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Dry Ports in China and West Africa: A Comparative Study  [PDF]
Hamadou Tahirou Abdoulkarim, Seydou Harouna Fatouma, Elijah Musango Munyao
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management (AJIBM) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ajibm.2019.93030
The dry port concept was first adopted in Europe and North America, followed by Asia, South America and then Africa. Since then, the development of inland cargo distribution facilities has been an active approach to support the hinterlands of maritime gateways among other functions. Dry ports can be developed in the hinterland based on different approaches, involving differing functions, actors, motivations and logistical models. They can be classified as close, mid-range or distant, with respect to the seaport. Dry port development can be carried out by port authorities, port terminal operators and transport providers such as third-party logistics providers or rail operators or by public bodies: local, national or regional. One of the design strategies for these facilities is rail-based which promotes economies of scale on high capacities and long distance links. The other strategy is the road-based short-distance satellite terminals aimed at decongesting the port or facilitating faster custom clearances. This paper carries out a comparative analysis of dry ports in China and the West African countries using a descriptive approach and providing case studies for each parameter used in the comparative study. This study is based on motivations for dry port development in these regions, as well as the development and management models applied in the dry port sector. In addition, a discussion on the merits and demerits of the management and development models applied on dry ports in these regions are also included in this study, from which conclusions and recommendations are drawn to support policy formulation and future studies. This paper not only serves to contribute to the existing academic knowledge on dry ports, but also provides the policy makers and practitioners in the logistics and trade sectors with an invaluable opportunity to compare the practices in the two regions for application to appropriate scenarios.
Millennium development goals: Examining Kenya constraints in achieving the eight goals
Wambua Leonard Munyao
Journal of Arts and Humanities , 2013,
Abstract: This paper examines Kenya’s performance in achieving the famous millennium development goals. The paper provides the government and other stakeholders with proper understanding of the constraints of achieving the millennium development goals as well as reflecting the phase and the passion of the country in achieving this important development goal. The paper further seeks to stress the importance of this goal in reducing poverty in the country. The paper has cited some key factors undermining achieving of the millennium development goals in Kenya. Major recommendations that can contribute towards achieving of the millennium development goals have also been made.
Molecular Characterisation Reveals the Existence of a Hybridogenous Intermediary Form between Sweet Watermelon and Cow Melon Forms of Watermelon  [PDF]
Claid Mujaju, Rudo Musango, Larisa Garkava-Gustavsson
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2018.96092
Abstract: Watermelon research in Southern Africa, has predominantly observed the clear existence of the sweet watermelon and cow melon forms of watermelon, cultivated on farm and even some occurring in the wild. Molecular characterization of 48 watermelon accessions collected from National Genebank of Zimbabwe using 9 SSR markers generated a total of 49 putative alleles. The average number of alleles detected by each primer was 5.4. Analysis of molecular variance within and among accessions of watermelons revealed that only 39% of the total variation resides between these two groups (cow-melons and sweet watermelons), 24% between accession within groups and 37% within accessions. Multivariate analyses employed provide evidence of the existence of introgression between sweet water melons and cow melons, as reflected by some accessions of cow melons, clustering into a hybridogenous group. Most of watermelon accessions within the hybridogenous group [A (II)] were collected from drier communal areas, while those accessions within the cow melon group [A (I)] are mostly from research centers. The separation of cow melons into distinct groups could be indicative of a possible formation of an isolated evolutionary unit.
Application of Electrical Resistivity Imaging in Investigating Groundwater Pollution in Sapele Area, Nigeria  [PDF]
Okezie Uchegbulam, Elijah A. Ayolabi
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2014.614126
Abstract: Sixty-four multi-electrode Lund imaging system coupled with ABEM SAS 4000 Terrameter was used for the electrical imaging of the study area. Wenner and Gradient arrays with 2 m minimum electrode spacing were employed which revealed resistivity changes in the vertical and horizontal directions along the survey lines. Earth imager software was employed for the processing and the iteration of the 2-D resistivity data. The subsurface is characterized with soil material with resistivity ranging from 42 - 15,000 Ohm-m, reflective of varying degree of conductivity associated with changing lithology and fluid type. Correlation with borehole data shows that the first 10 m is composed of laterite. While sand materials occupy 10 to about 60 m beneath the surface, with anomalously high resistivity 15,000 Ohm-m in most parts. These high resistivity formations can be attributed to the presence of hydrocarbon within the subsurface, which is an indication that shallow aquifer in the study area has been polluted. The water level in the study area is close to the surface, between 4 - 5 m. As a result of the high resistivity formations in most parts, deep wells of about 45 m are recommended after geophysical investigations.
Poverty reduction Approaches in Kenya: Assessing the Usefulness of the Right Based Approach in Kenya
Wambua Leonard Munyao, Ph.D
Journal of Arts and Humanities , 2013,
Abstract: While billions of dollars have been spent in development projects in least developed countries, poverty continues to increase. This study proposes human-rights based approach to poverty eradication. To this end, the study seeks to assess the key determinants of use of rights- based approaches to poverty reduction and it’s usefulness in Kenya with special reference to NGOs in Kibera. The study further high lights some of the basic skills of implementing the rights based approach to poverty reduction. The attempts to establish the proportion of NGOs applying rights based approach to poverty reduction in Kibera Division as well. The review of relevant literature has been undertaken and a field study done. The study is informed by a qualitative human rights framework.
HIV-1 Drug Resistance Mutations in Patients Failing 1st Line Therapy in a Comprehensive Care Center in Nairobi, Kenya  [PDF]
Elizabeth Luvai, Rebecca Waihenya, James Munyao, Lucy Sanguli, Christina Mwachari, Samoel Khamadi
World Journal of AIDS (WJA) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/wja.2015.52010
Abstract: Background: HIV-1 drug resistance is an emerging challenge for HIV-1 infected clients who are on antiretroviral therapy (ART). In Kenya, as in many other developing countries, ART is now accesible to clients who need it. However, they must be done a CD4 test first and if the count is <300, then ART is commenced. With the initiation of ART comes the challenge of adherence to medication, a factor that is impacted greatly by the understanding of the client of the importance?of adherence and the financial ability to keep their appointments, especially if the clients come from a distant location. Objective: To identify HIV-1 drug resistance mutations inclientsfailing1st line antiretroviral therapy in Nairobi, Kenya. Methodology: A cross sectional study was carried out where whole blood samples were collected from clients attending a HIV care and treatment clinic in Nairobi. Clients who had been on ART for more than 6 months and had a viral load greater than 1000 were enrolled in the study. A total of 52 client samples were successfully sequenced in the reverse transcriptase region and analyzed. Results: After analysis of the generated sequences, it was seen that 43 (82.6%) of the clients had HIV-1 drug resistance mutations conferring resistance to one or more nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). Majority of the clients (46%) were infected with HIV-1 subtype A viruses. Conclusion: The findings of the study showed that a significant proportion of the clients on ART had developed resistance mutations to one or more drugs that are used as 1st line therapy in Kenya. There is need for continuous education of the population on importance of adherence to medication. There is also need for clinicians to be trained on using viral load and HIV drug resistance testing, where available, as methods of monitoring treatment failure so that clients can be switched to alternative medication immediately the need arises, so as to improve their treatment outcomes.
Monitoring Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV-Infected Children in Resource-Limited Countries: A Tale of Two Epidemics
Elijah Paintsil
AIDS Research and Treatment , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/280901
Abstract: Twenty-nine years into the HIV epidemic, several advances have been made; however, there remain several challenges particularly with pediatric HIV in resource-limited countries. The obstacles facing pediatric antiretroviral therapy (ART) delivery in resource-limited countries are multifaceted: lack of health care infrastructure, limited availability of pediatric drug formulations, lack of early HIV diagnostic and monitoring techniques, limited manpower with expertise in pediatric HIV care, limited donor funding, and competing public health priorities with limited health care budget. In this paper, the challenges with various ART monitoring tools in resource-limited countries are discussed. Noninvasive (e.g., patient, clinical events outcome, and adherence) and invasive (e.g., immunologic and virologic) monitoring tools are discussed. Several cheap and technically less complex laboratory tests for monitoring are becoming available. Funding agencies and country programs should invest in validating the use of current technologies to optimize pediatric HIV care in resource-limited countries. 1. Introduction The current state of the HIV epidemic can be likened to the description of the setting of Charles Dickens’s novel, “A Tale of Two Cities”—“it was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity…” Twenty-nine years into the HIV epidemic, several advances have been made; however, there remain several challenges with regard to access and management of antiretroviral therapy (ART), particularly in resource-limited countries. While the birth of an HIV-infected child is rare in resource-rich countries, mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV continues to fuel the HIV epidemic in resource-limited countries [1]. Two sentinel advances in the pediatric HIV epidemic were (1) an initial 67% reduction in perinatal HIV transmission with the administration of zidovudine (AZT) during pregnancy and peripartum period [2] and (2) a subsequent reduction of perinatal transmission of HIV by 98%-99% in resource-rich countries with the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) during pregnancy [3]. Despite these successes, progress has not been uniform worldwide and care for HIV-infected children continues to lag behind. About 2 million of the 2.1 million HIV-infected children live in sub-Saharan Africa, where there is still limited access to antiretroviral drugs even with the unprecedented global effort at scaling up ART [4]. About 1000 children are
A pastoral evaluation of menopause in the African context
Elijah Baloyi
HTS Theological Studies/Teologiese Studies , 2013,
Abstract: Menopause, with its physical and emotional changes, appears to be an inevitable road for women to travel. The moment of choice for women at menopause involves not only whether they will embrace the new self or try to cling to identities from earlier life but also how the society in which they live views women after menopause. Amongst other things, many African marriages face difficulties when the moment of menopause arrives. This situation is often characterised by a second marriage or a situation where husband and wife no longer share a room. Whenever this happens, it testifies to the idea that the sole purpose of marriage amongst African people is procreation – hence, when the period for that is passed, the bedroom setup changes. This is one of the ways in which senior women are deemed unfit for sexual encounters, a gender-equality concern. This article aims to unveil and discuss how some Africans use menopause as an excuse to exclude women from sexual intercourse, and how pastoral caregivers can help in such situations.
Boundedness of multidimensional Hausdorff operators on $L^1$ and $H^1$ spaces
Elijah Liflyand
Mathematics , 2008,
Abstract: For a wide family of multivariate Hausdorff operators, a new stronger condition for the boundedness of an operator from this family on the real Hardy space $H^1$ by means of atomic decomposition.
A space of multipliers on L
Elijah Liflyand
Mathematics , 1995,
Abstract: Conditions for a function (number sequence) to be a multiplier on the space of integrable functions on $\Bbb R$ ($\Bbb T$) are given. This generalizes recent results of Giang and Moricz.
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