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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 8698 matches for " Elizabeth Orock Ayuk "
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Hydrogeology of Abuja FCT-Nigeria: A GIS Evaluation  [PDF]
Richard Ayuk II Akoachere, Omogbemi Omoloju Yaya, Areakpoh Thomson Eyong, Elizabeth Orock Ayuk, Ebot Sonia Egbe
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105649
Groundwater has been recognized as playing a very important role in the development of Abuja FCT Nigeria’s capital, as many private and government establishments depend solely on wells for their water needs. Exploitation of groundwater is delicate due to its potency to contamination and difficulty to remediate aquifers. This study is to evaluate the input of the rock formations to the groundwater solute chemistry and groundwater domestic quality using hydrogeochemical tools and physicochemical parameters: pH, EC, Temperature, TDS, Chloro-alkaline indices, Ionic ratios, Gibbs diagrams, Piper diagrams, Durov diagrams and water quality index. From physicochemical parameters: pH ranged from, 4.8 - 7.9; EC, 13.4 - 1634 μS/cm; Temperature, 26℃ - 36.1℃ and TDS, 17.42 - 1094.78 mg/L. The major ions fell below WHO acceptable limits. The sequences of abundance of major ions were, K > Ca2 > Na > Mg2 for cations and Cl-> HCO3->NO3->SO42- for anions. Borehole depths range from 19.5 - 34.5 m with static water levels between 3 - 12 m.a.m.s.l. Yields were between 3.2 - 7.2 m3/Hr. Ionic ratios show ninety-five (95%) percent of the groundwater chemistry resulting from chemical weathering of rock-forming minerals through the dissolution of the host rock. The Chloro-alkaline indices: CAI1 87.23% are positive indicating exchange of Na and K from water with Mg and Ca of the rocks and 12.77% are negative, indicating reverse softening of groundwater in rocks by infiltrating rainwater while CAI2 85.11% are positive indicating exchange of Na and K from water with Mg and Ca of the rocks and 14.89% are negative, indicating reverse softening of groundwater in rocks by infiltrating rainwater. Thus chloro-alkaline indices indicate the dominance of alkaline earth elements over alkalis in majority of samples due to direct exchange of Ca2 and Mg2 from the aquifer matrix with Na and K from the groundwater. Gibbs diagram revealed groundwater ionic content was as a result of ion exchange from rock-weathering. Piper diagrams give three water types: 75% are CaHCO3, 21.20% are of MgHCO3 and 3.19% are of Na KHCO3 water types respectively. Piper diagrams also give three hydrogeochemical facies in Abuja FCT: 54.25% are of Ca-Mg-Cl-SO4, 42.56% are of Ca-Mg-HCO3 and 3.19% are of Na-K-Cl-SO4 hydrogeochemical facies respectively. Durov plot shows 20.21% are anion discriminate Ca dominant; mixed water and 63.83% had no dominant ion; simple dissolution. Water quality indices (WQI) values were between -220 - 180, Total hardness (TH) values were between 0 - 519.12. These WQI and TH values indicate that 69.2% and 47.37% of the groundwater respectively are suitable for domestic purpose. The groundwater in Abuja FCT is acidic to slightly alkaline in nature, soft to moderately hard and of low to high salinity. Major processes controlling the water quality are the weathering of the host rock through mineral dis-solution, cation exchange and inverse cation exchange processes. Ion-exchange, simple dissolution and uncommon dissolution processes determined groundwater character.
Agro-Industrial Groundwater Quality Abuja FCT, Nigeria: An Evaluation for Urban and Peri-Urban (UPA) Agricultural Irrigation  [PDF]
Richard Ayuk II Akoachere, Omogbemi Omoloju Yaya, Areakpoh Thomson Eyong, Marcelle-Carole Pami Ngassam, Ernest Lytia Molua, Raymond Ndip Nkongho, Elizabeth Orock Ayuk, Tom Tabi Oben
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105698
From the declaration made by the African Mayors in Senegal; the Mayors and Municipal Health Officers of the Americas in Columbia; the City Executives of Cities and Local Governments of the World in Spain and in the context of the Millennium Development Goals MDG 1&7; there is a need for increased food production in urban and peri-urban areas UPA in the world. Sub-Saharan Africa faces more development challenges than any other major region of the world with most of the people living in slums, without access to adequate food, water, or sanitation. UPA contributes to increased food security, nutrition and livelihoods in a combination of ways giving access to consumer markets; less need for packaging, storage and transportation of food; potential agricultural-related jobs and incomes; non-market access to food for poor consumers; availability of fresh, perishable food. In Abuja FCT, 40% of the populations in UPA are farmers, a reason why the agricultural quality of its groundwater which is used for irrigation begs for our attention. 33% of the fresh vegetables in the Abuja Federal Capital Territory (FCT) are produced in Abuja UPA. In order to assess groundwater for agro-industrial suitability the following were used: Physicochemical parameters (pH, Temperature, Electrical Conductivity), Sodium Adsorption Ratio SAR, Permeability Index PI, Magnesium Adsorption Ratio MAR, Percent Sodium %Na, Kelly’s Ratio KR and Residual Sodium Carbonate RSC and the Wilcox diagram. pH ranged from, 4.8 - 7.9; EC, 13.4 - 1634 μS/cm; Temperature, 26℃ - 36.1℃ and TDS, 17.42 - 1094.78 mg/L.SAR (0.1 > SAR < 2.1), Percent Sodium (7.11 > %Na < 100), KR (0 > KR < 0.68), RSC (-9.8 > RSC < 0.55), PI (13.9 > PI < 932.4), and MAR (0 > MAR < 80.1). Comparing these values to WHO and the Nigerian Water Quality guidelines, SAR, %Na, KR, RSC, values are 100% suitable, while PI, 96.81% suitable, and MAR 56.46% unsuitable respectively for irrigational purposes in agriculture. The quality classifications of irrigation water based on the values: Sodium Adsorption Ratio SAR, Wilcox, Kelley Ratio KR, Residual Sodium Carbonate RSC, Permeability Index PI and Percent Sodium %Na; indicate that groundwater of Abuja FCT is suitable for irrigation purpose on all soil types and that the groundwater will not degrade the soil. However, United States Soil Salinity USSL Index of Abuja FCT groundwater fall in “very low to high salinity” and “low sodium hazard zone” and Magnesium Adsorption Ratio MAR indicates half of the groundwater as “not suitable”. Hence the groundwater in Abuja FCT should be used only on soils that are well drained.
Growth Performance of West African Dwarf (WAD) Sheep Fed Biodegraded Enterolobium cyclocarpum Based Diets  [PDF]
A. A. Ayuk, E. A. Iyayi, B. I. Okon, J. O. Ayuk
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/as.2014.58074

The performance and economics of production of West African Dwarf (WAD) sheep was investigated in an experiment that lasted for 70 days. Twelve male sheep averaging 9.9 kg in liveweight and aged 7 - 9 months were randomly assigned to four treatment groups in a completely randomized design with three animals per treatment. Chemical composition of diets, intake, liveweight gain and cost implication of feeding WAD sheep with grass, a conventional concentrate, an autoclaved and biodegraded Enterolobium cyclocarpum based diet were determined. The crude protein content of Guinea grass (4.43%) was relatively low compared to that of biodegraded Enterolobium cyclocarpum (14.13%). Total consumption and liveweight change were not significantly different (P < 0.05). The growth rate of animals fed concentrates were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those on the grass diet. Cost per Kg of feed was the highest for control and least for guinea grass diet. However, cost per unit gain was

Mineral Concentrations and Rumen Degradability of Biodegraded Enterolobium cyclocarpum (Jacq) and Pterocarpus santalinoides (L’Her) with Aspergillus niger  [PDF]
A. A. Ayuk, B. I. Okon, E. A. Iyayi, J. O. Ayuk
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/as.2014.512118
Abstract: The effects of solid state fermentation on the mineral concentrations and in sacco degradation characteristics of dry matter in two multipurpose tree leaves was investigated. Biodegraded Enterolobium cyclocarpum (EC) and Pterocarpus santalinoides (PS) leaves were previously inoculated with Aspergillus niger and incubated at 30°C for five incubation periods (0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days). After each incubation period, samples were oven dried at 60°C, allowed to cool and ground for mineral analysis and in sacco dry matter degradability. Three fistulated West African Dwarf (WAD) rams (Ovis aries) were then used for the dry matter degradability. Five grams of each sample was emptied into nylon bag (Polymon, Switzeland) with pore size of 4 μ and effective size of 5 cm × 18 cm and incubated in the rumen of the fistulated animals for 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h. The results showed that the mineral contents of biodegraded EC samples were affected by incubation period. Mean values of Ca, Cu, K, Na, and Zn were significantly increased (0.05), while mean values of Fe, Mg, and Mn were first reduced before significantly increasing (0.05). However, the composition of P showed significant reduction (0.05) up to day 28 where no change was observed. Mineral concentrations in biodegraded PS were also affected by incubation periods. Values of Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, and Zn were significantly increased (0.05). However values of Cu, and Fe only increased after day 14, while the value of P was reduced significantly over the different incubation periods. Potential degradability (PD) for biodegraded EC was highest at day 0 (50.79%) but not significantly different from potential degradability of longer incubation periods to day 28 (48.68%). PS had higher PD than EC. In spite of high PD values, PS comparatively degraded faster than EC. Effective degradability (ED) for EC was highest for day28 (36.71%) and not significantly different from days 21 (34.83%) and 7 (35.29%) but significantly different from days 0 (31.32%) and 14 (31.75%) respectively. However, the ED for PS was highest for day 0 (31.39) samples and significantly differed from other incubation periods, further increase in period only showed lower but similar ED values for days 7 (27.52%), 14 (26.76%), 21 (27.42%) and 28 (26.86%) respectively. In this study, the continued reduction in P concentrations in both biodegraded EC and PS suggest that Aspergillus niger
Growth and Haematological Response of Broiler Chicks Fed Graded Levels of Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batata) Meal as Replacement for Maize
E.A. Ayuk,A. Essien
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2009,
Abstract: The study was conducted to find out the performance and haematological response of broiler birds fed different levels of sweet potato meal (SPM). The levels of sweet potato meal in the different treatment rations were 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50%, respectively. There was a curvilinear decline in growth rate (from 27.9 to 23.3 g/day) as the maize was replaced by sweet potato root meal with a pronounced reduction in performance overall of 17% when all the maize was replaced by sweet potato meal. All haematological parameters assessed only showed minor numerical (P>0.05) differences, falling within the ranges stated in literature. It is concluded that sweet potato root meal can replace maize meal in the diet of broilers over the weight range 50 to 1400 g, with only a slight reduction in growth rate (17% with complete substitution of maize), which may be compensated by the lower cost of the sweet potato meal. The substitution also did not have any deleterious effect on haematological and by extension, the health status of the birds.
By-Products as Protein Source for Lactating Grasscutters
G. S. I. Wogar,A. A. Ayuk
Journal of Agricultural Science , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/jas.v4n7p148
Abstract: The potential of grasscutters (Thryonomys swinderianus temminck) as a source of animal protein can be exploited with better understanding of its nutrient requirement. An experiment was conducted to determine the protein requirement of lactating grasscutters fed agro-industrial by-products namely; wheat offal and soybean meal. Sixteen 13 months old lactating grasscutters, in groups of four, were randomly allotted to four treatment diets formulated to respectively supply 10, 14, 18 and 22% crude protein (CP). Performance in respect of weight of does at end of lactation, daily weight gain of pups, daily weight gain of doe and litter, weaning weight of pups, feed conversion ratio, and cost to gain ratio, were significantly (P<0.05) higher on the 22% CP diet. The daily weight loss of does and percentage mortality among pups were significantly lower on the 22% CP diet. Though the percentage mortality among pups was significantly (P<0.05) higher, the litter size weaned was significantly (P<0.05) higher on the 18% diet. Given the overall economic importance of low mortality rate in the expansion of farm animal populations and profitability thereof, these results suggest that 22% is the optimum crude protein level for lactating grasscutters, when industrial by-products, soybean meal and wheat offal, are used as dietary supplements.
Evaluation of the ParaLensTM LED microscope attachment versus standard fluorescence microscopy for detection of Mycobacteria  [PDF]
Clara Lema, Kim Dionne, Leo Ayuk, Charles Awasom, Melissa Sander, Carole McArthur, Paul Achu, Nicole Parrish
Journal of Tuberculosis Research (JTR) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jtr.2013.12004
Abstract: The ParalensTM (PL) microscope attachment converts a light microscope into an epi-fluorescencemicroscope. We compared the PL to standard fluorescence microscopy for detection ofMycobacteriain clinical and spiked samples. Overall agreement between the two systems was 100%. Quantitative and qualitative performance was comparable. The PL is an acceptable alternative to standard fluorescence microscopy for detection ofMycobacteria.

Germination and Early Seedling Growth of Moringa oleifera Lam with Different Seeds Soaking Time and Substrates at the Yongka Western Highlands Research Garden Park (YWHRGP) Nkwen-Bamenda, North-West Cameroon  [PDF]
Bernard Palmer Kfuban Yerima, Grace Mbakpor Ayuk, Roger Kogge Enang, Nicole Guehjung, Yanick Alphonse Tiamgne
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2016.715192
Abstract: Moringa oleifera is a multipurpose tree used to remedy problems related to food insecurity and soil fertility degradation. Proper husbandry of this crop is contingent on the use of seedlings of good quality. This study aimed at assessing the germination and early seedling growth with different soaking durations and substrates composition. The seeds were obtained from the Far North region of Cameroon. A randomized complete block design with three replications was used. Two factors were tested; soaking duration with 4 treatment levels of 0 day, 4 days, 8 days and 12 days and substrates with 8 treatment levels: 100% soil, 75% soil + 25% poultry manure (PM), 50% soil + 50% PM, 25% soil + 75% PM, 100% sand, 75% sand + 25% PM, 50% sand + 50% PM and 25% sand + 75% PM. Germinated seeds and growth parameters were collected after every 5 days. The results showed that soaking duration and substrate composition influence germination and initial development of M. oleifera (p ≤ 0.05). At 25 days after soaking (DAS), soaking durations of 0 day (68.7%) and 8 days (53.1%) showed the highest germination percentages while seeds soaked for 12 days occupied the least position with 37.5%. At the same time, 75% soil + 25% PM (68.7%), 100% sand (64.5%) and 100% soil (60.5%) with the unsoaked seeds showed the highest germination percentages. The least germination percentages were represented by 50% sand + 50% PM and 25% sand + 75% PM with 35.5% and 27%, respectively. Unsoaked seeds with the substrates of 50% soil + 50% PM are the best practice for M. oleifera seedling production in the nursery.
Influence of Different Geomorphic Surfaces and Profile Modification on the Growth of Maesopsis eminni (Engl) at the Yongka Western Highlands Research Garden Park Nkwen-Bamenda, North West Cameroon  [PDF]
Bernard Palmer Kfuban Yerima, Roger Kogge Enang, Claude Assembo Makem, Nicole Guehjung, Grace Mbakpor Ayuk
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2017.81006
Abstract: The growth of Maesopsis under the influence of various geomorphic surfaces was followed within a period of 70 months. Young plants of two months old were transplanted into 70 × 70 × 70 cm holes under natural conditions (no inputs such as manure and other amendments). A randomized complete block design was set up for the experiment, alongside a control, and growth parameters followed (height and collar circumference). Three blocks with different geomorphic surfaces were put in place for the experiment (upper slope or block 1, middle slope or block 2 and foot slope or block 3). Results of the experiment indicated that geomorphic surface had a significant effect on height but not on collar circumference. Plant height increased progressively from upper slope to foot slope; less tall trees were found at the upper slope, while the tallest trees were found at the foot slope. After 70 months, maximum average height attained by plants for the experiment was 1228.3 cm, observed in block 3 (foot slope), significant at 0.05 confidence level with respect to geomorphic surface. In blocks 1 and 2 (upper slope and middle slope), maximum average heights attained were 798.5 and 937.5 cm, respectively and were shown to be statistically equal at 0.05 confidence level. Geomorphic surface had no effect on collar circumference. Maximum average collar circumferences attained after 70 months were 62.8 cm (observed at the upper slope), 61.3 cm (observed at the middle slope) and 76.3 cm (observed at the foot slope) and the various collar circumferences were shown to be statistically the same at 0.05 confidence level. For the control, maximum height attained after 70 months was 1240 cm (observed at the foot slope). At the upper slope and middle slope, maximum average heights were respectively, 800 cm and 905 cm, and were statistically equal at the 0.05 confidence level but different from the foot slope value of 1240 cm. Maximum average collar circumference was observed at the foot slope (76.3 cm), while circumferences of 62.8 cm and 61.3 cm were respectively observed at the upper and middle slopes. In the control, collar circumference was shown to be statistically equal at the upper and middle slopes but different from that at the foot slope at 0.05 confidence level. Correlations between growth parameters were more explained for the control than for the experiment. Increasing plant height was associated with decreasing percent slope (at a p-value of 0.05) corresponding to increasing soil depth favoring root exploration and soil and water retention. Profile modification enhanced
Prevalence of Coinfection with Malaria and HIV among Children in Yaoundé, Cameroon: A Cross-Sectional Survey Performed in Three Communities in Yaoundé  [PDF]
Tebit E. Kwenti, Emilienne Edo, Besong S. Ayuk, Tayong D. B. Kwenti
Yangtze Medicine (YM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ym.2017.13018
Abstract: Background: Malaria and HIV are endemic in Cameroon. But data on the prevalence of coinfection with malaria and HIV in Cameroonian children are essentially absent. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence of coinfection with malaria and HIV among children in Yaoundé, so as to advice control policies. Methods: In a cross-sectional survey, children (≤15 years) were recruited from 3 communities in Yaoundé namely: Efoulan, Biyem-assi and Cité-verte. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect demographic data. Participants were screened for malaria parasites by the examination of Giemsa-stained blood films meanwhile participants were screened for HIV following Cameroon’s national algorithm. The Pearson’s chi-square test was performed as part of the statistical analyses. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Result: Three hundred and ten (310) children took part in the study. The mean age (±SD) of the participants was 75.64 (±63.23) months and a majority of them were males (56.1%). The prevalence was 19.7%, 4.8% and 1.2% for malaria, HIV, and coinfection with malaria and HIV respectively. The prevalence of malaria was associated with age (p = 0.009) meanwhile the prevalence of HIV was associated with study site (p = 0.024). Plasmodium falciparum was the only species identified as causing malaria in the target population. Conclusion: A substantial prevalence of malaria, HIV and coinfection with malaria and HIV was observed in this study. Efforts should be strengthened to control and eventually eliminate these diseases in the target population.
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