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Environmental Conditioning of Skeletal Anomalies Typology and Frequency in Gilthead Seabream (Sparus aurata L., 1758) Juveniles
Loredana Prestinicola, Clara Boglione, Pavlos Makridis, Attilio Spanò, Valentina Rimatori, Elisa Palamara, Michele Scardi, Stefano Cataudella
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0055736
Abstract: In this paper, 981 reared juveniles of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) were analysed, 721 of which were from a commercial hatchery located in Northern Italy (Venice, Italy) and 260 from the Hellenic Center for Marine Research (Crete, Greece). These individuals were from 4 different egg batches, for a total of 10 different lots. Each egg batch was split into two lots after hatching, and reared with two different methodologies: intensive and semi-intensive. All fish were subjected to processing for skeletal anomaly and meristic count analysis. The aims involved: (1) quantitatively and qualitatively analyzing whether differences in skeletal elements arise between siblings and, if so, what they are; (2) investigating if any skeletal bone tissue/ossification is specifically affected by changing environmental rearing conditions; and (3) contributing to the identification of the best practices for gilthead seabream larval rearing in order to lower the deformity rates, without selections. The results obtained in this study highlighted that: i) in all the semi-intensive lots, the bones having intramembranous ossification showed a consistently lower incidence of anomalies; ii) the same clear pattern was not observed in the skeletal elements whose ossification process requires a cartilaginous precursor. It is thus possible to ameliorate the morphological quality (by reducing the incidence of severe skeletal anomalies and the variability in meristic counts of dermal bones) of reared seabream juveniles by lowering the stocking densities (maximum 16 larvae/L) and increasing the volume of the hatchery rearing tanks (minimum 40 m3). Feeding larvae with a wide variety of live (wild) preys seems further to improve juvenile skeletal quality. Additionally, analysis of the morphological quality of juveniles reared under two different semi-intensive conditions, Mesocosm and Large Volumes, highlighted a somewhat greater capacity of Large Volumes to significantly augment the gap with siblings reared in intensive (conventional) modality.
Skeletal Anomaly Monitoring in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum 1792) Reared under Different Conditions
Clara Boglione, Domitilla Pulcini, Michele Scardi, Elisa Palamara, Tommaso Russo, Stefano Cataudella
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0096983
Abstract: The incidence of skeletal anomalies could be used as an indicator of the “quality” of rearing conditions as these anomalies are thought to result from the inability of homeostatic mechanisms to compensate for environmentally-induced stress and/or altered genetic factors. Identification of rearing conditions that lower the rate of anomalies can be an important step toward profitable aquaculture as malformed market-size fish have to be discarded, thus reducing fish farmers’ profits. In this study, the occurrence of skeletal anomalies in adult rainbow trout grown under intensive and organic conditions was monitored. As organic aquaculture animal production is in its early stages, organic broodstock is not available in sufficient quantities. Non-organic juveniles could, therefore, be used for on-growing purposes in organic aquaculture production cycle. Thus, the adult fish analysed in this study experienced intensive conditions during juvenile rearing. Significant differences in the pattern of anomalies were detected between organically and intensively-ongrown specimens, although the occurrence of severe, commercially important anomalies, affecting 2–12.5% of individuals, was comparable in the two systems. Thus, organic aquaculture needs to be improved in order to significantly reduce the incidence of severe anomalies in rainbow trout.
Neutrino detection in the ArgoNeuT LAr TPC
O. Palamara
Physics , 2011,
Abstract: ArgoNeuT, a Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LAr-TPC), has collected thousands of neutrino and anti-neutrino events between 0.1 and 10 GeV in the NuMI beamline at Fermilab (FNAL). Among other issues, the experiment will measure the cross section of the neutrino and anti-neutrino Charged Current Quasi-Elastic (CC QE) interaction on Ar target and analyze the vertex activity associated with such events. ArgoNeuT data analysis and FSI studies in progress are described and first measurements of inclusive muon neutrino Charged Current differential cross sections on Argon are reported.
Molecules Altering the Intracellular Thiol Content Modulate NF-kB and STAT-1/IRF-1 Signalling Pathways and IL-12 p40 and IL-27 p28 Production in Murine Macrophages
Alessandra Fraternale, Rita Crinelli, Anna Casabianca, Maria Filomena Paoletti, Chiara Orlandi, Elisa Carloni, Micha?l Smietana, Anna Teresa Palamara, Mauro Magnani
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0057866
Abstract: Background The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in the production of Th1 cytokines, namely IL-12 and IL-27, when the intra-macrophage redox state was altered by different chemical entities such as GSH-C4, which is reduced glutathione carrying an aliphatic chain, or I-152, a pro-drug of N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) and beta-mercaptoethylamine. We had already demonstrated that GSH-C4 and I-152 could shift the immune response towards Th1 in Ovalbumin-immunized mice as well as enhance Th1 response in HIV-1 Tat-immunized mice. Methodology/Principal Findings By a new high performance liquid chromatography method, we found that 20 mM GSH-C4 provided a number of thiol species in the form of GSH, while 20 mM I-152 decreased GSH and increased the thiols in the form of NAC and I-152. Under these experimental conditions, GSH-C4 and I-152 enhanced and suppressed respectively the mRNA expression levels of IL-12 p40 induced by LPS/IFN-γ as assessed by Real-Time PCR. The protein production of IL-12 p40 was increased by GSH-C4 and decreased by I-152 as determined by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Western immunoblot and electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed that Nuclear Factor -kB (NF-kB) activation was inhibited by I-152 and prolonged by GSH-C4. Twenty mM I-152 stimulated IL-27 p28 gene expression and sustained Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (STAT)-mediated interferon regulator factor 1 (IRF-1) de novo synthesis. By contrast, 20 mM GSH-C4 did not exert any effect on IL-27 p28 gene expression. Conclusions and Significance an increase in the intra-macrophage redox state by GSH-C4 and I-152 enhances Th1 cytokine production although the chemical structure and the intra-cellular metabolism influence differently signalling pathways involved in IL-27 or IL-12 production. GSH-C4 and I-152 may be used as Th1 immunomodulators in some pathologies and in ageing where GSH depletion may contribute to the Th1/Th2 imbalance, and in new immunization strategies.
Mapping the Global Distribution of Livestock
Timothy P. Robinson, G. R. William Wint, Giulia Conchedda, Thomas P. Van Boeckel, Valentina Ercoli, Elisa Palamara, Giuseppina Cinardi, Laura D'Aietti, Simon I. Hay, Marius Gilbert
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0096084
Abstract: Livestock contributes directly to the livelihoods and food security of almost a billion people and affects the diet and health of many more. With estimated standing populations of 1.43 billion cattle, 1.87 billion sheep and goats, 0.98 billion pigs, and 19.60 billion chickens, reliable and accessible information on the distribution and abundance of livestock is needed for a many reasons. These include analyses of the social and economic aspects of the livestock sector; the environmental impacts of livestock such as the production and management of waste, greenhouse gas emissions and livestock-related land-use change; and large-scale public health and epidemiological investigations. The Gridded Livestock of the World (GLW) database, produced in 2007, provided modelled livestock densities of the world, adjusted to match official (FAOSTAT) national estimates for the reference year 2005, at a spatial resolution of 3 minutes of arc (about 5×5 km at the equator). Recent methodological improvements have significantly enhanced these distributions: more up-to date and detailed sub-national livestock statistics have been collected; a new, higher resolution set of predictor variables is used; and the analytical procedure has been revised and extended to include a more systematic assessment of model accuracy and the representation of uncertainties associated with the predictions. This paper describes the current approach in detail and presents new global distribution maps at 1 km resolution for cattle, pigs and chickens, and a partial distribution map for ducks. These digital layers are made publically available via the Livestock Geo-Wiki (http://www.livestock.geo-wiki.org), as will be the maps of other livestock types as they are produced.
Population genetics of identity by descent
Pier Francesco Palamara
Quantitative Biology , 2014, DOI: 10.7916/D8V122XT
Abstract: Recent improvements in high-throughput genotyping and sequencing technologies have afforded the collection of massive, genome-wide datasets of DNA information from hundreds of thousands of individuals. These datasets, in turn, provide unprecedented opportunities to reconstruct the history of human populations and detect genotype-phenotype association. Recently developed computational methods can identify long-range chromosomal segments that are identical across samples, and have been transmitted from common ancestors that lived tens to hundreds of generations in the past. These segments reveal genealogical relationships that are typically unknown to the carrying individuals. In this work, we demonstrate that such identical-by-descent (IBD) segments are informative about a number of relevant population genetics features: they enable the inference of details about past population size fluctuations, migration events, and they carry the genomic signature of natural selection. We derive a mathematical model, based on coalescent theory, that allows for a quantitative description of IBD sharing across purportedly unrelated individuals, and develop inference procedures for the reconstruction of recent demographic events, where classical methodologies are statistically underpowered. We analyze IBD sharing in several contemporary human populations, including representative communities of the Jewish Diaspora, Kenyan Maasai samples, and individuals from several Dutch provinces, in all cases retrieving evidence of fine-scale demographic events from recent history. Finally, we expand the presented model to describe distributions for those sites in IBD shared segments that harbor mutation events, showing how these may be used for the inference of mutation rates in humans and other species.
Geomagnetic activity forcing of the Northern Annular Mode via the stratosphere
D. R. Palamara ,E. A. Bryant
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2004,
Abstract: We consider various aspects of the link between solar-modulated geomagnetic activity and the Northern Annular Mode (NAM). Our results indicate that the geomagnetic forcing of atmospheric circulation in the Northern Hemisphere is temporally and seasonally restricted, modulated by the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO), and reliant on stratosphere-troposphere coupling. When the data are restricted to January values after 1965, for years in which the January QBO is eastwards, the correlation coefficient between the geomagnetic AA index and the NAM is 0.85. These results can account for many of the enigmatic features of Northern Hemisphere circulation. Key words. Meterology and atmospheric dynamics (general circulation, climatology)
Exclusive Topologies reconstruction in LAr-TPC experiments: a Novel Approach for precise Neutrino-Nucleus Cross-Sections Measurements
O. Palamara,K. Partyka,F. Cavanna
Physics , 2013,
Abstract: The analysis and interpretation of the present and future neutrino oscillation experiments strongly rely on the quantitative understanding of neutrino and antineutrino interactions with nuclei in the "few GeV" energy range. With the advent of the Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LArTPC) experimental techniques for neutrino detection, a novel approach and methodology in neutrino data analysis is now being developed. Purpose of this White Paper is to briefly illustrate this method, as based on real events categorization into experimental exclusive topologies, rather than on MC driven classifi?cation of the event rates in terms of interaction channel. Data collected by the ArgoNeuT experiment in the "few-GeV" energy range are extremely helpful to directly probe features of neutrino interactions and associated nuclear effects in the range of interest for future long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments.
Human Mobility Control and Labour Market of Migrants in Sicily the Case Study of the Cara of Mineo  [PDF]
Antonella Elisa Castronovo
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2015.32023
Abstract: This paper analyses human mobility control in Sicily, linking it with immigrants’ employment segregation. The focus is on the Cara of Mineo that, since 2011, has represented one of the most important “laboratory” in order to observe the effects of Italian migration governance. The study is supported by several interviews to stakeholders and to migrant farm hands. The first aim is to show how a place designed to contain the mobility of people [1] can be seen as area where the migration movements are intersected with the economic needs of local context.
Anal cytological abnormalities and epidemiological correlates among men who have sex with men at risk for HIV-1 infection
Donà Maria,Benevolo Maria,Vocaturo Amina,Palamara Guido
BMC Cancer , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-12-476
Abstract: Background The incidence of anal cancer, a Human Papillomavirus (HPV)-related neoplasia, has been increasing in recent decades, mainly in men who have sex with men (MSM). Cytological changes of the anal epithelium induced by HPV can be detected through an anal pap smear. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and epidemiological correlates of anal cytological abnormalities among relatively young MSM at risk for HIV-1 infection, to help clarify whether or not this population deserves further investigation to assess the presence of anal cancer precursor lesions. Methods MSM were recruited among attendees of a large STI clinic for a HIV-1 screening program. Anal samples, collected with a Dracon swab in PreservCyt, were used both for liquid-based cytology and HPV testing by the Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test. Data regarding socio-demographic characteristics and sexual behavior were collected in face-to-face interviews. Results A total of 346 MSM were recruited (median age 32 years). Overall, 72.5% of the individuals had an anal HPV infection, with 56.1% of them being infected by oncogenic HPV genotypes. Anal cytological abnormalities were found in 29.8% of the cases (16.7% ASC-US and 13.1% L-SIL). Presence of ASC-US+ was strongly associated with infection by any HPV type (OR=4.21, 95% CI: 1.97-9.23), and particularly by HPV 16 and/or 18 (OR=5.62, 95% CI: 2.33-13.81). A higher proportion of ASC-US+ was found in older MSM, in those with a higher number of lifetime partners and in those with a history of ano-genital warts. However, none of these variables or the others analyzed showed any significant association with abnormal cytological findings. Conclusions The presence of anal cytological abnormalities in about one third of the recruited MSM and their strong association with HPV infection, in particular that caused by HPV 16 and/or 18, might provide a further complement to the data that now support the introduction of HPV vaccination among MSM to protect them from the development of HPV-associated diseases. Additional studies are needed to determine whether and how screening for anal cancer precursor lesions should be performed in younger MSM.
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