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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2751 matches for " Eli Schwarz "
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A case-control study of determinants for high and low dental caries prevalence in Nevada youth
Marcia Ditmyer, Georgia Dounis, Connie Mobley, Eli Schwarz
BMC Oral Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6831-10-24
Abstract: Over 4000 adolescents between ages 12 and 19 (Case Group: N = 2124; Control Group: N = 2045) received oral health screenings conducted in public/private middle and high schools in Nevada in 2008/2009 academic year. Caries prevalence was computed (Untreated decay scores [D-Score] and DMFT scores) for the 30% of Nevada Youth who presented with the highest DMFT score (case group) and compared to the control group (caries-free) and to national averages. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between selected variables and caries prevalence.A majority of the sample was non-Hispanic (62%), non-smokers (80%), and had dental insurance (70%). With the exception of gender, significant differences in mean D-scores were found in seven of the eight variables. All variables produced significant differences between the case and control groups in mean DMFT Scores. With the exception of smoking status, there were significant differences in seven of the eight variables in the bivariate logistic regression. All of the independent variables remained in the multivariate logistic regression model contributing significantly to over 40% of the variation in the increased DMFT status. The strongest predictors for the high DMFT status were racial background, age, fluoridated community, and applied sealants respectively. Gender, second hand smoke, insurance status, and tobacco use were significant, but to a lesser extent.Findings from this study will aid in creating educational programs and other primary and secondary interventions to help promote oral health for Nevada youth, especially focusing on the subgroup that presents with the highest mean DMFT scores.By the year 2000, the World Health Organization (WHO) announced the global average goal for dental caries was to be no more than 3 DMFT (decayed, missing, filled teeth) at 12 years of age [1]. Although there has been a significant decline in dental caries prevalence since the early 1970s, oral
Inequalities of caries experience in Nevada youth expressed by DMFT index vs. Significant Caries Index (SiC) over time
Marcia Ditmyer, Georgia Dounis, Connie Mobley, Eli Schwarz
BMC Oral Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6831-11-12
Abstract: Retrospective data was analyzed from a series of sequential, standardized oral health surveys across eight years (2001/2002-2008/2009) that included over 62,000 examinations of adolescents 13-19 years of age, attending public/private Nevada schools. Mean Decayed-Missing-Filled Teeth index (DMFT) and Significant Caries Index (SiC) were subsequently computed for each academic year. Descriptive statistics were reported for analysis of comparative DMFT and SiC scores in relation to age, gender, racial background, and residence in a fluoridated/non-fluoridated community. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the differential impact of the variables on the probability of being in the high caries prevalence group.Comparison of students' mean DMFT to National (NHANES) data confirmed that dental caries remains a common chronic disease among Nevada youth, presenting higher prevalence rates and greater mean scores than the national averages. Downward trends were found across all demographics compared between survey years 1 and 6 with the exception of survey year 3. An upward trend began in survey year six. Over time, the younger group displayed an increasing proportion of cariesfree individuals while a decreasing proportion was found among older examinees. As expected, the mean SiC score was significantly higher than DMFT scores within each survey year across comparison groups (p < 0.001).Using both caries indices together may help to highlight oral health inequalities more accurately among different population groups within the community in order to identify the need for special preventive oral health interventions in adolescent Nevadans. At the community level, action should focus on retaining and expanding the community fluoridation program as an effective preventive measure. At the individual level the study identifies the need for more targeted efforts to reach children early with a focus on females, Hispanics and Blacks, and uninsured children.For many years,
Early childhood feeding practices and dental caries in preschool children: a multi-centre birth cohort study
Amit Arora, Jane A Scott, Sameer Bhole, Loc Do, Eli Schwarz, Anthony S Blinkhorn
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-28
Abstract: This is an observational cohort study and involves the recruitment of a birth cohort from disadvantaged communities in South Western Sydney. Mothers will be invited to join the study soon after the birth of their child at the time of the first home visit by Child and Family Health Nurses. Data on feeding practices and dental health behaviours will be gathered utilizing a telephone interview at 4, 8 and 12 months, and thereafter at 6 monthly intervals until the child is aged 5 years. Information collected will include a) initiation and duration of breastfeeding, b) introduction of solid food, c) intake of cariogenic and non-cariogenic foods, d) fluoride exposure, and e) oral hygiene practices. Children will have a dental and anthropometric examination at 2 and 5 years of age and the main outcome measures will be oral health quality of life, caries prevalence and caries incidence.This study will provide evidence of the association of early childhood feeding practices and the oral health of preschool children. In addition, information will be collected on breastfeeding practices and the oral health concerns of mothers living in disadvantaged areas in South Western Sydney.Dental caries (decay) is one of the most prevalent chronic childhood diseases worldwide and is a major problem both from a population health perspective and for individual families who have to deal with a young child suffering from toothache [1-3]. In 1996, 39 percent of Australian 6 year-old children had dental caries [4,5], and since that time caries experience in Australian children in all States and Territories has increased [5,6]. The 2002 Child Dental Health Survey of Australia reported that 45 percent of 5-year-olds had one or more decayed or missing teeth and 10 percent of those children examined were found to have more than seven decayed teeth [7]. Local data from the Centre for Oral Health Strategy (NSW Health) indicates that despite water fluoridation, dental caries is a major public health
Age, period, and cohort analysis of regular dental care behavior and edentulism: A marginal approach
Kar-Yan Li, May Wong, Kwok-Fai Lam, Eli Schwarz
BMC Oral Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6831-11-9
Abstract: Data from four sequential cross-sectional surveys of non-institutionalized Danes conducted from 1975-2005 comprising 4330 respondents aged 15+ years in 9 birth cohorts were analyzed. The key study variables were seeking dental care on an annual basis (ADC) and edentulism. For the analysis of ADC, survey year, age, gender, socio-economic status (SES) group, denture-wearing, and school dental care (SDC) during childhood were considered. For the analysis of edentulism, only respondents aged 35+ years were included. Survey year, age, gender, SES group, ADC, and SDC during childhood were considered as the independent factors. To take into account the clustering effect of birth cohorts, marginal logistic regressions with an independent correlation structure in generalized estimating equations (GEE) were carried out, with PROC GENMOD in SAS software.The overall proportion of people seeking ADC increased from 58.8% in 1975 to 86.7% in 2005, while for respondents aged 35 years or older, the overall prevalence of edentulism (35+ years) decreased from 36.4% in 1975 to 5.0% in 2005. Females, respondents in the higher SES group, in more recent survey years, with no denture, and receiving SDC in all grades during childhood were associated with higher probability of seeking ADC regularly (P < 0.05). The interaction of SDC and age (P < 0.0001) was significant. The probabilities of seeking ADC were even higher among subjects with SDC in all grades and aged 45 years or older. Females, older age group, respondents in earlier survey years, not seeking ADC, lower SES group, and not receiving SDC in all grades were associated with higher probability of being edentulous (P < 0.05).With the use of GEE, the potential clustering effect of birth cohorts in sequential cross-sectional oral health survey data could be appropriately considered. The success of Danish dental health policy was demonstrated by a continued increase of regular dental visiting habits and tooth retention in adults becaus
CAS-Based Approach for Automatic Data Integration  [PDF]
Eli Rohn
American Journal of Operations Research (AJOR) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajor.2013.31A017

Research of automatic integration of structured and semi-structured data has not resulted in success over the past fifty years. No theory of data integration exists. It is unknown what the theoretical necessary requirements are, to fully support automatic data integration from autonomous heterogeneous data sources. Therefore, it is not possible to objectively evaluate if and how much new algorithms, techniques, and specifically Data Definition Languages, move towards meeting such theoretical requirements. To overcome the serious reverse salient the field and industry are in, it will be helpful if a data integration theory would be developed. This article proposes a new look at data integration by using complex adaptive systems principles to analyze current shortcomings and propose a direction that may lead to a data integration theory.

Autonomous Data Exchange: The Malady and a Possible Path to Its Cure  [PDF]
Eli Rohn
Intelligent Information Management (IIM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/iim.2015.71003
Abstract: Data exchange is a goal-oriented social communications system implemented through computerized technology. Data definition languages (DDLs) provide the syntax for communicating within and between organizations, illocutionary acts, such as informing, ordering and warning. Data exchange results in meaning-preserving mapping between an ensemble (a constrained variety) and its external (unconstrained) variety. Research on unsupervised structured and semi-structured data exchange has not produced any significant successes over the past fifty years. As a step towards finding a solution, this article proposes a new look at data exchange by using the principles of complex adaptive systems (CAS) to analyze current shortcomings and to propose a direction that may indeed lead to workable and mathematically grounded solution. Three CAS attributes key to this research are variety, tension and entropy. We use them to show that older and contemporary DDLs are identical in their core, thus explaining why even XML and Ontologies have failed to a create fully automated data exchange mechanism. Then we show that it is possible to construct a radically different DDL that overcomes existing data exchange limitations—its variety, tension and entropy are different from existing solutions. The article has these major parts: definition of key CAS attributes; quantitative examination of representative old and new DDLs using these attributes; presentation of the results and their pessimistic ramification; a section that proposes a new theoretical way to construct DDLs that is based entirely on CAS principles, thus enabling unsupervised data exchange. The theory is then tested, showing very promising results.
DAS2-Theory of Personality: A Cognitive Approach to the Enneagram  [PDF]
Erik Schwarz, Shayesteh Zarrabi
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2017.811118
Abstract: The Enneagram is a typology of personality that scopes at the level of ego-personality. Despite the vast amount of attention, it has accumulated since its modern emergence in the 20th century from the Sufi tradition, it is still in need of grounding into current scientific work to disperse some of its much criticized mystical language. The DAS2-theory aims at reconstructing the Enneagram based on cognitive concepts by first establishing the Dynamic Social Field Theory (DSoFT) that expands the Bourdieusian concept of social fields (Bourdieu, 1984), and then proposing the ethological trilogy of Dominance, Aversion, Submission (the DAS-triad)—three distinct stances towards power that have evolved under the pressure of violence, as described by Lorenz (1998). DSoFT posits that the mind is constantly challenged to find the social field that most appeals to the ego in order to react to people and events. To this end—described by using the Buddhist concept of Monkey Mind—the mind jumps from scenario to scenario (field to field) creating micro-contests until it finds a proper reframing of the challenge where it can have a strategy that appeals to the ego. To understand how a DAS-type is formed, three iterative levels have to be built. At the bottom is the DAS-triad, or stances. Because each stance can be applied from a position of superiority or inferiority—that the mind evaluates from the field’s rules—, each of the three stances can branch into two styles, yielding six potential DAS-styles. DAS-styles explain behaviors clearly, distinctly, and ethologically, and form the basis for the application of the DAS2-theory. Lastly, a DAS-type is the selection of a style from the superior triad, as well as one from the inferior triad. Therefore nine types are possible, which correspond to the nine Enneatypes. The DAS2-theory typology can be applied to interpret not only the individuals but also the supra-individual entities’ behaviors without having to resort to metaphors that vaguely describe intentions and actions. It offers new innovative ways to analyze political events, power scenarios, market perception of brands, and other social dynamics, and can greatly influence the academic or social communities of the Enneagram and Power Studies. Further developments in neuropsychoendocrinology and other fields may prove the DAS2-theory assumptions.
Authentification of Einstein’s Static Universe of 1917  [PDF]
Eli Peter Manor
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2014.518194
Abstract: Static cosmology has been abandoned almost a century ago because of phenomena which were unexplained at those times. However, that scenario can be revived with the modern findings of gravitational forces, coming from outside of the “luminous world”, tugging on our universe. These unexplained phenomena were: the redshift, the CMB, and Olbers’ paradox. All these can now be explained, as done in the present manuscript. 1) The observed redshift, which is commonly attributed to the Doppler effect, can also be explained as a gravitational redshift. Thus, the universe is not expanding, as has also been described in recent publications, thereby, making the “Big Bang” hypothesis unnecessary. 2) Gravitation is induced by matter, and at least some of the distant matter is expected to be luminous. That electro-magnetic emission is extremely redshifted, and thus perceived by us as CMB. CMB is not necessarily a historic remnant related to the “Big Bang”, rather it is the redshifted light, coming from extremely distant luminous matter. 3) According to Olbers’ paradox, the night sky is expected to be bright. The sky looks dark because the light coming from extremely faraway light sources, out of our visible universe, is extremely redshifted. Therefore it is perceived by us as CMB. As in the cosmological literature many problems with the “Big Bang” hypothesis have been described, where as the problems with the static universe model are resolved in the present manuscript, the static state scenario should be renovated.
Gravity, Not Mass Increases with Velocity  [PDF]
Eli Peter Manor
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2015.610145
Abstract: There are controversies and misunderstandings with the term “relativistic mass”. So, alternative concepts must be considered. It is postulated herewith that the stronger force required to accelerate an object moving at a faster speed is due to the increase of its inertia. That ensues in a rise in the gravitational force required to pull that object, and thereby brings to an increase in the gravitational constant. In this paper a formula is derived to calculate these variations in the gravitational constant, which is: \"\". This makes the use of the term “relativistic mass” unnecessary.
Gravity and Quark Velocity Entanglement  [PDF]
Eli Peter Manor
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2015.613189
Abstract: Quarks move within the nucleon at relativistic speeds. This causes intertia. This inertia results in gravitational mass-effect. For short distances this is the strong force, for distant objects it is gravity. This is due to an increase in the gravitational constant related to the velocity of objects moving at speeds close to the speed of light. This relation is calculable with a formula presented in the text.
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