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Early warnings of the potential for malaria transmission in rural Africa using the hydrology, entomology and malaria transmission simulator (HYDREMATS)
Teresa K Yamana, Elfatih AB Eltahir
Malaria Journal , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-9-323
Abstract: HYDREMATS is used to make predictions of mosquito populations and vectorial capacity for 2005, 2006, and 2007 in Banizoumbou village in western Niger. HYDREMATS is forced by observed rainfall, followed by a rainfall prediction based on the seasonal mean rainfall for a period two or four weeks into the future.Predictions made using this method provided reasonable estimates of mosquito populations and vectorial capacity, two to four weeks in advance. The predictions were significantly improved compared to those made when HYDREMATS was forced with seasonal mean rainfall alone.HYDREMATS can be used to make reasonable predictions of mosquito populations and vectorial capacity, and provide early warnings of the potential for malaria epidemics in Africa.The Roll Back Malaria (RBM) initiative has published a framework for malaria early warning systems (MEWS) in Africa [1]. These systems rely on indicators of vulnerability, transmission risk and early case detection in order to predict the onset and severity of malaria epidemics. Monitoring rainfall has been recognized as an essential component for MEWS and is being used by malaria control programmes in a number of African countries [2]. Hay et al [3] retrospectively determined that monitoring dekadal (every 10 days) estimates of rainfall anomalies provided by the Africa Data Dissemination Service (ADDS) could have provided a reliable warning of a major malaria epidemic that occurred in 2002 in Kenya. Thomson et al [4] suggested that in Botswana, rainfall from December through February could be used to give an early warning for high transmission years.While excess rainfall is often associated with increased malaria transmission, this is not always the case. For example, heavy rainfall associated with the 1997-98 El Nino event was associated with decreased malaria transmission in the highlands of Tanzania, presumably by washing away larval breeding sites [5]. Similarly, decreases in rainfall have been observed to increase mal
A mechanistic approach for accurate simulation of village scale malaria transmission
Arne Bomblies, Jean-Bernard Duchemin, Elfatih AB Eltahir
Malaria Journal , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-8-223
Abstract: Field observations spanning two years from two Niger villages are compared. The two villages are separated by only 30 km but exhibit a ten-fold difference in anopheles mosquito density. These two villages would be covered by a single grid cell in many malaria models, yet their entomological activity differs greatly. Environmental conditions and associated entomological activity are simulated at high spatial- and temporal resolution using a mechanistic approach that couples a distributed hydrology scheme and an entomological model. Model results are compared to regular field observations of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato mosquito populations and local hydrology. The model resolves the formation and persistence of individual pools that facilitate mosquito breeding and predicts spatio-temporal mosquito population variability at high resolution using an agent-based modeling approach.Observations of soil moisture, pool size, and pool persistence are reproduced by the model. The resulting breeding of mosquitoes in the simulated pools yields time-integrated seasonal mosquito population dynamics that closely follow observations from captured mosquito abundance. Interannual difference in mosquito abundance is simulated, and the inter-village difference in mosquito population is reproduced for two years of observations. These modeling results emulate the known focal nature of malaria in Niger Sahel villages.Hydrological variability must be represented at high spatial and temporal resolution to achieve accurate predictive ability of malaria risk at the village scale, which can then be integrated appropriately to regional spatial scales and seasonal temporal scales. These results have important implications for models seeking to link the impacts of climate change and climate variability to malaria transmission. The highly focal nature of malaria in the Sahel makes detailed representation necessary to evaluate village-level risks associated with hydrology-related vector population
Efficacy of local neem extracts for sustainable malaria vector control in an African village
Rebecca L Gianotti, Arne Bomblies, Mustafa Dafalla, Ibrahim Issa-Arzika, Jean-Bernard Duchemin, Elfatih AB Eltahir
Malaria Journal , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-7-138
Abstract: This paper describes a method whereby seeds of the neem tree can be used to reduce adult Anopheles gambiae s.l. abundance in a way that is low cost and can be implemented by residents of rural villages in western Niger. The study was conducted in Banizoumbou village, western Niger. Neem seeds were collected from around the village. Dried seeds were ground into a coarse powder, which was then sprinkled onto known Anopheles larvae breeding habitats twice weekly during the rainy season 2007. Adult mosquitoes were captured on a weekly basis in the village and captures compared to those from 2005 and 2006 over the same period. Adult mosquitoes were also captured in a nearby village, Zindarou, as a control data set and compared to those from Banizoumbou.It was found that twice-weekly applications of the powder to known breeding habitats of Anopheles larvae in 2007 resulted in 49% fewer adult female Anopheles gambiae s.l. mosquitoes in Banizoumbou, compared with previous captures under similar environmental conditions and with similar habitat characteristics in 2005 and 2006. The productivity of the system in 2007 was found to be suppressed compared to the mean behaviour of 2005 and 2006 in Banizoumbou, whereas no change was found in Zindarou.With a high abundance of neem plants in many villages in this area, the results of this study suggest that larval control using neem seed powder offers a sustainable additional tool for malaria vector control in the Sahel region of Niger.Malaria continues to place a large social and economic burden on African communities. Programs to control malaria transmission typically target the adult primary vectors, using techniques such as bed nets and indoor residual spraying that have a high impact on vectorial capacity. However, these methods are vulnerable to development of vector resistance to insecticides [1-4], vector behavioural adaptation, such as changing preferences for feeding and resting outdoors [5], and logistics and funding prob
Bacterial Contamination of Drinking Water in the Internally Displaced People Camps in South Darfur, Sudan  [PDF]
Yassir Mohammed Eltahir, Amira Ahmed Abdelrahman
Computational Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering (CWEEE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/cweee.2013.22B002
Abstract: A total of 240 water samples were collected during the three seasons of 2009 from different sites and sources in the internally displaced camps (IDP) including bore holes, hand pumps, dug wells, water points, water reservoir and household storage containers. Samples were investigated using the most probable number method to detected and count the total coliform, faecal coliform and faecal enterococci. Enteric bacteria detected were E. coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella, Citrobacter and Enterobacter .House hold containers showed continuous level of contamination by all different bacteria throughout the three seasons. This was followed by hand pumps, both reservoir and boreholes and dug wells. Water points revealed no level of contamination throughout the three seasons.
Quality Improvement of Sudanese Petrodiesel Fuel by Furfural  [PDF]
Christina Yacoub Ishak, Elfatih A. Hassan, Mohamed Ezeldin
American Journal of Analytical Chemistry (AJAC) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ajac.2017.85027
Abstract: The main objective of this project is quality improvement of Sudanese petrodiesel fuel by the use of furfural. The Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry GC/MS technique was performed to analyze organic compounds for marked petrodiesel fuel before and after treatment by furfural, physicochemical characteristics of petrodiesel fuel were investigated before and after treatment according to American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), characteristics include: density, distillation, cloud point, viscosity, ash content, micro carbon residue, water content, flash point, colour, copper strip corrosion, sulfur content and calculated cetane number. Elements composition of petrodiesel sample has been determined by Inductively coupled plasma (ICP). The furfural showed high ability in extraction of aromatic, cyclo and branched hydrocarbons, a total of 81 organic compounds that exhibit a negative effect on quality of petrodiesel have been removed by furfural. All physicochemical characteristics of petrodiesel fuel were improved within permissible limits assigned by ASTM. The furfural has shown no effect on colour of Sudanese Petrodiesel, which cetane number has increased from 54.46 to 58.36. The concentration of Na, Mg, Ca, Fe, Al and As have been decreased after treatment by furfural, these results have led to decrease of ash content.
Seropositivity of Hepatitis B virus and Hepatitis C virus dual Infection among blood donors in Nyala Teaching Hospital
Mustafa Abou, Yassir Eltahir
Virology Journal , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1743-422x-6-227
Abstract: Dual infection with HBV and HCV leads to more aggressive liver disease [1]. In addition to chronic liver disease, coinfection of HBV and HCV is frequently found in injection drug users (IDU, 42.5%) [2], patients on hemodialysis (3.7%) [3], patients undergoing organ transplantation (8%) [4], HIV-positive individuals (66%) [5], and beta-thalassemia patients (10%) [6], which means that those are the high risk population for infection of HBV and HCV concurrently. As HBV and HCV have the same transmission routes, dual infection may occur [7]. No published data of the seropostivity of HBV and HCV dual infection in great Dar Fur, and may be in the large Sudan. So the current study amied to determine the seropositivity of HBV and HCV dual infection among blood donors in Nyala Teaching Hospital.This study was conducted during the period from May to July 2007, in Nyala Teaching Hospital, which is the biggest (400 beds) hospital in great Dar Fur, and according to the blood bank records 3600 pints of blood are collected annually from blood donors. 400 male, apparently healthy blood donors were randomly selected and enrolled in this study. Five ml of blood were drawn from each subject; sera were separated, aliquoted, labeled within two hours of collection and stored at -70°C. Serum samples initially tested for HBsAg and anti-HCV antibodies with Immunochromatographic Test (ICT) from Advanced Quality, then screened with a 3rd generation Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), Equi-HBsAg and EIAgen anti-HCV antibodies from Equibar and Adalits respectively.A total 400 male blood donors were enrolled in this study, with a mean age of 33 years and an age range of 18-49 years. The seropositivity of HBV and HCV dual infection was detected in only one (0.25%) blood donor.Surveillance of carriers of viral hepatitis is essential to assess the burden of the disease in the population. Although dual infection with HBV and HCV is not uncommon in the geographic areas where a high endemic lev
Characterization of the dUTpase- Integrase Region of the Pol Gene of Small Ruminant Lentiviruses from Greece
Y.M. Eltahir
International Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2011,
Abstract: Despite the wide spread of Small Ruminant’s Lentiviruses (SRLV), Maedi Visna Virus (MVV) and caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAEV) in Greece, sequence information on the pol gene of Greek SRLV (GrSRLV) is not reported before. The present study was aimed to establish a sequence database in a conserved region of the viral genome which can then serve to perform phylogenetic analysis. Three hundred and seventy six nucleotides (dUTPase- integrase) region of the pol gene of GrSRLV from different mixed flocks were obtained by semi-nested PCR using degenerate primers. GrSRLV showed 79 and 81% homology in their nucleotides and deduced amino acids sequences respectively. Molecular epidemiology based on the pol sequences indicated that GrSRLV contains both type A and B viruses and the occurrence of five genetically different clusters of SRLV circulating in Greece. The results suggest that GrA-SRLV have a different origin from that of British, Icelandic and South African SRLV reference strains. It also gives additional evidence of interspecies transmission of these viruses between sheep and goats.
The effect of maternal anthropometric characteristics and social factors on gestational age and birth weight in Sudanese newborn infants
Eltahir M Elshibly, Gerd Schmalisch
BMC Public Health , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-8-244
Abstract: In 1000 Sudanese mothers with singleton births, anthropometric measurements (weight, height, mid-arm circumference) and newborn birth weight were taken within 24 hours of delivery. Furthermore, maternal education and socio-economic status were recorded. The effect of these maternal variables on gestational age and birth weight was investigated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and by multivariate logistic regression analysis.Although maternal height was significantly correlated (p = 0.002) with gestational age, we did not find maternal characteristics of value in determining the risk for preterm birth. Birth order was the strongest determinant of birth weight compared to other maternal characteristics. The LBW rate of first born babies of 12.2% was nearly twice that of infants of multiparous mothers. Maternal age and all maternal anthropometric measurements were positively correlated (p < 0.001) with birth weight. A maternal height of <156 cm, a maternal weight of <66 kg, a maternal mid arm circumference of <27 cm and years of education of ≤ 8 years were found to increase the relative risk of LBW but this was statistically significant only in the case of maternal height. Maternal age and BMI had no statistically significant effect on determining the risk for LBW. The social class did not affect the birth weight, while the number of years of education was positively correlated with birth weight (p = 0.01). The LBW rate decreased from 9.2% for ≤ 8 years of education to 6.0% for >12 years of education.Birth order and maternal height were found to be the most important maternal parameters which influences birth weight and the risk for LBW. The duration of maternal education and not social class was found to significantly affect the risk for LBW.There is a large body of literature showing that the world wide problem of low birth weight (LBW), i.e. infants weighing <2500 g, is among the strongest determinants of infant mortality and morbidity. While in ind
Determination of elemental composition of air particulates and soils in Khartoum area
FI Habbani, EM Eltahir, AS Ibrahim
Tanzania Journal of Science , 2007,
Abstract: Investigations were carried out for elemental composition of air particulates in the background air and near roadsides in Khartoum area. Investigations were also performed for the elemental composition of soils at the same locations. A cyclone and a dichotomous virtual impactor were used to measure the air particulates. The cyclone was adjusted to collect particles having an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5!m. The virtual impactor, through its fine channel, was capable of collecting airborne particles with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm. Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) analysis was used to study the elemental concentrations of the air and soil samples. The analysis of the results indicated that all elements in the proximity of roadsides have elevated concentrations compared to the background air levels. Enrichment factors were calculated relative to crust rock and Khartoum soil. The results showed that the elements K, Ca, Ti, Fe, and Sr in the aerosols have their origin from the soil, while the elements Zn, Ni and Pb have their source from automobile emissions. The results also indicated a correlation between lead and bromine. The lead to bromine ratio was found to be within the range of those derived from vehicular exhaust, and in good agreement with the ratios obtained from some other countries.
Antibiotic Sensitivity Patterns of Urine and Biofilms in Patients with Indwelling Urinary Catheter in Denden Hospital, Asmara, Eritrea  [PDF]
Lia Alem, Salih Mohammed, Mohammed Elfatih Humida, Berzelin Adugna, Feven G. Medhin, Temesgen Weldu
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2019.92010
Abstract: The intricate infections leading to long-term morbidity of catheterized patients are due to the presence of a covering and blocking the lumen of urinary catheters by biofilms which have increased ability of resistance to host immune system and antibiotic treatment. The biofilm mode of growth is a basic survival strategy implemented by bacteria in a wide range of settings such as environmental, industrial and clinical aquatic settings. Bacterial growth on the inner surface of the catheter with biofilm formation is frequent and may occur within days of catheter placement. This study investigated the formation of biofilm inside catheter lumen of patients from Denden hospital, Asmara, Eritrea. And also, it assessed the antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of biofilm isolates and compared it with urine isolates. Resistance to antibiotics was observed in biofilm isolates more than urine isolates. E. coli was the most frequently isolated organism in both biofilm and urine samples.
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