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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 175323 matches for " Elizabeth E Roughead "
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Quality of Pharmaceutical Advertisements in Medical Journals: A Systematic Review
Noordin Othman, Agnes Vitry, Elizabeth E. Roughead
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0006350
Abstract: Background Journal advertising is one of the main sources of medicines information to doctors. Despite the availability of regulations and controls of drug promotion worldwide, information on medicines provided in journal advertising has been criticized in several studies for being of poor quality. However, no attempt has been made to systematically summarise this body of research. We designed this systematic review to assess all studies that have examined the quality of pharmaceutical advertisements for prescription products in medical and pharmacy journals. Methods and Findings Studies were identified via searching electronic databases, web library, search engine and reviewing citations (1950 – February 2006). Only articles published in English and examined the quality of information included in pharmaceutical advertisements for prescription products in medical or pharmacy journals were included. For each eligible article, a researcher independently extracted the data on the study methodology and outcomes. The data were then reviewed by a second researcher. Any disagreements were resolved by consensus. The data were analysed descriptively. The final analysis included 24 articles. The studies reviewed advertisements from 26 countries. The number of journals surveyed in each study ranged from four to 24 journals. Several outcome measures were examined including references and claims provided in advertisements, availability of product information, adherence to codes or guidelines and presentation of risk results. The majority of studies employed a convenience-sampling method. Brand name, generic name and indications were usually provided. Journal articles were commonly cited to support pharmaceutical claims. Less than 67% of the claims were supported by a systematic review, a meta-analysis or a randomised control trial. Studies that assessed misleading claims had at least one advertisement with a misleading claim. Two studies found that less than 28% of claims were unambiguous clinical claims. Most advertisements with quantitative information provided risk results as relative risk reduction. Studies were conducted in 26 countries only and then the generalizability of the results is limited. Conclusions Evidence from this review indicates that low quality of journal advertising is a global issue. As information provided in journal advertising has the potential to change doctors' prescribing behaviour, ongoing efforts to increase education about drug promotion are crucial. The results from our review suggest the need for a global pro-active and effective
Quality of claims, references and the presentation of risk results in medical journal advertising: a comparative study in Australia, Malaysia and the United States
Noordin Othman, Agnes I Vitry, Elizabeth E Roughead
BMC Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-294
Abstract: A consecutive sample of 85 unique advertisements from each country was selected from journal advertising published between January 2004 to December 2006. Claims, references and the presentation of risk results in medical journal advertising were compared between the three countries.Less than one-third of the claims were unambiguous claims (Australia, 30%, Malaysia 17%, US, 23%). In Malaysia significantly less unambiguous claims were provided than in Australia and the US (P < 0.001). However, the unambiguous claims were supported by more references than other claims (80%). Most evidence was obtained from at least one randomized controlled trial, a systematic review or meta-analysis (Australia, 84%, Malaysia, 81%, US, 76%) with journal articles being the most commonly cited references in all countries. Data on file were significantly more likely to be cited in the US (17%) than in Australia (2%) and Malaysia (4%) (P < 0.001). Advertisements that provided quantitative information reported risk results exclusively as a relative risk reductionThe majority of claims were vague suggesting poor quality of claims in journal advertising in these three countries. Evidence from a randomized controlled trial, systematic review or meta- analysis was commonly cited to support claims. However, the more frequent use of data that have not been published and independently reviewed in the US compared to Australia and Malaysia raises questions on the quality of references in the US. The use of relative rather than absolute benefits may overemphasize the benefit of medicines which may leave doctors susceptible to misinterpreting information.Information on medicines is essential to help doctors ensure the safe and optimal use of medicines. Pharmaceutical advertisements in journal advertising are used by pharmaceutical companies to disseminate medicine information to doctors [1]. Medicines information includes product characteristics, marketing claims and references to support claims. Evid
Choice of observational study design impacts on measurement of antipsychotic risks in the elderly: a systematic review
Nicole Pratt, Elizabeth E Roughead, Amy Salter, Philip Ryan
BMC Medical Research Methodology , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2288-12-72
Abstract: We searched PUBMED and the Cochrane controlled trials register for double-blind randomised controlled trials (RCTs), meta-analyses and published observational studies of antipsychotics.Forty four studies were identified for the endpoints; death, cerebrovascular events, hip fracture and pneumonia. RCTs found a 20% to 30% increased risk of death, or an absolute increase of 1extra death per 100 patients with atypical antipsychotics compared to non-use. Cohort and instrumental variable analyses estimated between 2 to 7 extra deaths per 100 patients with conventional compared to atypical antipsychotics. RCTs found a 2 to 3 times increased risk of all cerebrovascular events with atypical antipsychotics compared to placebo and no association with serious stroke that required hospitalisation. Observational studies using cohort and self-controlled case-series designs reported similar results; no association where the endpoint was stroke causing hospitalisation and a doubling of risk when minor stroke was included. No RCTs were available for the outcome of hip fracture or pneumonia. Observational studies reported a 20% to 40% increased risk of hip fracture with both antipsychotic classes compared to non-use. The risk of pneumonia was a 2 to 3 times greater with both classes compared to non-use while a self-controlled case-series study estimated a 60% increased risk. Conventional antipsychotics were associated with a 50% greater hip fracture risk than atypical antipsychotics, while the risk of pneumonia was similar between the classes.Choice of observational study design is critical in studying the adverse effects of antispychotics. Cohort and instrumental variable analyses gave more consistent results to clinical studies for mortality outcomes as have self-controlled case-series for the risk of cerebrovascular events and stroke. Observational evidence has highlighted the potential for antipsychotics to be associated with serious adverse events that were not reported in RCTs i
Prevalence of comorbidity of chronic diseases in Australia
Gillian E Caughey, Agnes I Vitry, Andrew L Gilbert, Elizabeth E Roughead
BMC Public Health , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-8-221
Abstract: A systematic review of Australian studies (1996 – May 2007) was conducted. The review focused specifically on the chronic diseases included as national health priorities; arthritis, asthma, cancer, cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes mellitus and mental health problems.A total of twenty five studies met our inclusion criteria. Over half of the elderly patients with arthritis also had hypertension, 20% had CVD, 14% diabetes and 12% mental health problem. Over 60% of patients with asthma reported arthritis as a comorbidity, 20% also had CVD and 16% diabetes. Of those with CVD, 60% also had arthritis, 20% diabetes and 10% had asthma or mental health problems.There are comparatively few Australian studies that focused on comorbidity associated with chronic disease. However, they do show high prevalence of comorbidity across national health priority areas. This suggests integration and co-ordination of the national health priority areas is critical. A greater awareness of the importance of managing a patients' overall health status within the context of comorbidity is needed together with, increased research on comorbidity to provide an appropriate scientific basis on which to build evidence based care guidelines for these multimorbid patients.The proportion of Australians aged 65 years and over is projected to increase from 2.6 million in 2004, to over 6.5 million by 2051, with the highest projected growth rate for those aged 80 years or older [1]. This ageing Australian population, with a concomitant rise in the number of people living with chronic diseases, has major implications for both health care services and their associated costs. Chronic diseases are the leading cause of illness and disability in those aged 65 years and over [2] and in 2000–01 accounted for nearly 70% of all health system expenditure in Australia (over $AU 35 billion) [3-5]. The World Health Organisation estimates that chronic disease accounts for 60% of deaths worldwide and has given preced
Consumer involvement in Quality Use of Medicines (QUM) projects – lessons from Australia
Carl MJ Kirkpatrick, Elizabeth E Roughead, Gregory R Monteith, Susan E Tett
BMC Health Services Research , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-5-75
Abstract: Using the web-based QUMmap, all projects which claimed consumer involvement were identified and stratified into four categories, projects undertaken by; (a) consumers for consumers, (b) health professionals for consumers, (c) health professionals for health professionals, and (d) other. Projects in the first two categories were then classified according to the policy 'building blocks' considered necessary to achieve QUM.Of the 143 'consumer' projects identified, the majority stated to be 'for consumers' were either actually by health professionals for health professionals (c) or by health professionals for consumers (b) (47% and 40% respectively). Only 12 projects (9%) were directly undertaken by consumers or consumer groups for consumers (a). The majority of the health professionals for consumers (b) projects were directed at the provision of services and interventions, but were not focusing on the education, training or skill development of consumers.Health services research relating to QUM is active in Australia and the projects are collated and searchable on the web-based interactive QUMmap. Healthcare professionals appear to be dominating nominally 'consumer focussed' research, with less than half of these projects actively involving the consumers or directly benefiting consumers. The QUMmap provides a valuable tool for policy analysis and for provision of future directions through identification of QUM initiatives.Many of the findings of health services research are never published in peer-reviewed journals nor presented at a conference [1,2]. There may be many reasons for this, including that such projects are often small, the researchers often hold clinical or service positions and their research time is minimal or non-existent, or the results did not eventuate 'as intended' [1]. A lot of potential 'lessons learned' are lost to future researchers, there is a risk that an unsuccessful study may be replicated, the researchers themselves lose an opportunity to
Medicines information provided by pharmaceutical representatives: a comparative study in Australia and Malaysia
Noordin Othman, Agnes I Vitry, Elizabeth E Roughead, Shaiful B Ismail, Khairani Omar
BMC Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-743
Abstract: Following a pharmaceutical representative's visit, general practitioners in Australia and Malaysia who had agreed to participate, were asked to fill out a questionnaire on the main product and claims discussed during the encounter. The questionnaire focused on provision of product information including indications, adverse effects, precautions, contraindications and the provision of information on the Pharmaceutical Benefit Scheme (PBS) listings and restrictions (in Australia only). Descriptive statistics were produced. Chi-square analysis and clustered linear regression were used to assess differences in Australia and Malaysia.Significantly more approved product information sheets were provided in Malaysia (78%) than in Australia (53%) (P < 0.001). In both countries, general practitioners reported that indications (Australia, 90%, Malaysia, 93%) and dosages (Australia, 76%, Malaysia, 82%) were frequently provided by pharmaceutical representatives. Contraindications, precautions, drug interactions and adverse effects were often omitted in the presentations (range 25% - 41%). General practitioners in Australia and Malaysia indicated that in more than 90% of presentations, pharmaceutical representatives partly or fully answered their questions on contraindications, precautions, drug interactions and adverse effects. More general practitioners in Malaysia (85%) than in Australia (60%) reported that pharmaceutical representatives should have mentioned contraindications, precautions for use, drug interaction or adverse effects spontaneously (P < 0.001). In 48% of the Australian presentations, general practitioners reported the pharmaceutical representatives failed to mention information on PBS listings to general practitioners.Information on indications and dosages were usually provided by pharmaceutical representatives in Australia and Malaysia. However, risk and harmful effects of medicines were often missing in their presentations. Effective control of medicines infor
Use of health services and medicines amongst Australian war veterans: a comparison of young elderly, near centenarians and centenarians
Elizabeth E Roughead, Lisa M Kalisch, Emmae N Ramsay, Philip Ryan, Andrew L Gilbert
BMC Geriatrics , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2318-10-83
Abstract: The study population included veterans eligible for all health services subsidised by the Department of Veterans' Affairs (DVA) aged 95 years and over at August 1st 2006. A cohort of veterans aged 65 to 74 years was identified for comparison. Data were sourced from DVA claims databases. We identified all claims between August 1st 2006 and July 31st 2007 for medical consultations, pathology, diagnostic imaging and allied health services, hospital admissions, number of prescriptions and unique medicines. Chi squared tests were used to compare the proportion of centenarians (those aged 100 years and over) and near centenarians (those aged 95 to 99 years) who accessed medicines and health services with the 65 to 74 year age group. For those who accessed health services during follow up, Poisson regression was used to compare differences in the number of times centenarians and near centenarians accessed each health service compared to 65 to 74 year olds.A similar proportion (98%) of centenarians and near centenarians compared to those aged 65 to 74 consulted a GP and received prescription medicine during follow up. A lower proportion of centenarians and near centenarians had claims for specialist visits (36% and 57% respectively), hospitalisation (19% and 24%), dental (12% and 18%), physiotherapy (13% and 15%), pathology(68% and 78%) and diagnostic imaging services (51% and 68%) (p < 0.0001) and a higher proportion had claims for care plans (19% and 25%), occupational therapy (15% and 17%) and podiatry services (54% and 58%) (p < 0.0001). Compared to those aged 65 to 74, a lower proportion of centenarians and near centenarians received antihypertensives, lipid lowering therapy, antiinflammatories, and antidepressants (p < 0.0001) and a higher proportion received antibiotics, analgesics, diuretics, laxatives, and anti-anaemics (p < 0.0001).Medical consultations and medicines are the health services most frequently accessed by Australian veteran centenarians and near cente
A self-controlled case series to assess the effectiveness of beta blockers for heart failure in reducing hospitalisations in the elderly
Emmae N Ramsay, Elizabeth E Roughead, Ben Ewald, Nicole L Pratt, Philip Ryan
BMC Medical Research Methodology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2288-11-106
Abstract: The Australian Government Department of Veterans' Affairs administrative claims database was used to undertake a self-controlled case-series in elderly patients aged 65 years or over to compare the risk of a heart failure hospitalisation during periods of being exposed and unexposed to a beta blocker. Two studies, the first using a one year period and the second using a four year period were undertaken to determine if the estimates varied due to changes in severity of heart failure over time.In the one year period, 3,450 patients and in the four year period, 12, 682 patients had at least one hospitalisation for heart failure. The one year period showed a non-significant decrease in hospitalisations for heart failure 4-8 months after starting beta-blockers, (RR, 0.76; 95% CI (0.57-1.02)) and a significant decrease in the 8-12 months post-initiation of a beta blocker for heart failure (RR, 0.62; 95% CI (0.39, 0.99)). For the four year study there was an increased risk of hospitalisation less than eight months post-initiation and significant but smaller decrease in the 8-12 month window (RR, 0.90; 95% CI (0.82, 0.98)).The results of the one year observation period are similar to those observed in randomised clinical trials indicating that the self-controlled case-series method can be successfully applied to assess health outcomes. However, the result appears sensitive to the study periods used and further research to understand the appropriate applications of this method in pharmacoepidemiology is still required. The results also illustrate the benefits of extending beta blocker utilisation to the older age group of heart failure patients in which their use is common but the evidence is sparse.Administrative claims databases are being used more widely around the world for research[1], in particular, in pharmacoepidemiology. Research to assess the practical viability of study designs using administrative data in a variety of contexts is imperative so that policy makers
Women Commencing Anastrozole, Letrozole or Tamoxifen for Early Breast Cancer: The Impact of Comorbidity and Demographics on Initial Choice
Anna Kemp, David B. Preen, Christobel Saunders, Frances Boyle, Max Bulsara, C. D’Arcy J. Holman, Eva Malacova, Elizabeth E. Roughead
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0084835
Abstract: Background Australian clinical guidelines recommend endocrine therapy for all women with hormone-dependent early breast cancer. Guidelines specify tamoxifen as first-line therapy for pre-menopausal women, and tamoxifen or an aromatase inhibitor (AI) for post-menopausal women depending on the risk of recurrence based on tumour characteristics including size. Therapies have different side effect profiles; therefore comorbidity may also influence choice. We examined comorbidity, and the clinical and demographic characteristics of women commencing different therapies. Patients and Methods We identified the first dispensing of tamoxifen, anastrozole or letrozole for women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer in the 45 and Up Study from 2004–2009 (N = 1266). Unit-level pharmacy and medical service claims, hospital, Cancer Registry, and self-reported data were linked to determine menopause status at diagnosis, tumour size, age, comorbidities, and change in subsidy restrictions. Chi-square tests and generalised regression models were used to compare the characteristics of women commencing different therapies. Results Most pre-menopausal women commenced therapy with tamoxifen (91%). Anastrozole was the predominant therapy for post-menopausal women (57%), followed by tamoxifen (28%). Women with osteoporosis were less likely to commence anastrozole compared with tamoxifen (anastrozole RR = 0.7, 95% CI = 0.5–0.9). Women with arthritis were 1.6-times more likely to commence letrozole than anastrozole (95% CI = 1.1–2.1). Tamoxifen was more often initiated in women with tumours >1 cm, who were also ≥75 years. Subsidy restriction changes were associated with substantial increases in the proportion of women commencing AIs (anastrozole RR = 4.3, letrozole RR = 8.3). Conclusions The findings indicate interplay of comorbidity and therapy choice for women with invasive breast cancer. Most post-menopausal women commenced therapy with anastrozole; however, letrozole and tamoxifen were more often initiated for women with comorbid arthritis and osteoporosis, respectively. Tamoxifen was also more common for women with tumours >1 cm and aged ≥75 years. Subsidy restrictions appear to have strongly influenced therapy choice.
Influence of Comorbidities on Therapeutic Progression of Diabetes Treatment in Australian Veterans: A Cohort Study
Agnes I. Vitry,Elizabeth E. Roughead,Adrian K. Preiss,Philip Ryan,Emmae N. Ramsay,Andrew L. Gilbert,Gillian E. Caughey,Sepehr Shakib,Adrian Esterman,Ying Zhang,Robyn A. McDermott
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0014024
Abstract: This study assessed whether the number of comorbid conditions unrelated to diabetes was associated with a delay in therapeutic progression of diabetes treatment in Australian veterans.
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