Publish in OALib Journal
APC: Only $99
Background: Semi-permanent fillers are among the most favorable fillers
on the market. Through their unique mode of action and its associated lasting
aesthetic effect, they take an exceptional position.
Objective: To compare the two semi-permanent fillers Poly-L-Lactic Acid (PLLA)
and calcium hydroxylapatite (CaHA) in reference to the aesthetic result,
patient satisfaction and side effects. Methods: Studies on side effects,
patient satisfaction and aesthetic results after augmentation with
semi-permanent fillers were analyzed. Results: Semi-permanent fillers seem
excellently suited for the augmentation of very deep wrinkles particularly in
the lower half of the face. In general, high patient satisfaction can be
determined with both fillers. Here, the effect from the polylactic acid can be
verified for up to two years while no effect could be verified already after
one year in a majority of the patients augmented with CaHA. Short-term side
effects such as bleedings or erythema in the region of the augmented area have
been observed in both fillers during augmentation. The incidence of nodules and
granulomas seems significantly higher in augmentations with PLLA compared to
CaHA. Rare side effects such as an embolization of a blood vessel caused by the
implant have been described for both fillers in case reports. Conclusion:
Semi-permanent fillers are superbly suited for wrinkle augmentation. Which
filler is the preferred one in what case depends strongly on the individual
needs of the patient and the therapist’s experience.
The article focuses on the experiences of community care workers in the encounter with older persons suffering from mental health problems, such as mental illness and disability. The purpose is to describe and discuss opportunities for and challenges to reciprocal encounters with these older people in community care, based on statements from professionals interviewed. Structured conversations with five focus groups were organised, consisting of 26 participants, including nurses’ assistants, assistant nurses, nurses, social workers and occupational therapists. The participants in the focus groups highlight the essence of being involved and create space for a reflective attitude. Clinical implications will be presented as well.