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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 51536 matches for " Elie Y. Bou Daher "
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The Design and Development of a Multi-Lingual Braille System Output Device with Audio Enhancement  [PDF]
Michel J. Owayjan, Taimour Z. Wehbe, Elie Y. Bou Daher, Omran A. Ayoub
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2013.65036
Abstract:

Visually impaired people face difficulties in interacting and gaining full advantage of computers. Recently, and with the fast evolution in technology, researchers proposed to give the blinds the ability to take advantage of these advancements. Accordingly, designers and engineers started working on projects that relate input and output devices to the computers in order for the blind individual to have full control of the hi-tech machines. However, investments in these kinds of hardware presented complexity in the design, in addition to the high cost imposed by the devices used. The project’s objective is to design and develop a Multi-Lingual Braille System Output Device for the visually impaired individuals that enable them to access and read texts from a computer. The device acquires both English or Arabic texts and displays them using controlled piezoelectric Braille cells. It also has the ability to produce a sound that matches the displayed characters. The control of the cells is done via Programmable Interface Controller (PIC) microcontroller. The interaction between the device and the computer is done through the Universal Serial Bus (USB). C# is the language used to write the program responsible for controlling this interaction. The continuous development of such devices is essential for the visually impaired to keep up with the technological advancements. The main advantages of this system are its low cost, the added multi-lingual, and the audio features. In addition, many features can be added so as to satisfy the users’ needs, such as adding new languages and Grade 2 Braille System.

Consequences of dysthyroidism on the digestive tract and viscera
Ronald Daher, Thierry Yazbeck, Joe Bou Jaoude, Bassam Abboud
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2009,
Abstract: Thyroid hormones define basal metabolism throughout the body, particularly in the intestine and viscera. Gastrointestinal manifestations of dysthyroidism are numerous and involve all portions of the tract. Thyroid hormone action on motility has been widely studied, but more complex pathophysiologic mechanisms have been indicated by some studies although these are not fully understood. Both thyroid hormone excess and deficiency can have similar digestive manifestations, such as diarrhea, although the mechanism is different in each situation. The liver is the most affected organ in both hypo- and hyperthyroidism. Specific digestive diseases may be associated with autoimmune thyroid processes, such as Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and Grave’s disease. Among them, celiac sprue and primary biliary cirrhosis are the most frequent although a clear common mechanism has never been proven. Overall, thyroid-related digestive manifestations were described decades ago but studies are still needed in order to confirm old concepts or elucidate undiscovered mechanisms. All practitioners must be aware of digestive symptoms due to dysthyroidism in order to avoid misdiagnosis of rare but potentially lethal situations.
What Is the Use of Elephant Hair?
Conor L. Myhrvold, Howard A. Stone, Elie Bou-Zeid
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0047018
Abstract: The idea that low surface densities of hairs could be a heat loss mechanism is understood in engineering and has been postulated in some thermal studies of animals. However, its biological implications, both for thermoregulation as well as for the evolution of epidermal structures, have not yet been noted. Since early epidermal structures are poorly preserved in the fossil record, we study modern elephants to infer not only the heat transfer effect of present-day sparse hair, but also its potential evolutionary origins. Here we use a combination of theoretical and empirical approaches, and a range of hair densities determined from photographs, to test whether sparse hairs increase convective heat loss from elephant skin, thus serving an intentional evolutionary purpose. Our conclusion is that elephants are covered with hair that significantly enhances their thermoregulation ability by over 5% under all scenarios considered, and by up to 23% at low wind speeds where their thermoregulation needs are greatest. The broader biological significance of this finding suggests that maintaining a low-density hair cover can be evolutionary purposeful and beneficial, which is consistent with the fact that elephants have the greatest need for heat loss of any modern terrestrial animal because of their high body-volume to skin-surface ratio. Elephant hair is the first documented example in nature where increasing heat transfer due to a low hair density covering may be a desirable effect, and therefore raises the possibility of such a covering for similarly sized animals in the past. This elephant example dispels the widely-held assumption that in modern endotherms body hair functions exclusively as an insulator and could therefore be a first step to resolving the prior paradox of why hair was able to evolve in a world much warmer than our own.
The Prevalence of High Blood Pressure among Marathon Runners during Beirut-Marathon 2014  [PDF]
Souzan Tatari, Rusul Mukhtar, Hassan Alawieh, Abdul Rahman Mourad, Ahmad Araji, Ali El-Sayed, Ahmad Sweid, Lea Daher, Omar Bou Hamdan, Sola Bahous, Samer Kabbani
Open Journal of Epidemiology (OJEpi) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojepi.2017.73022
Abstract: Objective: To assess the prevalence of high blood pressure (BP) and cardiovascular risk factors among marathon runners during Beirut-Marathon 2014. Methods: A total of 325 marathon runners were divided into 42 km and 10 km groups. They were assessed for cardiovascular risk factors by measuring their BP and answering a questionnaire. The questionnaire composed of 22 questions related to demographic information, risk factors, medical history, family history, medical checkups, use of antihypertensive drugs and definition of hyponatremia. Results: There were 30 runners in the 42 km group and 295 in the 10 km group interviewed. The majority of 42 km runners were males 29 (96.7%) vs. 205 (69.5%) in the 10 km group, (P = 0.001). The 42 km group was older than 10 km group (47 ± 13.8 years vs. 38.5 ± 14.6 years; P = 0.0025). The prevalence of hypertension was 46.7% in the 42 km group as compared to 31.2% in the 10 km group (P = 0.08). Systolic BP (SBP) was higher in 42 km group vs. 10 km group (143 ± 22.4 mm Hg vs. 129.9 ± 17.8 mm Hg; P = 0.0004). The heart rate was lower among 42 km vs. 10 km group (71 ± 11.1 bpm vs. 84 ± 16 bpm; P < 0.0001). Only 10% of the runners in both groups reported that they have hypertension (HTN). Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of HTN among marathon runners but minorities were aware that they have hypertension. The 42 km runners tend to be older with higher systolic blood pressure as compared to the 10 km runners.
Impact of Cardiac Computed Tomographic Angiography Findings on Planning of Cancer Therapy in Patients with Concomitant Structural Heart Disease
Iyad N. Daher,Jose Banchs,Syed Wamique Yusuf,Elie Mouhayar,Jean-Bernard Durand,Gregory Gladish
Cardiology Research and Practice , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/268058
Abstract: Background. Exclusion of underlying coronary artery disease (CAD) is essential in the diagnosis of chemotherapy-induced cardiomyopathy. Presence and severity of CAD can also impact the choice of therapy in cancer patients. The value of cardiac computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) in this setting has not been reported. Methods. We collected data on the clinical presentation and indications for CCTA performed from January to December 2008 at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (MDACC). All examinations were performed using a 64-detector scanner. CCTA results and subsequent treatment decisions were examined. Results. A total of 80 patients underwent CCTA during the study period for the following indications (not mutually exclusive): cardiomyopathy of unknown etiology in 33 pts (41.3%), chest pain in 32 (40.0%), abnormal stress test in 16 (20.0%), abnormal cardiac markers in 8 (10.0%), suspected cardiac mass or thrombus in 7 (8.8%). Chemotherapy-induced cardiomyopathy was diagnosed in 18 pts (22.5%). Severe CAD was detected in 22 pts (27.5%); due to concomitant advanced cancer or patient refusal, only 12 underwent coronary angiogram. Of these, 4?pts (5% of total) underwent coronary artery bypass grafting. A total of 41 pts (51.3%) had their cancer management altered based on CCTA findings. Conclusion. CCTA is useful in evaluating cancer pts with structural heart disease and can have an impact on the management of cancer and cardiac disease. 1. Introduction Suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with a concurrent malignancy greatly impacts prognosis and treatment decisions. Faced with both diseases, appropriate prioritization of care is needed, as some cancer treatments may be cardiotoxic [1] or lead to blood dyscrasias that could discourage the use of commonly prescribed cardiac medications, such as aspirin or heparin products. On the other hand, planning of cardiac invasive testing requires clinicians to take into account cancer status and possible delays in care. Noninvasive coronary anatomical imaging could therefore help with accurate treatment planning prior to using invasive strategies. Exclusion of significant obstructive CAD in patients with left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and a prior history of exposure to cardiotoxic chemotherapy agents are both needed for the diagnosis of chemotherapy-induced cardiomyopathy (CIC) [2]. In addition, some cancer patients presenting with other findings suggestive of structural heart disease may need an accurate anatomical coronary evaluation. While invasive coronary angiography (ICA)
Sensitivity of the Investments of Sub-Saharan Firms to Financial Constraints  [PDF]
Elie Ngongang
Journal of Mathematical Finance (JMF) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jmf.2013.31A020
Abstract:

Investment is an important instrument of growth and competitiveness for non financial firms. However, these firms have limited financial resources (or liquidity) at their disposal. The financial constraint is defined as a conditionality to be met in order to have access to liquidity by assuming that the information held by shareholders is perfect, and that financial markets are efficient. We have attempted in this study to analyze empirically the impact of these financial constraint on the investments of Sub-Saharan manufacturing firms. We carried out an empirical analysis of a sample of 73 firms belonging to the different manufacturing sectors listed on the stock market during the period 1998-2009, and by taking inspiration from panel data methodology. The empirical tests emphasize the fact that the manufacturing firms of Sub-Saharan countries, including the smallest ones and those with which financial institutions have no close relations, witness an environment with a strong information asymmetry between borrowers and lenders. These firms are constrained in their access to external indebtedness due to the levelling-off of indebtedness. However, taking account of uncertainty could enrich the extension of this study.

The Candida albicans Dse1 Protein Is Essential and Plays a Role in Cell Wall Rigidity, Biofilm Formation, and Virulence
Jalil Y. Daher,Joseph Koussa,Samer Younes,Roy A. Khalaf
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/504280
Abstract: The fungal pathogen Candida albicans is one of the leading causative agents of death in immunocompromised individuals. It harbors an arsenal of cell wall anchored factors that are implicated in virulence such as filamentation inducing factors, adhesins, lipases, proteases, and superoxide dismutases. Dse1 is a cell wall protein involved in cell wall metabolism. The purpose of this study is to characterize the role Dse1 plays in virulence. Dse1 appears to be an essential gene as no homozygous null mutant was possible. The heterozygote mutant exhibited increased susceptibility to calcofluor white, a cell wall disrupting agent, with a subsequent reduction in cell wall chitin content, decreased oxidative stress tolerance, a 30% reduction in biofilm formation, and a delay in adhesion that was mirrored by a reduction in virulence in a mouse model of infection. Dse1 thus appears to be an important protein involved in cell wall integrity and rigidity. 1. Introduction Candida albicans is the most common fungal pathogen in humans. This fungus exists as a commensal organism in healthy individuals by colonizing several niches of the human body [1]. These niches include skin and mucosal surfaces, oral cavity, vagina, and gastrointestinal tract. An altered balance between the host immunity and this opportunistic fungus, as in the case of immunocompromised patients, is one of the leading causes of candidiasis in humans. After entering the bloodstream, the yeast cells can infect all internal organs and may cause life-threatening septicemia [2]. In the USA, candidiasis is considered the third most common blood-borne infection and the fourth major cause of nosocomial infections. Candidiasis can develop as superficial candidiasis (skin and mucosa) which occurs in healthy individuals, or invasive candidiasis which is seen in cancer patients, AIDS patients, and immunocompromised individuals following transplantation [1]. The latter conditions have been shown to be associated with a high rate of mortality which can range between 35% and 60%. A remarkable characteristic of C. albicans is its ability to grow in two different forms: ellipsoidal buds (blastospores) or hyphae [3]. This asexual diploid fungus can form blastospores which are free floating cells that grow independently from each other or hyphae which are elongated cells attached to each other. The transition between the two forms can be stimulated by environmental factors such as body temperature (37°C), neutral to basic pH, or by some more critical filamentation inducing factors such as blood serum, hypoxia,
Phelipanche aegyptiaca Management with Glyphosate in Potato  [PDF]
Mustapha Haidar, Elie Shdeed
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2015.616256
Abstract: Two years field and greenhouse studies were carried out to evaluate the efficacy of sub-lethal doses of glyphosate (Round upR), ammonia gas, phosphoric acid and sulfuric acid against Phelipanche aegyptiaca in potato. Results showed that sequential application of sub-lethal doses of glyphosate at all tested rates significantly reduced P. aegyptiaca shoot number and shoot dry weight. While, the use of ammonia gas, phosphoric acid and sulfuric acid had no significant effect on the total level of P. aegyptiaca infection as compared to the control. The best results considering both P. aegyptiaca control and selectivity in potato were obtained by sequential application of sub-lethal doses of glyphosate at 60 and 80 g·ai·ha-1. Sequential application of glyphosate at 60 g·ai·ha-1 reduced P. aegyptiaca infection by 100% after 100 days after potato emergence (DAPE). Except for sequential application of glyphosate at 60 and 80 g·ai·ha-1, all tested rates enhanced the maturity rate of potato plants and decreased the number of marketable potato tubers.
Convergence of the Unmanned Aerial Industry  [PDF]
Johnny Elie Chamata
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2017.72015
Abstract: Industry convergencethe merger of previously unrelated industriesis a model that has had a strong influence on various industries and received substantial attention among practitioners over the past years. Despite this, industry convergence has received little attention in the field of unmanned aircraft. As the unmanned aircraft industry is still in the infancy stage, exploring the industrial status may contribute to the technology’s body of knowledge and may be useful for entrepreneurial decision making. Thus, this research paper investigates the degree to which the unmanned aerial vehicle sector represents an example of industry convergence and predicts the consequences built upon it. The investigation is based on the convergence theory and evidence from the unmanned aerial systems industry is provided to support theoretical foundations. Conclusions show that unmanned aerial technology is converged to an undefined extent and the author calls for further related empirical research.
Deterioration of Groundwater in Beirut Due to Seawater Intrusion  [PDF]
Mark Saadeh, Elie Wakim
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2017.511011
Abstract: All of Lebanon’s aquifers, without exception, are afflicted with some form of contamination, be it from untreated raw sewage, pesticides or fertilizers, but at the forefront there is seawater intrusion, and nowhere it is more pronounced than in Beirut, the capital. Extensive sampling of Beirut’s groundwater in recent years has revealed alarming values of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) in the thousands of milligrams per litre, in an increasing number of wells. This irreversible deterioration of groundwater quality is forcing citizens to install costly desalination equipment, importing questionable water by private tankers or abandoning their wells altogether. Initial groundwater sampling began in 2004. In what was possibly Lebanon’s worst drought in decades, another campaign to sample Beirut’s groundwater was undertaken in the summer of 2014 which still continues to date. Acute water shortages in recent years coupled with recurrent periods of drought, have rendered Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) of many sampled wells in Beirut, equivalent to that of seawater (~37,500 mg/L). Fundamental in combating the impact of seawater intrusion however is an understanding of the Ghyben-Herzberg principle which warns that for every meter of groundwater drop above sea level there is an equivalent rise of 40 meters of the saline-fresh water interface, demonstrating just how sensitive over-pumping is in coastal aquifers. With an understanding of the principle dynamics behind the phenomena of seawater intrusion, myriad methods may then be employed to combat this encroachment in coastal aquifers. Restricting or even preventing altogether withdrawals from Beirut’s coastal aquifers may however be the only viable option left.
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