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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 8657 matches for " Elizabeth Dimba "
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Characteristic Radiological and Histological Patterns of Fibrous Dysplasia and Ossifying Fibroma of the Jaws at University of Nairobi Dental Teaching Hospital  [PDF]
Jeremiah Moshy, Elizabeth Dimba, Tom Ocholla, Mark Chindia
Surgical Science (SS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2012.34036
Abstract: Objective: To characterize the diagnostic features of ossifying fibroma (OF) and fibrous dysplasia (FD) of the jaw bones. Study Design: A histopathological and radiological analysis with full clinical documentation. Setting: University of Nairobi Dental Teaching Hospital (UNDH). Study Population: All archival cases diagnosed as FD and OF from 1992-2006 were retrieved from the UNDH Oral Pathology Laboratory records. New cases were included as they pre-sented over a 6-month period from January to June 2007. Methodology: Information regarding the histological type of a fibro-osseous lesion (FOL) including the clinical features, demographic and radiographic data was documented for analysis; and comparison between pathological parameters and the final diagnosis was evaluated with the chi-square test. Results: FD lesions constituted 40 (27.2%) cases while 107 (72.8%) were OF. The age ranged from 1 - 72 years (mean = 24.19 ± SD 13 years). The differences in the gender distribution were not statistically significant. Radiographic analyses showed statistically significant differences between the appearances of the body (p = 0.012) and the margins (p = 0.003) of FD and OF. The microscopic differences between the two lesions were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Differentiation between FD and OF is only possible after critically analyzing the clinical, radiological and histological criteria.
Patterns of salivary tumours at a university teaching hospital in Kenya  [PDF]
Jyoti Bahra, Fawzia Butt, Elizabeth Dimba, Francis Macigo
Open Journal of Stomatology (OJST) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojst.2012.24049
Abstract: Salivary gland tumours (SGT) are rare, comprising about 5% of head and neck tumours with a higher incidence reported in the western compared with the African centres. There are few studies on SGTs that have been conducted in Africa. A descriptive retrospective study was done to describe the demographic characteristics, site distribution and histological patterns of SGT at a University teaching hospital in Kenya over a 12-year-duration. There were 132 SGTs out of 2426 biopsies of head and neck tumours, the age range was between 8 to 80 years (mean = 43.6 yrs) and the modal age was 50 yrs. The percentage of tumours arising from minor salivary glands (MiSG) (67%) were twice than that from the major salivary glands (MaSG) (33%). The sites most affected for the Misg was the palate and for the MaSG was the submandibular gland. Pleomorphic salivary adenoma (PSA) (40.2%) was the most common benign SGT while adenoid cystic carcinoma) (ACC) (20.5%) was the most frequent amongst the malignant type. The overall male: female ratio was almost 1:1. However, there were more females than males with benign SGTs, whereas an equal gender distribution was noted in malignant SGT. Benign and malignant SGT occur at a younger age. MiSGs of the palate were most frequent site of tumour and the least frequent is the sublingual gland. More than 50% of SGT were malignant and hence any SGT should raise a high index of suspicion.
Calcifying cystic odontogenic tumour manifesting in the maxillary antrum: Case report  [PDF]
Eunice Kihara, Richard Owino, Josiah Otwoma, Elizabeth Dimba, Mark Chindia
Open Journal of Stomatology (OJST) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojst.2013.39082

A case is presented of a 15-year-old boy who manifested the calcifying cystic odontogenic tumour (CCOT) in the left maxillary antrum of an unknown duration. In addition, the patient had a high arched palate and multiple impacted teeth of the normal series and supernumerary type including mesiodens as demonstrated in an orthopantomograph.

Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A 6-Month Clinico-Histopathologic Audit in a Kenyan Population  [PDF]
Penny Muange, Mark Chindia, Wambeti Njiru, Elizabeth Dimba, Regina Mutave
Open Journal of Stomatology (OJST) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojst.2014.410064
Abstract: Objective: To determine the clinico-histopathologic variations and etiological factors associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional hospital based study was conducted at the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital (UNDH) and Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) between September 2008 and February 2009. Eighty-two (82) patients presenting with lesions confirmed as OSCC were evaluated for habits identified as risk factors such as tobacco use, alcohol use and betel quid chewing. Demographic features including age and gender as well as clinical parameters such as site of the primary lesion, tumour size and nodal involvement were documented. Incisional biopsies were performed for all patients to confirm the diagnosis and histopathological features noted. Results: The mean age of the patients was 58.49 (range = 14 to 90 years), with a male to female ratio of 1.6:1. Remarkably, 13.4% of the patients were aged 40 years and below. The peak incidence was found to have been in the 6th - 7th decades. Tobacco use was the main associated etiological factor (73.2%) followed by alcohol use (57.3%). Notably, 25.6% of the cases had no identifiable risk factor. The tongue was the most common site (35%) followed by the palate (22%) (p = 0.03). The least commonly affected site was the floor of the mouth (10%). The most common stage at presentation was stage IV (52.4%) and; the poorly differentiated OSCC was the most common histopathologic variant (48.8%) followed by the well differentiated (30.5%) and moderately differentiated OSCC (20.7%). Conclusion: In the present investigation it is evident that OSCC has a male predilection with a peak incidence in the 6th - 7th decades and most commonly manifests in the tongue at stage IV with the poorly differentiated subtype being the most common. Of the cases diagnosed 13.4% were aged 40 years and below.
A 19-year audit of benign jaw tumours and tumour-like lesions in a teaching hospital in Nairobi, Kenya  [PDF]
Fawzia M. Afrid Butt, Julius Ogengo, Jyoti Bahra, Mark L. Chindia, Elizabeth A. O. Dimba, Evelyn Wagaiyu
Open Journal of Stomatology (OJST) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojst.2012.21010
Abstract: Background: The diversity of benign jaw tumours may cause difficulty in a correct diagnosis and insti-tution of an appropriate treatment. Data on the prevalence of these tumours is scarce from the Afri-can continent. We present a 19-year audit of benign jaw tumours and tumour-like lesions at a University teaching hospital in Nairobi, Kenya. Methods: Histo-pathological records were retrieved and re-examined from the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial pathology, University of Nairobi from 1992 to 2011. The jaw tumours were classified according to the latest WHO classification. Results: During the 19-year audit, 4257 biopsies were processed of which 597 (14.02%) were jaw tumours within an age range of between 4 to 86 years. There was greater number of odontogenic tumours 417 (69.85%) than the bone related lesions 180 (30.15%). Of the odontogenic tumours, the epithetlial and in the bone related types, the fibro-osseous lesions were frequent. Conclusion: Ameloblastoma and ossifying fibroma were the most frequent tumours reported in this audit. The information regarding the prevalence of these tumours is scarce from the continent and can be useful in early detection and management before they cause facial deformity.
Pattern of occurrence of jaw cysts and cyst-like lesions at the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital: A 10-year histopathologic audit  [PDF]
Cyrus S. Micha, Mark L. Chindia, David O. Awange, Elizabeth Dimba, Tom M. Osundwa, Josiah G. Otwoma
Open Journal of Stomatology (OJST) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojst.2012.22025
Abstract: Background: Jaw cysts and cyst-like lesions cause facial deformity, destruction of dental tissues and affect masticatory and phonation functions. These ad-versely erode patients’ psycho-social status; create low self-esteem and may change one’s facial identity and appearance. Objective: To determine the histo-pathologic characteristics, variants and demographic pattern of jaw cysts and cyst-like lesions at the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital. Material and Me-thod: This was an analytical and verification study that involved microscopic re-examination of all available incisional/excisional biopsy samples from January 2000 to December 2009 for histo-pathological diagnosis at the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital. Results: 187 jaw cysts and cyst-like lesions were diagnosed at the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital over the ten-year period. Keratocystic odontogenic tumours constituted 28%, dentigerous cysts 25%, nasopalatine duct cysts 19%, radicular cysts 15%, while calcifying odontogenic cysts comprised 4% of all the lesions. The rest of the lesions were between 1% and 3% of all the lesion entities. Conclusion: Keratocystic odontogenic tumours and dentigerous cysts were the most common developmental odontogenic cysts diagnosed in the ten-year period.
Oral Health Training Programs for Community and Professional Health Care Workers in Nairobi East District Increases Identification of HIV-Infected Patients
Lucina N. Koyio, Wil J. M. van der Sanden, Elizabeth Dimba, Jan Mulder, Nico H. J. Creugers, Matthias A. W. Merkx, Andre van der Ven, Jo E. Frencken
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0090927
Abstract: Background Better knowledge and skills for diagnosis and management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) related oral lesions by primary healthcare workers (PHWs) may increase recognition of HIV-related oral lesions (HROLs) and may improve implementation of HIV testing in Kenya. For this purpose training programs at health facility and community level were evaluated. Design and Methods A pre-post control-test group design in two administrative divisions of Nairobi East District was used. Clinical competencies of PHWs (n = 32 intervention, and n = 27 control) at health facility level were assessed 9 months after training, and after 6 months for community health workers, (CHWs) (n = 411 intervention and n = 404 control) using written questionnaires, clinical data and patient interviews. Effects on referral for HIV testing and actual HIV testing were assessed by comparing laboratory registries pre- and post training. Results PHWs in intervention (n = 27; 84%) and control (n = 15; 60%) divisions, and CHWs in intervention (n = 330; 80%) and control (189; 47%) divisions, completed all questionnaires. Trained PHWs significantly increased their knowledge of HROLs (p<0.02), frequency of oral examinations, diagnosis of HROLs and referral of patients with HROLs for HIV testing. Trained CHWs significantly gained knowledge about HROLs (p<0.02) and referred more patients with HROLs to health facilities. Overall percentage of HIV-positive test results was three-fold for HROLs compared to non-HROLs. Specifically, 70% of patients with oro pharyngeal candidiasis (OPC), the most commonly diagnosed HROL, were confirmed as being HIV-positive. Increase in overall HIV testing rates (1.6% pre-, 1.2% post training) and overall percentage of HIV-positive results (13% pre-, 16% post-intervention) was not significant. Conclusion Training programs significantly increased PHW and CHW knowledge, recognition and management of HROLs but increased neither overall HIV testing rates nor overall percentage of positive tests. Speculation is that the health system and patient-related barriers seriously limit HIV testing. Trial Registration Netherlands Trial Register NTR2627 (date registered 22nd November 2010), and NTR2697 (date registered 13th January 2011).
Camptothecin and khat (Catha edulis Forsk.) induced distinct cell death phenotypes involving modulation of c-FLIPL, Mcl-1, procaspase-8 and mitochondrial function in acute myeloid leukemia cell lines
Therese Bredholt, Elizabeth AO Dimba, Hanne R Hagland, Line Wergeland, J?rn Skavland, Kjell O Fossan, Karl J Tronstad, Anne C Johannessen, Olav K Vintermyr, Bj?rn T Gjertsen
Molecular Cancer , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1476-4598-8-101
Abstract: Khat had a profound effect on MOLM-13 cells inducing mitochondrial damage, chromatin margination and morphological features of autophagy. The effects of khat on mitochondrial ultrastructure in MOLM-13 correlated with strongly impaired routine respiration, an effect neither found in the khat-resistant MV-4-11 cells nor in camptothecin treated cells. Enforced expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein provided protection against camptothecin-induced cell death and partly against khat toxicity. Khat-induced cell death in MOLM-13 cells included reduced levels of anti-apoptotic Mcl-1 protein, while both khat and camptothecin induced c-FLIPL cleavage and procaspase-8 activation.Khat activated a distinct cell death pathway in sensitive leukemic cells as compared to camptothecin, involving mitochondrial damage and morphological features of autophagy. This suggests that khat should be further explored in the search for novel experimental therapeutics.In search for novel experimental cancer therapies, we are examining cellular and molecular effects of an organic extract of the recreational herb khat [1,2]. Adverse health effects are associated with habitual khat use, but underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood [3]. The botanical alkaloid camptothecin (CPT) induces apoptosis through a defined mechanism in cancer cell lines and its derivatives irinotecan and topotecan are widely used cancer therapeutics [4-6].Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is an aggressive hematological malignancy of the myeloid progenitor cells, characterized by a differentiation block and extensive leukemic cell accumulation in the bone marrow [7]. Therapeutic approaches in AML may be opposed by numerous genetic alterations, often affecting pathways regulating apoptosis [8-10]. Identification of novel substances using alternative cell death pathways or capable of restoring sensitivity to apoptosis is therefore of therapeutic importance.Programmed cell death may occur through the mechanisms of apop
Family Structure and Psychological Health in Young Adults  [PDF]
Tony Cassidy, Elizabeth Wright, Elizabeth Noon
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2014.510129

This study explored the effect of the gendered structure of siblings in intact and non-intact families, on family relations, social support, perceived control, and psychological distress in a sample of 708 young adults (294 males and 414 females) aged between 18 - 21 years. Of the sample 96 were singletons, 208 had both a brother and sister, 206 had a brother and no sister, and 198 had a sister and no brother. While the results show that both the gender of the participants and the gender of the sibling seem to impact on distress and its mediators; the more important factor is the gender of siblings. In essence the presence of a female sibling is associated with more perceived support, control and optimism, and with lower pessimism and psychological distress. The presence of a female is also associated with better family relations overall and it is suggested that the main mechanism for this positive impact of female siblings is through the lowered conflict and increased expressiveness and cohesion experienced in female versus male dominated sibling groups.

Design of Sharp 2D Multiplier-Less Circularly Symmetric FIR Filter Using Harmony Search Algorithm and Frequency Transformation  [PDF]
Manju Manuel, Elizabeth Elias
Journal of Signal and Information Processing (JSIP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jsip.2012.33044
Abstract: In this paper, we present a novel and efficient method for the design of a sharp, two dimensional (2D) wideband, circularly symmetric, FIR filter. First of all, a sharp one dimensional (1D) infinite precision FIR filter is designed using the Frequency Response Masking (FRM) technique. This filter is converted into a multiplier-less filter by representing it in the Canonic Signed Digit (CSD) space. The design of the FRM filter in the CSD space calls for the use of a discrete optimization technique. To this end, a new optimization approach is proposed using a modified Harmony Search Algorithm (HSA). HSA is modified in such a way that, in every exploitation and exploration phase, the candidate solutions turns out to be integers. The 1D FRM multiplier-less filter, is in turn transformed to the 2D equivalent using the recently proposed multiplier-less transformations namely, T1 and T2. These transformations are successful in generating circular contours even for wideband filters. Since multipliers are the most power consuming elements in a 2D filter, the multiplier-less realization calls for reduced power consumption as well as computation time. Significant reduction in the computational complexity and computation time are the highlights of our proposed design technique. Besides, the proposed discrete optimization using modified HSA can be used to solve optimization problems in other engineering disciplines, where the search space consists of integers.
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