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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 402895 matches for " Elfatih M Malik "
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The burden of malaria in Sudan: incidence, mortality and disability – adjusted life – years
Safa I Abdalla, Elfatih M Malik, Kamil M Ali
Malaria Journal , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-6-97
Abstract: A search for local studies and reports providing epidemiological data on malaria in Sudan was conducted. Preliminary estimates of incidence rate, case fatality rate and mortality rate were developed from the data found. The preliminary estimates were processed in the disease modelling computer software, DisMod II, to produce internally consistent mortality and incidence rates, which were used to calculate DALYs lost due to malaria.Malaria incidence in Sudan was estimated to be about 9 million episodes in 2002 and the number of deaths due to malaria was about 44,000. 2,877,000 DALYs were lost in Sudan in 2002 due to malaria mortality, episodes, anaemia and neurological sequelae. Children under five years of age had the highest burden. Males had the highest incidence and mortality, but females lost more DALYs.Formal health system data underestimated malaria burden. The burden estimates can be useful in informing decision making, although uncertainty around them needs to be quantified. Epidemiological research is needed to fill data gaps and update the estimates.Estimating the burden of malaria is highly needed for evidence based planning of malaria control. In Sudan, malaria has been the subject of a large amount of epidemiological, entomological and biomedical research. Malaria surveillance, as part of the general reporting of health events from health facilities or specific surveillance for epidemic preparedness, provided a wide range of information. This resulted in multiple and diverse sources of information about malaria burden in Sudan, each source serving the purpose for which it was established. The problems with these sources are non-representativeness, variability of the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic criteria used and variability of the indices measured. Some may suffer from underreporting. These sources, therefore, could not directly provide a single valid national indicator of malaria burden. Official figures of incidence and mortality refl
Retention and efficacy of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets distributed in eastern Sudan: a two-step community-based study
Saad El-Din Hassan, Elfatih M Malik, Somia I Okoued, Elsadig M Eltayeb
Malaria Journal , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-7-85
Abstract: This two-step study aimed to assess the retention and efficacy of LLINs (Olyset?) distributed in the year 2006 in Kassala district in eastern Sudan. In the first step, using a cluster sample technique, heads of 210 households (30 by 7) were interviewed, and six LLINs were collected and later tested for efficacy. In the second step, eight focus group discussion sessions were conducted to complement the results from the first step.Results showed that the retention of LLINs was 92.9% one-and-half years after distribution. Some bed nets were distributed against a price. Utilization of bed nets by children under five years of age and by pregnant women was found to be 55% and 42.1% respectively. For the bioassay efficacy tests, mean knock down after 60 minutes was 91.1%, while mortality after 24 hours was 99.4%.LLINs (Olyset?) were efficacious at the time of the study. People appreciated the usefulness but were not fully aware of their importance and were not motivated enough to use them. The retention of the bed nets was quite high but the utilization of the nets needs more focus from the National Malaria Control Programme. Bed net distribution activities should be accompanied by wide health education campaigns and followed up with tracking surveys to evaluate their effectiveness.In Sudan, malaria is a major public health problem, topping the list of the main causes of morbidity, mortality and hospital attendance [1]. One of the key interventions to control malaria is vector control, including the use of insecticide treated nets (ITNs), the other key interventions being diagnosis and effective treatment of malaria cases as well as Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS) [2]. Studies have shown that bed nets do in fact reduce child mortality by about 20% and reduce the episodes of malaria by about 50% [3]. In addition, insecticide-treated nets also kill or keep away other insects, such as head lice, bedbugs and fleas [4] and have been useful in the prevention of other diseases suc
Testing the sensitivity and specificity of the fluorescence microscope (Cyscope?) for malaria diagnosis
Saad El-Din H Hassan, Somia I Okoued, Mahmoud A Mudathir, Elfatih M Malik
Malaria Journal , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-9-88
Abstract: In this study, 293 febrile patients above the age of 18 years attending the malaria treatment centre in Sinnar State (Sudan) were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Finger-prick blood samples were also collected from the participants to be tested for malaria using the hospital's microscope, the reference laboratory microscope, as well as the Cyscope? microscope. The results of the investigations were then used to calculate the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the Cyscope? microscope in reference to gold standard light microscopy.The sensitivity was found to be 98.2% (95% CI: 90.6%-100%); specificity = 98.3% (95% CI: 95.7% - 99.5%); positive predictive value = 93.3% (95% CI: 83.8% - 98.2%); and negative predictive value = 99.6% (95% CI: 97.6% - 100%).In conclusion, the Cyscope? microscope was found to be sensitive, specific and provide rapid, reliable results in a matter of less than 10 minutes. The Cyscope? microscope should be considered as a viable, cheaper and time-saving option for malaria diagnosis, especially in areas where Plasmodium falciparum is the predominant parasite.Malaria is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Africa, killing a child every 30 seconds [1]. One of the major contributing factors to malaria mortality is delayed or inaccurate diagnosis [2]. That is why one of the main strategic directions of the Roll Back Malaria strategic plan for Sudan, early diagnosis and treatment of malaria, is a necessary component in the control of malaria [3]. Early diagnosis has become even more important after the emergence of drug resistance [4].In many countries, due to poverty or lack of training and facilities, malaria is still being diagnosed clinically, an unreliable method leading to over-diagnosis and wasting precious time for patients and staff [5]. The gold standard in malaria diagnosis is still light microscopy [6]. This technique has high sensitivity but is a relatively time-consuming proced
Ethical, legal and social aspects of the approach in Sudan
El Sayed Badria B,Malcolm Colin A,Babiker Ahmed,Malik Elfatih M
Malaria Journal , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-8-s2-s3
Abstract: The global malaria situation, especially in Africa, and the problems frequently encountered in chemical control of vectors such as insecticide resistance, emphasize the urgency of research, development and implementation of new vector control technologies that are applicable at regional and local levels. The successful application of the sterile insect technique (SIT) for the control of the New World screwworm Cochliomyia hominivorax and several species of fruit flies has given impetus to the use of this method for suppression or elimination of malaria vectors in some areas of Africa including Northern State of Sudan. The research and development phase of the Northern State feasibility study has been started. Sudanese stakeholders are working side-by-side with the International Atomic Energy Agency in the activities of this important phase. Several ethical, legal and social issues associated with this approach arose during this phase of the project. They need to be seriously considered and handled with care. In this paper, these issues are described, and the current and proposed activities to overcome potential hurdles to ensure success of the project are listed.
Self-reported fever, treatment actions and malaria infection prevalence in the northern states of Sudan
Khalid A Elmardi, Abdisalan M Noor, Sophie Githinji, Tareg M Abdelgadir, ElFatih M Malik, Robert W Snow
Malaria Journal , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-10-128
Abstract: In October-November 2009, a cluster sample cross-sectional household malaria indicator survey was undertaken in the 15 northern states of the Sudan. Data on household assets and individual level information on age, sex, whether the individual had a fever in the last 14 days and on the day of survey, actions taken to treat the fever including diagnostic services and drugs used and their sources were collected. Consenting household members were asked to provide a finger-prick blood sample and examined for malaria parasitaemia using a rapid diagnostic test (RDT). All proportions and odds ratios were weighted and adjusted for clustering.Of 26,471 respondents 19% (n = 5,299) reported a history of fever within the last two weeks prior to the survey and 8% had fever on the day of the survey. Only 39% (n = 2,035) of individuals with fever in last two weeks took any action, of which 43% (n = 875) were treated with anti-malarials. About 44% (n = 382) of malaria treatments were done using the nationally recommended first-line therapy artesunate+sulphadoxine-pryrimethamine (AS+SP) and 13% (n = 122) with non-recommended chloroquine or SP. Importantly 33.9% (n = 296) of all malaria treatments included artemether monotherapy, which is internationally banned for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. About 53% of fevers had some form of parasitological diagnosis before treatment. On the day of survey, 21,988 individuals provided a finger-prick blood sample and only 1.8% were found positive for Plasmodium falciparum. Infection prevalence was higher among individuals who had fever in the last two weeks (OR = 3.4; 95%CI = 2.6 - 4.4, p < 0.001) or reported fever on the day of survey (OR = 6.2; 95%CI = 4.4 - 8.7, p < 0.001) compared to those without a history of fever.Across the northern states of the Sudan, the period prevalence of fever is low. The proportion of fevers that are likely to be malaria is very low. Consequently, parasitological diagnosis of all fevers before treatment is
Artesunate plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Sudan
Sakina B Elamin, Elfatih M Malik, Tarig Abdelgadir, Ammar H Khamiss, Mamoun M Mohammed, Elderderi S Ahmed, Ishag Adam
Malaria Journal , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-4-41
Abstract: During late 2004, the efficacy of artesunate (4 mg/kg. day, on days 0–2) plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (25 mg/kg, on day 0) for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria was investigated in four sentinel areas in Sudan, with different malaria transmission (Damazin, Kassala, Kosti, and Malakal).Two hundreds and sixty-nine patients completed the 28-day follow-up. On day one, 60 (22.3%) patients were febrile and 15 (5.5%) patients were parasitaemic. On day three, all the patients were afebrile and aparasitaemic. While two patients (0.7%, Kassala) showed late Clinical and Parasitological Failures, the rest (99.3%) of the patients demonstrated Adequate Clinical and Parasitological Response. A gametocytaemia were detected during the follow-up in one patient (0.37%, Kassala). Adverse drug effects were detected in 32 (11.9%) patientsThe study showed that AS plus SP is an effective, safe drug in the treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in Sudan.There are almost 515 (range 300–660) million episodes of clinical Plasmodium falciparum malaria infections [1]. Drug-resistant malaria is spreading in Africa and countries with high levels of resistance have witnessed increased morbidity and mortality [2]. Early diagnosis and effective treatment with an appropriate drug form the main components of the World Health Organization's strategy to reduce malaria-related mortality [3].The few available drugs might be safeguarded if combined with artesunate. The addition of artesunate to standard antimalarial treatments substantially reduces treatment failure, recrudescence and gametocyte carriage, preventing the emergence and spread of drug resistance and interrupting the transmission of P. falciparum. Coupled with early detection and confirmed diagnosis, this strategy represents the only way forward in the chemotherapy of malaria [4-8].Malaria causes between 7.5 to 10 million cases and 35,000 deaths every year in Sudan [9]. Due to the spread of multidrug-resis
Fluorescence microscope (Cyscope?) for malaria diagnosis in pregnant women in Medani Hospital, Sudan
Saad El-Din H Hassan, Abd Elrahium D Haggaz, Ehab B Mohammed-Elhassan, Elfatih M Malik, Ishag Adam
Diagnostic Pathology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1746-1596-6-88
Abstract: Socio-demographic characteristics and obstetrics history were gathered using pre-tested questionnaires. Blood samples were collected from febrile pregnant women who were referred as malaria case following initial diagnosis by general microscopist.During the study period 128 febrile pregnant women presented at the hospital. Among them, Plasmodium falciparum malaria was detected in 82 (64.1%) and 80 (62.5%) by the Giemsa-stained light microscopy and the Cyscope? fluorescence microscope, respectively. The sensitivity of the Cyscope? fluorescence microscope was 97.6% (95% CI: 92.2%-99.6%). Out of 46 which were negative by Giemsa-stained light microscopy, 5 were positive by the Cyscope? fluorescence microscope. This is translated in specificity of 89.1% (95% CI: 77.5%-95.9%). The positive and negative predictive value of Cyscope? fluorescence microscope was 94.1% (95% CI: 87.4% -97.8%) and 95.3% (95% CI: 85.4% - 99.2%), respectively.This study has shown that Cyscope? fluorescence microscope is a reliable diagnostic, sensitive and specific in diagnosing P. falciparum malaria among pregnant women in this setting. Further studies are needed to determine effectiveness in diagnosing other Plasmodium species and to compare it with other diagnostic tools e.g. rapid diagnostic tests and PCR.It has been estimated that 90% of the global malaria burden occurs in Sub-Saharan Africa, where during pregnancy 40% women are exposed to malaria infections [1]. Malaria during pregnancy poses a substantial risk to the mother, her fetus and the neonate [2]. Malaria during pregnancy is a major health problem in Sudan, where pregnant women are more susceptible to malaria regardless to their age and parity [3-5] and malaria is associated with poor maternal and perinatal outcomes [5-8].In the tropics, practitioners are preoccupied by malaria diagnosis, not only in feverish patients but also for many undiagnosed systemic disorders [9]. Such malpractice is not limited to treatment of falsely positi
Feasibility and acceptability of home-based management of malaria strategy adapted to Sudan's conditions using artemisinin-based combination therapy and rapid diagnostic test
Khalid A Elmardi, Elfatih M Malik, Tarig Abdelgadir, Salah H Ali, Abdalla H Elsyed, Mahmoud A Mudather, Asma H Elhassan, Ishag Adam
Malaria Journal , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-8-39
Abstract: This is a study conducted in 20 villages in Um Adara area, South Kordofan state, Sudan. Two-thirds (66%) of the study community were seeking treatment from heath facilities, which were more than 5 km far from their villages with marked inaccessibility during rainy season. Volunteers (one per village) were trained on using RDTs for diagnosis and artesunate plus sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine for treating malaria patients, as well as referral of severe and non-malaria cases. A system for supply and monitoring was established based on the rural health centre, which acted as a link between the volunteers and the health system. Advocacy for the policy was done through different tools. Volunteers worked on non-monetary incentives but only a consultation fee of One Sudanese Pound (equivalent to US$0.5).Pre- and post-intervention assessment was done using household survey, focus group discussion with the community leaders, structured interview with the volunteers, and records and reports analysis.The overall adherence of volunteers to the project protocol in treating and referring cases was accepted that was only one of the 20 volunteers did not comply with the study guidelines. Although the use of RDTs seemed to have improved the level of accuracy and trust in the diagnosis, 30% of volunteers did not rely on the negative RDT results when treating fever cases. Almost all (94.7%) the volunteers felt that they were satisfied with the spiritual outcome of their new tasks. As well, volunteers have initiated advocacy campaigns supported by their village health committees which were found to have a positive role to play in the project that proved their acceptability of the HMM design. The planned system for supply was found to be effective. The project was found to improve the accessibility to ACTs from 25% to 64.7% and the treatment seeking behaviour from 83.3% to 100% before- and after the HMM implementation respectivly.The evaluation of the project identified the feasibility of th
Treatment-seeking behaviour for malaria in children under five years of age: implication for home management in rural areas with high seasonal transmission in Sudan
Elfatih Malik, Kamal Hanafi, Salah Ali, Eldirdieri Ahmed, Khalid Mohamed
Malaria Journal , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-5-60
Abstract: Data was obtained by interviewing 96 mothers who had brought their febrile children to selected health facilities, conduction of 10 focus group discussions with mothers at village level as well as by observation.A high score of mothers' knowledge and recognition of fever/malaria was recorded. Mothers usually start care at home and, within an average of three days, they shift to health workers if there was no response. The main health-seeking behaviour is to consult the nearest health facility or health personnel together with using traditional medicine or herbs. There are also health workers who visit patients at home. The majority of mothers with febrile children reported taking drugs before visiting a health facility. The choice between the available options determined by the availability of health facilities, user fees, satisfaction with services, difficulty to reach the facilities and believe in traditional medicine.Mothers usually go through different treatment option before consulting health facilities ending with obvious delay in seeking care. As early effective treatment is the main theme of the control programme, implementation of malaria home management strategy is urgently needed to improve the ongoing practice.Malaria in Sudan is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality with an annual estimate of 7.5 million cases and 35,000 deaths. This represents 50% and 70% of the WHO/Eastern Mediterranean Region cases and deaths respectively [1]. Malaria is the main cause of fever in children less than 5 years of age. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are essential to reduce morbidity and mortality related to malaria among this group [2,3]. This is always influenced by several factors especially in rural areas. Treatment-seeking behaviour is related to cultural beliefs about the cause and cure of illness [4]. The choice of treatment source was found to be influenced by accessibility, disease type and severity, patient's gender and parents' educational level
On Subsets of Q(√m) Q under the Action of Hecke Groups H(λq)  [PDF]
M. Aslam Malik, M. Asim Zafar
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/am.2014.58120

\"\" is the disjoint union of \"\" for all \"\", where \"\" is the set of all roots of primitive second degree equations \"\", with reduced discriminant \"\" equal to k2m. We study the action of two Hecke groups—the full modular group \"\" and the group of linear-fractional transformations \"\" on \"\". In particular, we investigate the action of \"\" on \"\" for finding different orbits.

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