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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 21700 matches for " Eliseu Alves "
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Mesa-Redonda: Desigualdades sociais e cobertura vacinal: uso de inquéritos domiciliares
Eliseu Alves Waldman
Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/s1415-790x2008000500013
Abstract:
Vigilancia Epidemiológica, Sanitária e em Saúde Pública: a discuss o de novas propostas de reorganiza o das estruturas
Eliseu Alves Waldman
Saúde e Sociedade , 1995, DOI: 10.1590/s0104-12901995000100028
Abstract:
Trends and spatial distribution of deaths of children aged 12-60 months in S?o Paulo, Brazil, 1980-98
Antunes,José Leopoldo Ferreira; Waldman,Eliseu Alves;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862002000500010
Abstract: objective: to describe trends in the mortality of children aged 12-60 months and to perform spatial data analysis of its distribution at the inner city district level in s?o paulo from 1980 to 1998. methods: official mortality data were analysed in relation to the underlying causes of death. the population of children aged 12-60 months, disaggregated by sex and age, was estimated for each year. educational levels, income, employment status, and other socioeconomic indices were also assessed. statistical package for social sciences software was used for the statistical processing of time series. the cochrane-orcutt procedure of generalized least squares regression analysis was used to estimate the regression parameters with control of first-order autocorrelation. spatial data analysis employed the discrimination of death rates and socioeconomic indices at the inner city district level. for classifying area-level death rates the method of k-means cluster analysis was used. spatial correlation between variables was analysed by the simultaneous autoregressive regression method. findings: there was a steady decline in death rates during the 1980s at an average rate of 3.08% per year, followed by a levelling off. infectious diseases remained the major cause of mortality, accounting for 43.1% of deaths during the last three years of the study. injuries accounted for 16.5% of deaths. mortality rates at the area level clearly demonstrated inequity in the city's health profile: there was an increasing difference between the rich and the underprivileged social strata in this respect. conclusion: the overall mortality rate among children aged 12-60 months dropped by almost 30% during the study period. most of the decline happened during the 1980s. many people still live in a state of deprivation in underserved areas. time-series and spatial data analysis provided indications of potential value in the planning of social policies promoting well-being, through the identification o
Aspectos particulares do comportamento epidemiológico da esquistossomose mans?nica no Estado de S?o Paulo, Brasil
Chieffi, Pedro Paulo;Waldman, Eliseu Alves;
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 1988, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X1988000300002
Abstract: assumptions on the process of mansoni schistosomiasis transmission areas in brazilian territory are presented, linking them to the country economical history stages which, at determined time, caused important migratory movements. the same is considered concerning the inserting and spreading of mansoni schistosomiasis transmission areas in s?o paulo state, attempting to emphasize some peculiar features of the conduct in its territory, which presents major trend for urbanization, to nearly non-existence of severe forms and peculiar aspects of infection sources and the most prevalent intermediate hosts species in different state regions. based on these features, it is proposed to divide the s?o paulo state territory in three areas regarding to schistosomiasis behaviour, as this measure might constitute subsidies for development of endemic control programmes.
Tuberculosis in the twentieth century: time-series mortality in S?o Paulo, Brazil, 1900-97
Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira;Waldman, Eliseu Alves;
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 1999, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X1999000300003
Abstract: the objective of this study was to characterize tuberculosis mortality trends in the municipality of s?o paulo, brazil, from 1900 to 1997. standardized tuberculosis mortality rates and proportional mortality ratios were calculated and stratified by gender and age group based on data provided by government agencies. these measures were submitted to time-series analysis. we verified distinct trends: high mortality and a stationary trend from 1900 to 1945, a heavy reduction in mortality (7.41% per year) from 1945 to 1985, and a resumption of increased mortality (4.08% per year) from 1985 to 1995. in 1996 and 1997 we observed a drop in tuberculosis mortality rates, which may be indicating a new downward trend for the disease. the period from 1945 to 1985 witnessed a real reduction in tuberculosis, brought about by social improvements, the introduction of therapeutic resources, and expansion of health services. recrudescence of tuberculosis mortality from 1985 to 1995 may reflect the increasing prevalence of mycobacterium and hiv co-infection, besides loss of quality in specific health programs.
Tuberculosis in the twentieth century: time-series mortality in S o Paulo, Brazil, 1900-97
Antunes José Leopoldo Ferreira,Waldman Eliseu Alves
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 1999,
Abstract: The objective of this study was to characterize tuberculosis mortality trends in the Municipality of S o Paulo, Brazil, from 1900 to 1997. Standardized tuberculosis mortality rates and proportional mortality ratios were calculated and stratified by gender and age group based on data provided by government agencies. These measures were submitted to time-series analysis. We verified distinct trends: high mortality and a stationary trend from 1900 to 1945, a heavy reduction in mortality (7.41% per year) from 1945 to 1985, and a resumption of increased mortality (4.08% per year) from 1985 to 1995. In 1996 and 1997 we observed a drop in tuberculosis mortality rates, which may be indicating a new downward trend for the disease. The period from 1945 to 1985 witnessed a real reduction in tuberculosis, brought about by social improvements, the introduction of therapeutic resources, and expansion of health services. Recrudescence of tuberculosis mortality from 1985 to 1995 may reflect the increasing prevalence of Mycobacterium and HIV co-infection, besides loss of quality in specific health programs.
Trends and spatial distribution of deaths of children aged 12-60 months in S o Paulo, Brazil, 1980-98
Antunes José Leopoldo Ferreira,Waldman Eliseu Alves
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2002,
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To describe trends in the mortality of children aged 12-60 months and to perform spatial data analysis of its distribution at the inner city district level in S o Paulo from 1980 to 1998. METHODS: Official mortality data were analysed in relation to the underlying causes of death. The population of children aged 12-60 months, disaggregated by sex and age, was estimated for each year. Educational levels, income, employment status, and other socioeconomic indices were also assessed. Statistical Package for Social Sciences software was used for the statistical processing of time series. The Cochrane-Orcutt procedure of generalized least squares regression analysis was used to estimate the regression parameters with control of first-order autocorrelation. Spatial data analysis employed the discrimination of death rates and socioeconomic indices at the inner city district level. For classifying area-level death rates the method of K-means cluster analysis was used. Spatial correlation between variables was analysed by the simultaneous autoregressive regression method. FINDINGS: There was a steady decline in death rates during the 1980s at an average rate of 3.08% per year, followed by a levelling off. Infectious diseases remained the major cause of mortality, accounting for 43.1% of deaths during the last three years of the study. Injuries accounted for 16.5% of deaths. Mortality rates at the area level clearly demonstrated inequity in the city's health profile: there was an increasing difference between the rich and the underprivileged social strata in this respect. CONCLUSION: The overall mortality rate among children aged 12-60 months dropped by almost 30% during the study period. Most of the decline happened during the 1980s. Many people still live in a state of deprivation in underserved areas. Time-series and spatial data analysis provided indications of potential value in the planning of social policies promoting well-being, through the identification of factors affecting child survival and the regions with the worst health profiles, to which programmes and resources should be preferentially directed.
Cobertura vacinal em menores de dois anos a partir de registro informatizado de imuniza??o em Curitiba, PR
Luhm,Karin Regina; Cardoso,Maria Regina Alves; Waldman,Eliseu Alves;
Revista de Saúde Pública , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-89102010005000054
Abstract: objective: to evaluate the immunization program for 12 and 24-month-old children based on electronic immunization registry. methods: a descriptive study of a random sample of 2,637 children born in 2002 living in the city of curitiba, southern brazil was performed. data was collected from local electronic immunization registers and the national live birth information system, as well as from a household survey for cases with incomplete records. coverage at 12 and 24 months was estimated and analyzed according to the socioeconomic characteristics of each administrative district and the child's enrollment status in the health care service. the coverage, completeness, and record duplication in the registry were analyzed. results: coverage of immunization was 95.3% at 12 months, with no disparities among administrative districts, and 90.3% at 24 months, with higher coverage in a district with lower socioeconomic conditions (p < 0.01). the proportion of vaccines, according to type, given before and after the recommended age reached 0.9% and 32.2%, respectively. in the surveyed sample, electronic immunization registry coverage was 98%, underreporting of vaccine doses was 11%, and record duplication was 20.6%. groups with highest coverage included children with permanent records, children with three or more appointments through the national unified health care system, and children seen within primary health care facilities fully adopting the family health strategy. conclusions: vaccination coverage in curitiba was high and homogeneous among districts, and health service enrollment status was an important factor in these results. the electronic immunization registry was a useful tool for monitoring vaccine coverage; however, it will be important to determine cost-effectiveness prior to wide-scale adoption by the national immunization program.
The development of Brazilian agriculture: future technological challenges and opportunities
Pedro Pereira, Geraldo B Martha, Carlos AM Santana, Eliseu Alves
Agriculture & Food Security , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/2048-7010-1-4
Abstract: Ensuring food security has always been a priority issue for governments, international organizations, and society in general. Recent developments have further increased the political, professional, and public concern about this issue worldwide. After remaining at historically low levels for decades, nominal food prices have become substantially higher and more volatile since the 2007 to 2008 food crisis. Between January 2007 and June 2008, food prices increased significantly, ranging from 38% for sugar to 224% for rice [1]. Prices for other major food crops such as maize and wheat also experienced sharp spikes in the same period. Following this period of steep rises, the prices of these and other agricultural commodities experienced a downturn in the second half of 2008.From the second half of 2010, food prices increased again, and peaked in January 2011. Through the course of 2011, a downward trend was re-established, but prices are still at historically high levels (Figure1). Depending on how world production evolves in the next years, nominal food prices could remain at or even above the 1997 to 2006 level [2,3].The consequences of higher prices and volatility in food markets are well documented in the literature, and include economic and political instability as well as cycles of positive and negative effects on consumers and producers. At high prices, increased poverty and malnutrition among the poor can be expected, but this trend for higher prices may also enhance investments in agricultural activities [4]. With increased supply, food prices decrease, benefiting consumers; however, excessive volatility may discourage longer-term investment in agriculture, and hence jeopardize an expansion in agricultural supply.The degree of future volatility in the food system is uncertain. Therefore, efforts are needed to minimize high levels of volatility in global food markets and ensure food security for all. The nature of this challenge requires country-level actions on
Hanseníase no Estado do Espírito Santo, Brasil: uma endemia em ascens?o?
Moreira, Marilda Vieira;Waldman, Eliseu Alves;Martins, Cleide Lavieri;
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X2008000700017
Abstract: this study provides a trend analysis of leprosy among patients in the state of espírito santo, brazil, from 1980 to 2003. using temporal series statistical models, an upward trend was identified throughout the period in the overall detection rate (p < 0.05), with an apparent stabilization at the end of the period. we also observed an upward trend for the following periods: (i) 1980-1987 in the < 15 and > 50-year age groups and for paucibacillary forms; (ii) 1988-1995 for the 15-19, 20-29, and > 50-year groups and for multibacillary forms; and (iii) 1996-2003 in the 20-29-year group and paucibacillary forms. the indicators for evaluation of the endemic indicate: stable levels in grade 2 disability (mean of 6%); a proportion of less than 10% of cases in individuals < 15 years of age; and a treatment dropout rate of approximately 6%. prevalence showed a sharp decline. the upward trend can be explained partially by greater surveillance sensitivity, but the high proportion of individuals < 15 highlights the need for studies aimed at better knowledge of residual sources of infection, especially in the household.
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