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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 115 matches for " Electromagnetism "
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New Consideration of Problems of Gravitational Optics and Dark Matter Based on Crystal Model of Vacuum  [PDF]
Evgeny V. Chensky
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications (JEMAA) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jemaa.2010.28066
Abstract: In presented paper we try to consider problems of the gravitational optics and dark matter developing from the crystal model for the vacuum. How it is follows from consideration it enables to describe both electromagnetic waves and spectrum of elementary particles from the unified point of view. Two order parameters – a polar vector and an axial vector - had to be introduced as electrical and magnetic polarization, correspondingly, in order to describe dynamic properties of vacuum. Vacuum susceptibility has been determined to be equal to the fine structure constant . Unified interaction constant g for all particles equal to the double charge of Dirac monopole has been found (g = e/, where e charge electron). The fundamental vacuum constants are: g, , parameters of length and parameters of ti- me for electron and nucleon oscillations, correspondingly. Energy of elementary particles has been expressed in terms of the fundamental vacuum parameters, light velocity being equal to . The term mass of particle has been shown to have no independent meaning. Particle energy does have physical sense as wave packet energy related to vacuum excitation. Exact equation for particle movement in the gravitational field has been derived, the equation being applied to any relatively compact object: planet, satellite, electron, proton, photon and neutrino. The situation has been examined according to the cosmological principle when galaxies are distributed around an infinite space. In this case the recession of galaxies is impossible, so the red shift of far galaxies’ radiation has to be interpreted as the blue time shift of atomic spectra; it follows that zero-energy, and consequently electron mass are being increased at the time. Since physical vacuum has been existed eternally, vacuum parameters can be either constant, or oscillating with time. It is the time oscillation of the parameters that leads to the growth of electron mass within the last 15 billion years and that is displayed in the red shift; the proton mass being decreased that is displayed in planet radiation.
A Review of Electromagnetic Activity in Cellular Mechanics  [PDF]
Ronald L. Huston
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2016.79035
Abstract: This is a review of recent literature concerning electromagnetic effects on cellular mechanics. “Recent” refers primarily to papers published in this (the 21st) century. The review shows that there are relatively few papers on cellular electromagnetics as compared with those on proteins, biochemistry, and cellular anatomy. The principal finding of the reviewed papers is that cellular electromagnetic fields appear to arise from longitudinal vibrations of the filaments making up the walls of the microtubules. Microtubules are long hollow cylinders which form the overall structure of the centrioles. The microtubules, and therefore the centrioles themselves, are arranged in nine sets of parallel blades with each blade having three microtubules. The centrioles occur in pairs perpendicularly to each other. During mitosis (cell division) the centriole pair becomes two pair which then separate and divide the cell into two. It seems that electromagnetic forces play a central role in this division. Electromagnetic activity in wound healing and in the imaging and treatment of tumors is discussed.
An Approach to a Universal System of Units  [PDF]
Salama Abdelhady
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications (JEMAA) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jemaa.2010.29071
Abstract: According to many scientists, there are some redundancies in the SI system of units. Through an entropy approach that depends on a previous analogy between the electrical, mechanical and thermal fields; it was possible to introduce a system of units that removes such redundancies. According to the second law of thermodynamics, the temperature was defined as a quality of heat. Following a proved analogy, the electrical and magnetic potentials may represent also the qualities of electric and magnetic fluxes. According to published experimental results, the electric and the magnetic potentials generates also electromotive forces, EMF, that were measured by Al-Fe thermocouples. The chemical potential or the concentration gradient generates also an EMF, as in the concentration cells, which is measured here by the same Al-Fe thermocouple. Such measurement-results are introduced to define a unique scale for measuring the potentials or qualities of the thermal, chemical, electric, and magnetic fields. The mentioned qualities are not defined by directly measurable quantities, as length and time, but they are found as functions of dimensionless concentrations of mass or energy fluxes. Hence, the volt, as a unit of the introduced EMF scale for potentials measurement, is postulated as a dimensionless unit. Finally, a universal system of units that is based only on three dimensions; L, T, and E, and four fundamental units; meter, second, Joule and volt is introduced in this paper to delete the SI redundancies. The energy replaces the mass as a fundamental unit in the introduced US as it plays a dominant role in most of the scientific and engineering fields. The ampere is not included as a fundamental unit since the charge is considered as a form of energy that is measured in one of the US fundamental units, Joule. The candela and the mole were also not considered as fundamental units as they can be related to the selected fundamental units by appropriate numbers. The limited number of dimensions in the introduced US simplifies the application of the “π” dimensional theorem to find plausible relations between the main parameters that characterize many physical phenomena and the energy conversions and interactions.
Magnetic Monopoles  [PDF]
Amagh Nduka
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/am.2017.82020
Abstract: Two of Maxwell’s equations of electrodynamics are: \"\" and \"\" , where E, B and \"\" are electric field, magnetic field, and electric charge density respectively. A fundamental question that the physics community is perplexed with since the 19C is this: Why the second of these equations is not \"\" where \"\" is the magnetic charge density? Put in a slightly different way, it is an empirical fact of nature that magnets have two poles, namely, north and south poles. Why is it that objects with a single north or south pole do not appear to exist? No one has ever observed an isolated excess of one kind of magnetic charge—an isolated north pole, for example! Further, there does not exist any theoretical explanation why magnetic charges do not exist. The only conclusion that can be drawn from the more than one hundred and fifty years of fruitless search is that ordinary matter consists of electric charges (electric monopoles) and not magnetic charges (magnetic monopoles)! In this paper, we disprove this conclusion by showing that magnetic monopoles exist even though we cannot isolate them.
Integrated and Explicit Boundary Conditions of Electromagnetic Fields at Arbitrary Interfaces between Two Anisotropic Media  [PDF]
Bing Zhou, Graham Heinson, Aixa Rivera-Rios
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications (JEMAA) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jemaa.2015.73009
Abstract: This paper derives two new integrated and explicit boundary conditions, named the “explicit?normal version” and “explicit tangential versions” respectively for electromagnetic fields at an arbitrary interface between two anisotropic media. The new versions combine two implicit boundary equations into a single explicit matrix formula and reveal the boundary values linked by a 3 × 3 matrix, which depends on the interface topography and model property tensors. We analytically demonstrate the new versions equivalent to the common implicit boundary conditions and their application to transformation of the boundary values in the boundary integral equations. We also give two synthetic examples that show recovery of the boundary values on a hill and a ridge, and highlight the advantage of the new versions of being a simpler and more straightforward method to compute the electromagnetic boundary values.
Analogue of the theorem of Birkhoff in a metric nonsymmetric theory of the gravitational-electromagnetic field
Ragusa, S.;Bosquetti, D.;
Brazilian Journal of Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-97332007000300015
Abstract: we prove that a spherically symmetric exterior solution of the field equations of a metric nonsymmetric theory of gravitation coupled with the electromagnetic field is necessarily static.
Um indutímetro para laboratório didático de eletromagnetismo
Lüdke, Everton;
Revista Brasileira de Ensino de Física , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S1806-11172010000100017
Abstract: in this paper, i discuss the building of an induction meter to be used in small-inductance measurements in second-year electromagnetics teaching labs. an oscillator employing two transistors produces a signal whose time period can be measured with an oscilloscope and a simple equation allows to obtain the inductance in microhenrys from the period given in microsseconds. the induction meter transfer function show a remarkable accuracy for measurements within the 5 to 1000 μh. an example of activity class in electromagnetic teaching lab with a group of students and a discussion of results is also presented.
Aplicación de Celda Fotoacústica Diferencial en la Determinación de la Permeabilidad de Agua en Hueso Descalcificado
Cortés-Ibarra,María de Lourdes; Urriolagoitia-Calderón,Guillermo M.; Hernández-Gómez,Luis Héctor; Mendoza-López,María Luisa; Rodríguez-García,Mario Enrique; Urriolagoitia Sosa,Guillermo;
Revista Colombiana de Biotecnología , 2008,
Abstract: differential photoacoustic cell (dpc) spectroscopy is able to measure the development of several dynamic processes in situ, such as water diffusion through a membrane. this technique was used for studying water permeation in healthy and decalcified wistar rat bones. decalcified bones were given electromagnetic stimulation to evaluate cell activity in bone and attempt to detain decalcification. it was possible to determine the viability of applying dpc for indirectly evaluating bone density in situ, as well as the amount of water retained within bone structure.
Motional emfs and the Hall effect
Doug Bradley-Hutchison
Latin-American Journal of Physics Education , 2011,
Abstract: When a moving conductor shaped like a rod or wire interacts with a static external magnetic field, two effects conventionally associated with the direct action of magnetic forces arise. The first is an induced emf which in typical textbook accounts is initiated and maintained by a force proportional to the velocity of the conductor. The second is a resistive force, proportional to the induced current, presumed to act on the conduction electrons. We present an alternate theory to explain both effects that relies on an electric field within the conductor that has both transverse and axial components. The transverse field is analogous to the electric field associated with the Hall effect. The Hall fieldacts to transfer energy to the electrons, which generates the emf, and impede the motion of the ions, which is the origin of the resistive force. The combination of the axial field and the magnetic field is shown to act like a velocity selector. This clarifies the role of the magnetic field and avoids confusion about the energy transfer process (i.e. that magnetic forces can do mechanical work).
Megasource time-domain electromagnetic sounding at Poggi del Sasso - Cinigiano (GR)
G. V. Keller,P. Cantini,R. Carrara,O. Faggioni
Annals of Geophysics , 1994, DOI: 10.4401/ag-4164
Abstract: An experiment was carried out in the vicinity of the I Terzi area in Southeastern Tuscany (fig. 1) to evaluate the applicability of the Time Domain Electromagnetic (TDEM) sounding method under the geological and environmental conditions prevailing in that area. An electromagnetic source was established using a motor-generator set and heavy cable. Measurements were attempted at four sites. Numerous samples of electromagnetic noise were recorded at each of these sites. At one site, signals transmitted for a grounded dipole source at 1.6 km distance were also recorded with the noise. The single set of observations has been processed and inverted to yield a six-layer piecewise constant resistivity depth-profile to a depth of about 2 km. The primary achievement of the experiment was demonstration of the praeticability of TDEM methods under the conditions prevailing in the site.
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