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Statistical Variation of Physico-Chemical Properties of Shallow Wells Used for Agricultural Activities in an Agrarian Community, North Central Nigeria  [PDF]
John Jiya Musa, Martins Yusuf Otache, Elijah TsadoMusa, Michael Eneojo Omale, Ibrahim Ibrahim Yahuza Yerima
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105683
Water quality is gradually falling due to human activities, thus making clean water for both domestic and agricultural activities scarce. Population growth is expected to directly or indirectly move up from its current status by about 55%, thus increasing water stress or severe water scarcity over the next generation. This study is aimed at statistically ascertaining and determining the physico-chemical properties of some hand-dug wells in Niykangbe, an agrarian community in Nigeria. A total of twenty five samples were collected for each year during the dry season for a period of three years. Replicate samples were collected on monthly bases for a period of five months during the years 2014, 2015 and 2016. The results obtained indicated that aluminum, cyanide and manganese were not present in the water samples. The pH ranged between 7.10 and 7.70, electric conductivity ranged between 157 and 467 μs/cm and the temperature ranged between 30℃ and 33℃. The nitrate content ranged between 5.00 and 67.30 mg/l while nitrite ranged between 0.02 and 0.09 mg/l. The analysis should be that most of the parameters were still within the recommended standards of NSDWQ and WHO. It was concluded that intermittent test is carried out to ascertain the level of fitness of the various water samples for both domestic and agricultural use.
Root-Zone Soil Water Balance and Sunflower Yield under Deficit Irrigated in Zambia  [PDF]
Elijah Phiri, Simon Zimba
Open Journal of Soil Science (OJSS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojss.2018.81005
Abstract: The study was conducted at the University of Zambia, Research Field Station, Lusaka, Zambia to evaluate the root zone soil water balance under full, and deficit irrigated sunflower. The specific objectives were: 1) to assess the sunflower growth and yield under varying irrigation water regimes; 2) to evaluate the root-zone water balance; and 3) to evaluate the water use efficiency of sunflower. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus, var Milika) was planted in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four irrigated water regimes in four replications. The treatments comprised: treatment (T1) = 30% ETc; treatment (T2) = 54% ETc; treatment (T3) = 65% ETc; and treatment (T4) = 100% ETc. The sunflower crop was irrigated on a weekly irrigation schedule using sprinklers. The measured parameters included: weather data, soil moisture profiles, growth stages (emergence, flowering, maturity), above-ground biomass, and grain yield. The results of the study showed that growth parameter (biomass and seed yield) decreased with a decrease in applied irrigation water. The sunflower seed yield varied from 0.22 to 1.40-ton·ha-1 with an average yield of 0.81-ton·ha-1. The highest grain yield was obtained under treatment (T4), and the least grain in yield harvest was at treatment (T1). The statistical analysis showed significant differences in seed yield among the treatments. The treatments (T1 and T2) were not significantly different (p > 0.05). These results showed that when water deficit was set at 65% and 100% ETc and uniformly distributed throughout the sunflower growth, there were no significant differences in biomass, stover and seed yield. In literature, the allowable soil moisture depletion factor for irrigation scheduling of sunflower is set at 45%. The yield components decreased as irrigation levels decreased for each irrigation interval. The 65% ETc treatment could be recommended for sunflower irrigated in semi-arid regions and be used as a good basis for improved irrigation strategy development under water stressed environment.
Application of Electrical Resistivity Imaging in Investigating Groundwater Pollution in Sapele Area, Nigeria  [PDF]
Okezie Uchegbulam, Elijah A. Ayolabi
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2014.614126
Abstract: Sixty-four multi-electrode Lund imaging system coupled with ABEM SAS 4000 Terrameter was used for the electrical imaging of the study area. Wenner and Gradient arrays with 2 m minimum electrode spacing were employed which revealed resistivity changes in the vertical and horizontal directions along the survey lines. Earth imager software was employed for the processing and the iteration of the 2-D resistivity data. The subsurface is characterized with soil material with resistivity ranging from 42 - 15,000 Ohm-m, reflective of varying degree of conductivity associated with changing lithology and fluid type. Correlation with borehole data shows that the first 10 m is composed of laterite. While sand materials occupy 10 to about 60 m beneath the surface, with anomalously high resistivity 15,000 Ohm-m in most parts. These high resistivity formations can be attributed to the presence of hydrocarbon within the subsurface, which is an indication that shallow aquifer in the study area has been polluted. The water level in the study area is close to the surface, between 4 - 5 m. As a result of the high resistivity formations in most parts, deep wells of about 45 m are recommended after geophysical investigations.
Monitoring Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV-Infected Children in Resource-Limited Countries: A Tale of Two Epidemics
Elijah Paintsil
AIDS Research and Treatment , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/280901
Abstract: Twenty-nine years into the HIV epidemic, several advances have been made; however, there remain several challenges particularly with pediatric HIV in resource-limited countries. The obstacles facing pediatric antiretroviral therapy (ART) delivery in resource-limited countries are multifaceted: lack of health care infrastructure, limited availability of pediatric drug formulations, lack of early HIV diagnostic and monitoring techniques, limited manpower with expertise in pediatric HIV care, limited donor funding, and competing public health priorities with limited health care budget. In this paper, the challenges with various ART monitoring tools in resource-limited countries are discussed. Noninvasive (e.g., patient, clinical events outcome, and adherence) and invasive (e.g., immunologic and virologic) monitoring tools are discussed. Several cheap and technically less complex laboratory tests for monitoring are becoming available. Funding agencies and country programs should invest in validating the use of current technologies to optimize pediatric HIV care in resource-limited countries. 1. Introduction The current state of the HIV epidemic can be likened to the description of the setting of Charles Dickens’s novel, “A Tale of Two Cities”—“it was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity…” Twenty-nine years into the HIV epidemic, several advances have been made; however, there remain several challenges with regard to access and management of antiretroviral therapy (ART), particularly in resource-limited countries. While the birth of an HIV-infected child is rare in resource-rich countries, mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV continues to fuel the HIV epidemic in resource-limited countries [1]. Two sentinel advances in the pediatric HIV epidemic were (1) an initial 67% reduction in perinatal HIV transmission with the administration of zidovudine (AZT) during pregnancy and peripartum period [2] and (2) a subsequent reduction of perinatal transmission of HIV by 98%-99% in resource-rich countries with the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) during pregnancy [3]. Despite these successes, progress has not been uniform worldwide and care for HIV-infected children continues to lag behind. About 2 million of the 2.1 million HIV-infected children live in sub-Saharan Africa, where there is still limited access to antiretroviral drugs even with the unprecedented global effort at scaling up ART [4]. About 1000 children are
A pastoral evaluation of menopause in the African context
Elijah Baloyi
HTS Theological Studies/Teologiese Studies , 2013,
Abstract: Menopause, with its physical and emotional changes, appears to be an inevitable road for women to travel. The moment of choice for women at menopause involves not only whether they will embrace the new self or try to cling to identities from earlier life but also how the society in which they live views women after menopause. Amongst other things, many African marriages face difficulties when the moment of menopause arrives. This situation is often characterised by a second marriage or a situation where husband and wife no longer share a room. Whenever this happens, it testifies to the idea that the sole purpose of marriage amongst African people is procreation – hence, when the period for that is passed, the bedroom setup changes. This is one of the ways in which senior women are deemed unfit for sexual encounters, a gender-equality concern. This article aims to unveil and discuss how some Africans use menopause as an excuse to exclude women from sexual intercourse, and how pastoral caregivers can help in such situations.
Boundedness of multidimensional Hausdorff operators on $L^1$ and $H^1$ spaces
Elijah Liflyand
Mathematics , 2008,
Abstract: For a wide family of multivariate Hausdorff operators, a new stronger condition for the boundedness of an operator from this family on the real Hardy space $H^1$ by means of atomic decomposition.
A space of multipliers on L
Elijah Liflyand
Mathematics , 1995,
Abstract: Conditions for a function (number sequence) to be a multiplier on the space of integrable functions on $\Bbb R$ ($\Bbb T$) are given. This generalizes recent results of Giang and Moricz.
Estimates of Lebesgue constants via Fourier transforms. Many dimensions
Elijah Liflyand
Mathematics , 1995,
Abstract: This is an attempt of a comprehensive survey of the results in which estimates of the norms of linear means of multiple Fourier series, the Lebesgue constants, are obtained by means of estimating the Fourier transform of a function generating such a method. Only few proofs are given in order to illustrate a general idea of techniques applied. Among the results are well known elsewhere as well as less known or published in an unacceptable journals and several new unpublished results.
Some properties of generalized $k$-Pell sequences
Elijah Soria
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is twofold; (1) to develop several identities for the Generalized $k$-Pell sequence (including those of Binet, Catalan, Cassini, and d'Ocagne), and (2) to study applications of tridiagonal generating matrices for the $k$-Pell and Generalized $k$-Pell sequences.
Abelian Quasi-Ordered Groups
Elijah Stines
Mathematics , 2012,
Abstract: Abelian groups having partial orderings compatible with their binary operations have long been studied in the literature. In particular, lattice-ordered abelian groups constitute a universal-algebraic variety, and thus form a category which is monadic over the category of sets. The current paper studies the more general case of quasi-ordered abelian groups, identifying some of their more fundamental properties and their relationships to partially ordered and lattice-ordered groups. We reinterpret the category of quasi-ordered abelian groups with order preserving morphisms by examining the interplay between the group and the set of all positive elements under the quasi-ordering. The main result shows that the category of quasi-ordered abelian groups is monadic over the category of set monomorphisms.
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