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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 10166 matches for " Elena Luquero "
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Allelic and genotypic associations of DRD2 TaqI A polymorphism with heroin dependence in Spanish subjects: a case control study
Jose Perez de los Cobos, Montserrat Baiget, Joan Trujols, Nuria Sinol, Victor Volpini, Enrique Banuls, Francesc Calafell, Elena Luquero, Elisabeth del Rio, Enric Alvarez
Behavioral and Brain Functions , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1744-9081-3-25
Abstract: We compared two samples of unrelated Spanish individuals, all of European origin: 281 methadone-maintained heroin-dependent patients (207 males and 74 females) who frequently used non-opioid substances, and 145 control subjects (98 males and 47 females).The A1-A1 genotype was detected in 7.1% of patients and 1.4% of controls (P = 0.011, odds ratio = 5.48, 95% CI 1.26–23.78). Although the A1 allele was not associated with heroin dependence in the entire sample, the frequency of A1 allele was higher in male patients than in male controls (24.4% vs. 16.3%, P = 0.024, odds ratio = 1.65, 95% CI 1.07–2.57). A logistic regression analysis showed an interaction between DRD2 alleles and gender (odds ratio = 1.77, 95% CI 1.15–2.70).Our results indicate that, in Spanish individuals, genotypes of the DRD2 TaqI A polymorphism contribute to variations in the risk of heroin dependence, while single alleles contribute only in males.A better understanding of the etiology of heroin dependence is crucial for improving the prevention and treatment of this severe mental disorder. Genes that could be risk factors for heroin dependence have not been consistently identified; however, genetic epidemiology studies have shown that they do have an impact. These studies, with one exception [1], also suggest that such genetic factors are mainly nonspecific, because they also confer vulnerability to other substance use disorders (SUD) [2-4].The gene coding for the dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) could be involved in heroin dependence and other SUD as a nonspecific genetic factor, because opioids and other substances of abuse induce some of their rewarding effects through the mesolimbic dopamine system [5,6]. Preclinical research supports this hypothesis. An absence of opioid-rewarding effects has been reported in mice lacking DRD2 [7].The DRD2 TaqI A is a SNP with two variants: A1, the less frequent allele, and A2. The A1 allele is associated with a reduction in the density of D2 receptors at the str
New Value-Behavioral Structures and Hierarchies in the Technical Academic Education in the Context of Romania Integration in the European Union  [PDF]
Tiron Elena
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2011.12009
Abstract: The work is structured in 4 parts: I. Conceptual differentiations: value, belief, norm, mentality, attitude, interest, opinion, need, behavior; II. Restructuring scheme of the personality axiological components in a determined context; III. Professional values in the technical academic education: identification and hierarchy; IV. Conclu- sions. In the first part, there are made conceptual differentiations between the notions of belief, norm, mentality, attitude, interest, opinion, need, behavior, emphasizing thus on mutual aspects. In the second part of the paper, there is presented the global structuring of the axiological universe, the determinant factors of the value hierar- chy change in a given social-economic context, there is elaborated a new re-structuring scheme of the value components, there are identified specific mechanisms to the present Romanian society resistant to the value au- thentic change. In the third part, there is described D. E. Super’s theory that stands at the basis of the elaboration of the Professional Value Inventory. This was applied in our research on a sample of 120 students from the two technical faculties, getting thus a certain professional values hierarchy. The conclusions emphasize the confir- mation of the two hypothesis, the extrinsic motivating factors of the professional choice, behaviors and attitudes definition, values through immediate, material profit, of the individual welfare.
Realization Feature of Mesenchymal Dermal Cells Tissue Engineering Construction Response in Granulating Wound Transplantation in Relation with Time-Frame  [PDF]
Elena Petersen
Journal of Cosmetics, Dermatological Sciences and Applications (JCDSA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jcdsa.2012.23024
Abstract: Derma is progenitor cells sours, that are able to differentiate further in several mesodermal lineage and neural and endodermal lineage. Culture conditions, skin taking site and culture medium composition considerably contribute to it. Spheroid cultured mesenchymal dermal cells contribution to skin regeneration in granulating wound in rat model was estimated.
A Model for Managing Geological and Geophysical Data in Eastern Sicily (Italy) and Possible Applications  [PDF]
Elena Partescano
Journal of Computer and Communications (JCC) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jcc.2014.214007
Abstract: The main aim of this work is to describe in detail how to develop an instrument, with the goal of collecting and managing a great deal of both geological and geophysical data acquired using different survey typologies in Eastern Sicily (Italy). The opportunity to manage different categories of data, at the same time, allows us to have a complete view of the complex area studied. This paper discusses a software package that has been designed to enhance the efficiency of applying a range of geological and geophysical data. More than 12000 records are archived: boreholes represent 81% of the data and 19% is geophysical data. In this paper it is illustrated how both kinds of data, thanks to the functionalities of the database and the possibility of connecting to a Geographical Information System (GIS), can be used in a variety of different geological studies. We present four studies where is relevant the use of the database, in detail, we show a morpho-structural study, an examination of the spectral analysis of the noise data, an update of the geological and geotechnical maps, and a classification of the areas on the basis of the distribution of the shear wave velocity in the firsts 30 meters (Vs30). They are just some examples of the potentialities of a relational database.
Knowledge-Based Economy as a Basis for the Long-Term Strategy of the Development of the Society  [PDF]
Elena Pilipenko
Modern Economy (ME) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/me.2015.68084
Abstract: This article is devoted to the research of theoretical and methodological aspects of economy of knowledge formation. The emphasis is laid on the evolution of knowledge as the main reason of any changes which take place in the society. Scientific knowledge is considered as the key resource of creating social wealth; and the process of its production—as an indissoluble processing chain which consists of spiritual, informative and material production. Such approach brings about the necessity of drastic review of the whole system of economic categories and grounds in it models, methods, criteria and exponents. Authorial conception of economy of knowledge is suggested. It is based on three main principles: 1) the unity of economic field; 2) preferred development of spiritual production; 3) accordance of controlling mechanism and effectiveness exponents to the peculiarities of goods of any production.
Risks of Related Parties in Transition Economy—An Audit Approach  [PDF]
Elena Dobre
Open Journal of Accounting (OJAcct) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojacct.2017.63008
This paper aims at improving audit practices, at least, for our national audit practitioners. Such possibilities are discussed as case study regarding an audit of a public entity as a related party (relationship & transactions) with a private company. This reveals a fraud risk by periodical re-negotiating of significant contracts combined with internal controls deficiency. In order to avoid and remove such bad practices, the Romanian financial auditors, fraud examiners, taxation consultants and even legal advisers, need rigorous learning and professional development and adequate evaluation frameworks, combining in a competent responsible manner quantitative and qualitative evaluation made by a peer-review schema. Exclusive quantitative approaches are not adequate for a correct evaluation. An efficient evaluation must involve human specialists, including financial auditor’s colleagues. The results for entire professional body may result in higher quality judgments and a good assimilation; not only good practice international standards, but even entire experience of practitioners in this field was recommended. Emphasizing of professional skepticism arises with enough experience.
Prognostic Accuracy of WHO Growth Standards to Predict Mortality in a Large-Scale Nutritional Program in Niger
Nathanael Lapidus,Francisco J Luquero,Valérie Gaboulaud,Susan Shepherd,Rebecca F Grais
PLOS Medicine , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1000039
Abstract: Background Important differences exist in the diagnosis of malnutrition when comparing the 2006 World Health Organization (WHO) Child Growth Standards and the 1977 National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) reference. However, their relationship with mortality has not been studied. Here, we assessed the accuracy of the WHO standards and the NCHS reference in predicting death in a population of malnourished children in a large nutritional program in Niger. Methods and Findings We analyzed data from 64,484 children aged 6–59 mo admitted with malnutrition (<80% weight-for-height percentage of the median [WH]% [NCHS] and/or mid-upper arm circumference [MUAC] <110 mm and/or presence of edema) in 2006 into the Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) nutritional program in Maradi, Niger. Sensitivity and specificity of weight-for-height in terms of Z score (WHZ) and WH% for both WHO standards and NCHS reference were calculated using mortality as the gold standard. Sensitivity and specificity of MUAC were also calculated. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was traced for these cutoffs and its area under curve (AUC) estimated. In predicting mortality, WHZ (NCHS) and WH% (NCHS) showed AUC values of 0.63 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.60–0.66) and 0.71 (CI 0.68–0.74), respectively. WHZ (WHO) and WH% (WHO) appeared to provide higher accuracy with AUC values of 0.76 (CI 0.75–0.80) and 0.77 (CI 0.75–0.80), respectively. The relationship between MUAC and mortality risk appeared to be relatively weak, with AUC = 0.63 (CI 0.60–0.67). Analyses stratified by sex and age yielded similar results. Conclusions These results suggest that in this population of children being treated for malnutrition, WH indicators calculated using WHO standards were more accurate for predicting mortality risk than those calculated using the NCHS reference. The findings are valid for a population of already malnourished children and are not necessarily generalizable to a population of children being screened for malnutrition. Future work is needed to assess which criteria are best for admission purposes to identify children most likely to benefit from therapeutic or supplementary feeding programs.
Learning lessons from field surveys in humanitarian contexts: a case study of field surveys conducted in North Kivu, DRC 2006-2008
Rebecca F Grais, Francisco J Luquero, Emmanuel Grellety, Heloise Pham, Benjamin Coghlan, Pierre Salignon
Conflict and Health , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1752-1505-3-8
Abstract: In media and agency reports on complex emergencies, an estimate of the number of people who have died, the prevalence of childhood malnutrition and other key health indicators are often quoted. Although a discriminating reader may understand that these are estimates, we rarely question how or from where these numbers come. In most cases, estimates are obtained by means of field surveys which are subject to a number of limitations. In the past, the application of standard survey methods by various humanitarian actors has been criticised [1]. Currently, different methods of conducting field surveys are the subject of debate among epidemiologists and their strengths and weakness have been described in the literature [2-6]. Beyond the technical arguments, decision makers may find it difficult to conceptualize what the estimates actually mean. For instance, what makes this particular situation an emergency? And how should the operational response - humanitarian, political, even military - be adapted accordingly [7,8]? This brings into question not only the quality of the survey methodology, but also the difficulties epidemiologists face in interpreting results and selecting the most important information to guide operations.As a case study, we reviewed publicly available field surveys of a current acute-on-chronic humanitarian crisis - North Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) - to examine the methodologies employed, the findings presented, the interpretation of the results and the recommendations made. The eastern DRC Province of North Kivu has been the scene of conflict that has erupted sporadically for over a decade (Figure 1). The most recent renewal of violence has forced some 250,000 people to flee their homes since August 2008 [9].We searched PubMed/Medline for articles published from January 1, 2006 to January 1, 2009, in English, French, German, and Spanish using the key words ["mortality" (major topic) OR "nutrition" (major topic)] AND ["Congo" (text word)
Health care seeking behavior for diarrhea in children under 5 in rural Niger: results of a cross-sectional survey
Anne-Laure Page, Sarah Hustache, Francisco J Luquero, Ali Djibo, Mahamane Manzo, Rebecca F Grais
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-389
Abstract: A cluster survey was done on 35 clusters of 21 children under 5 years of age in each of four districts of the Maradi Region, Niger. Caretakers were asked about diarrhea of the child during the recall period and their health seeking behavior in case of diarrhea. A weighted cluster analysis was conducted to determine the prevalence of diarrhea, as well as the proportion of consultations and types of health structures consulted.In total, the period prevalence of diarrhea and severe diarrhea between April 24th and May 21st 2009 were 36.8% (95% CI: 33.7 - 40.0) and 3.4% (95% CI: 2.2-4.6), respectively. Of those reporting an episode of diarrhea during the recall period, 70.4% (95% CI: 66.6-74.1) reported seeking care at a health structure. The main health structures visited were health centers, followed by health posts both for simple or severe diarrhea. Less than 10% of the children were brought to the hospital. The proportion of consultations was not associated with the level of education of the caretaker, but increased with the number of children in the household.The proportion of consultations for diarrhea cases in children under 5 years old was higher than those reported in previous surveys in Niger and elsewhere. Free health care for under 5 years old might have participated in this improvement. In this type of decentralized health systems, the WHO recommended hospital-based surveillance of severe diarrheal diseases would capture only a fraction of severe diarrhea. Lower levels of health structures should be considered to obtain informative data to ensure appropriate care and burden estimates.Although better sanitation, hygiene and access to care have successfully alleviated the burden of diarrheal diseases in developed countries [1,2], diarrhea remains the second leading cause of death in children under 5 years of age in the world, representing nearly one in five child deaths - about 1.5 million each year [3,4]. In sub-Saharan Africa, the etiology of diarrhea is se
Evaluación de la adecuación de las estancias en un hospital de tercer nivel Evaluation of the appropriateness of stays in a third level hospital
A. Pérez-Rubio,S. Santos,F. J. Luquero,S. Tamames
Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra , 2007,
Abstract: Fundamento: The Appropriateness Evaluation Protocol (AEP) se ha mostrado como una herramienta útil para la revisión de la utilización de los recursos hospitalarios. El objetivo de este trabajo es conocer la proporción de ingresos y estancias inadecuadas, así como sus causas, en pacientes hospitalizados en el Hospital Clínico Universitario de Valladolid (HCUV). Material y métodos: Estudio observacional analítico de cohortes retrospectivo. El período de estudio ha sido de un a o (2004). Se seleccionó una muestra de 1.630 ingresos. La definición de caso, las variables de interés y el modelo de recogida de datos se han llevado a cabo conforme al AEP. Se han analizado las principales variables mediante un análisis basal y las posibles relaciones entre ellas. Resultados: El 54% de los ingresos presentaron al menos un día de estancia inadecuada, siendo la tasa de inadecuación global del 34,17%. Entre las causas responsables de la inadecuación, el 68,9% de los ingresos presentaron al menos un criterio englobado dentro de la responsabilidad del médico o del hospital, y el 51,3% debido a retrasos en el desarrollo del estudio o tratamiento. Conclusiones: La utilización de métodos de identificación del uso inapropiado como el AEP presenta aplicaciones tanto en planificación como en gestión hospitalaria, al permitir identificar problemas hospitalarios causantes de demoras, principalmente problemas de tipo organizativo, permitiendo el desarrollo de intervenciones encaminadas a la reducción del uso inapropiado. Background: The Appropriateness Evaluation Protocol (AEP) has proved to be a useful tool for reviewing the utilisation of hospital resources. The aim of this article is to determine the proportion of inappropriate admissions and stays, as well as their causes, in patients hospitalised in the Hospital Clínico Universitario de Valladolid (HCUV). Material and methods: A retrospective, analytical, observational, cohort study. The period of study was one year (2004). A sample of 1,630 admissions was gathered. Case definition, variables of interest and the model of data gathering were carried out in accordance with the AEP. The principal variables were analysed by means of a basal analysis and the possible relations between them. Results: Fifty-four percent of the admissions showed at least one day of inappropriate stay, with the global rate of inappropriateness being 34.17%. Amongst the causes responsible for inappropriateness, 68.9% of admissions showed at least one criterion falling under the responsibility of the doctor or the hospital, and 51.3% were due to dela
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