environment is a successful treatment in behavioral feeding disorders. Herewith, pediatricians have a powerful tool for treating behavioral feeding disorders by temporarily resetting and changing the pedagogic climate.

O programa Saúde Da Família no enfrenyamento das desigualdades sociais
Peres,Ellen M;
Aquichán , 2007,
Abstract: the present article contributes to reflect and debate about the family health program (psf, for its name in spanish) in the social inequities struggle, framed into the unified health system (sus, for its name in spanish) of brazil . social inequities, a contemporary world phenomenon that brings about poverty, show in the health field their most cruel face represented by high maternal and infant mortality rates (tmm and tmi, respectively for their names in spanish). some of the investigaions' outcomes about the family health program are examined grounded on the perspective of boaventura de sousa santos and edgar morin -education and social epistemology scholars. they confirm that the program has contributed to lower inequities regarding basic healtn afternion in the sus, especially those related to the aforementioned rates.
Henrik Jagd, Dorthe Wendt og Ida Westh, red.: Undervisning i TV - idéer til undervisningsforl b
Ellen M?lles?e
MedieKultur : Journal of Media and Communication Research , 1989,
Abstract:
East Indians in the Caribbean
Ellen M. Schnepel
New West Indian Guide , 1999,
Abstract: [First paragraph] Transients to Settlers: The Experience of Indians in Jamaica 1845-J950. VERENE SHEPHERD. Leeds, U.K.: Peepal Tree Books, 1993. 281 pp. (Paper £12.95) Survivors of Another Crossing: A History of East Indians in Trinidad, 1880-1946. MARIANNE D. SOARES RAMESAR. St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago: U.W.I. School of Continuing Education, 1994. xiii + 190 pp. (Paper n.p.) Les Indes Antillaises: Presence et situation des communautes indiennes en milieu caribeen. ROGER TOUMSON (ed.). Paris: L'Harmattan, 1994. 264 pp. (Paper 140.00 FF) Nation and Migration: The Politics of Space in the South Asian Diaspora. PETER VAN DER VEER (ed.). Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1995. vi + 256 pp. (Cloth US$ 39.95, Paper US$ 17.95) In the decade since 1988, Caribbean nations with Indian communities have commemorated the 150th anniversary of the arrival of East Indians to the West Indies. These celebrations are part of local revitalization movements of Indian culture and identity stretching from the French departement of Guadeloupe in the Windward Islands to Trinidad and Guyana in the south. Political changes have mirrored the cultural revival in the region. While the debate so often in the past centered on the legitimacy of East Indian claims to local nationality in these societies where African or Creole cultures dominate, in the 1990s leaders of Indian descent were elected heads of government in the two Caribbean nations with the most populous East Indian communities: Cheddi Jagan as President of Guyana in October 1992 (after a 28-year hiatus) and Basdeo Panday as Prime Minister of Trinidad in November 1995. Both men have long been associated with their respective countries' struggles for economic, political, and social equality. Outside the region during the summer of 1997, fiftieth-anniversary celebrations marking the independence of India and Pakistan from Britain confirmed that Indo chic — or "Indofrenzy" as anthropologist Arjun Appadurai calls it (Sengupta 1997:13) - has captured the American imagination with the new popularity of literature, art, and film emanating from India and its diaspora.
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