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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4445 matches for " Eldred Tunde Taylor "
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The Levels of Toxic Air Pollutants in Kitchens with Traditional Stoves in Rural Sierra Leone  [PDF]
Eldred Tunde Taylor, Satoshi Nakai
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2012.310154
Abstract: Wood and charcoal fuels, widely used in Sierra Leone for cooking, may impact indoor air quality. Until now, there is presently lack of data to quantify the extent of impact. In this study, concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), suspended particulate matter (SPM) and carbon monoxide (CO) were measured in kitchens with wood and charcoal stoves during cooking in rural areas. PAH contents of PM2.5 and PM2.5 - 10 fractions were analyzed using HPLC/FLD and SPM and CO were monitored in realtime. Mean ± SD concentrations of PM2.5 related ∑11PAHs, PM and CO were 2127 ± 1173 ng/m3, 1686 ± 973 μg/m3 and 28 ± 9 ppm for wood stoves; and 158 ± 106 ng/m3, 315 ± 205 μg/m3 and 42 ± 21 ppm for charcoal stoves, respectively. PAHs were largely associated with PM2.5 than PM2.5 - 10. Maximum 1-hr time averaged ± SD CO concentration for kitchens with wood and charcoal stoves were 44 ± 21 ppm and 77 ± 49 ppm, respectively. Generally, concentrations of PAHs, PM and CO were higher than the WHO recommended guidelines which raise concern with regards to health risks. Given the existing evidence of reduced emissions of PAHs, PM and CO from cleaner fuels, a transition from cooking with wood and charcoal to cleaner fuels would provide an improvement in indoor air quality, a requirement for good health.
Prevalence of Acute Respiratory Infections in Women and Children in Western Sierra Leone due to Smoke from Wood and Charcoal Stoves
Eldred Tunde Taylor,Satoshi Nakai
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph9062252
Abstract: Combustion of biomass fuels (wood and charcoal) for cooking releases smoke that contains health damaging pollutants. Women and children are the most affected. Exposure to biomass smoke is associated with acute respiratory infections (ARI). This study investigated the prevalence of ARI potentially caused by smoke from wood and charcoal stoves in Western Sierra Leone, as these two fuels are the predominant fuel types used for cooking. A cross sectional study was conducted for 520 women age 15–45 years; and 520 children under 5 years of age in homes that burn wood and charcoal. A questionnaire assessing demographic, household and exposure characteristics and ARI was administered to every woman who further gave information for the child. Suspended particulate matter (SPM) was continuously monitored in fifteen homes. ARI prevalence revealed 32% and 24% for women, 64% and 44% for children in homes with wood and charcoal stoves, respectively. After adjusting for potential confounders for each group, the odds ratio of having suffered from ARI was similar for women, but remained large for children in homes with wood stoves relative to charcoal stoves (OR = 1.14, 95%CI: 0.71–1.82) and (OR = 2.03, 95%CI: 1.31–3.13), respectively. ARI prevalence was higher for children in homes with wood stoves compared with homes with charcoal stoves, but ARI prevalence for both types of fuels is higher compared with reported prevalence elsewhere. To achieve a reduction in ARI would require switching from wood and charcoal to cleaner fuels.
Emission of Combustible Gases at Traffic and Practising Waste Dumpsite in Freetown, Sierra Leone: A Pilot Study  [PDF]
Bunting Kayode Williams, Joe Milton Beah, Eldred Tunde Taylor, Thomas Fayia Kamara, Daniel Kaitibi
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2017.71001
Abstract: An assessment of the emission of combustible gases in developing countries requires reliable analytical realtime monitors that can rapidly screen them with minimal handling. Considering the expensive nature of monitoring environmental pollutants, chemical sensors are expected to play a pivotal role in measuring and recording environmental data. The Drager X am 5000 was used to report emission levels of combustible gases in this study, namely; nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) at traffic and practising waste dumpsite in Freetown, the main city of Sierra Leone. Hourly average values for the three pollutants were recorded in the morning, afternoon and evening periods, respectively. The range of values were 18 - 76 ppb for NO2, 211 - 506 ppb for SO2 and 11 - 14 ppm for CO at traffic site; and 6 - 16 ppb for NO2, 118 - 276 ppb for SO2 and 8 - 15 ppm for CO at the dumpsite, respectively. There were significantly high hourly variations for NO2 and SO2 at the traffic site and for CO and SO2 at the dumpsite. Evidence of peak values showed emission levels that were considered dangerous for human exposure. This pilot study revealed that combustible gases released in certain areas of the capital city are a concern for both public health officials and environmental advocates.
Comprehensive Assessment of Groundwater Quality around a Major Mining Company in Southern Sierra Leone  [PDF]
Rex-Edwin M. Massally, Abu Bakarr Sheriff, Daniel Kaitibi, Alfred Abu, Mariatu Barrie, Eldred Tunde Taylor
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2017.96040
Abstract: Ensuring availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all by 2030 is Goal 6 of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Since developing countries especially in Africa would struggle to meet this target, this study was conceived. Hence, the study was designed to assess the water quality for physiochemical parameters around a mined out site in southern Sierra Leone with the view to determine their levels, determine related associations among indicators and explore environmental forensic options. A finite population correction factor was used to identify fifty (50) groundwater sources from one hundred and fifty two (152) in nine (9) sections of Moriba Town, in Moyamba District, Sierra Leone which constitute the sample size. The study assessed sixteen (16) physical and chemical indicators across the defined boundary of the sample size. Results indicated that almost 80% of all the indicators were in good agreement with water quality standards with the exception of three. Turbidity correlated strongly with \"\", Al and \"\"?and almost all other indicators did not show meaningful association. High values with significant variance of water quality indicators of physical to chemical ratio were observed for pH, temperature, electrical conductivity (EC) and total dissolved solids (TDS) but no such observation was noted for turbidity. On the whole, the water quality was judged to be good, although more pro active actions were encouraged by the local people and the mining company so as to reduce contamination in some areas.
Africa and Afrocentric Historicism: A Critique  [PDF]
Tunde Adeleke
Advances in Historical Studies (AHS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ahs.2015.43016
Abstract: Since the dawn of slavery in America, black activists have used Africa to construct a countervailing frame of resistance to oppression. Africa had functioned both as the justification for enslavement and racial discrimination for the dominant white society, and as the counter-hegemonic weapon of resistance and empowerment for blacks. Reacting to subordination and marginalization, modern black intellectuals, borrowing from the past, have equally invoked Africa in their quest for a useable and instrumental historical past with which to counteract the Eurocentric constructions of their heritage and experiences. However, the resultant Afrocentric historicist framing of Africa, as well as its racialized and essentialist character, had only replicated precisely the negative shortcomings of the Eurocentric historiography and black intellectuals were attempting to debunk.
Cosimplicial models for the limit of the Goodwillie tower
Rosona Eldred
Mathematics , 2011, DOI: 10.2140/agt.2013.13.1161
Abstract: We call attention to the intermediate constructions $\T_n F$ in Goodwillie's Calculus of homotopy functors, giving a new model which naturally gives rise to a family of towers filtering the Taylor Tower of a functor. We also establish a surprising equivalence between the homotopy inverse limits of these towers and the homotopy inverse limits of certain cosimplicial resolutions. This equivalence gives a greatly simplified construction for the homotopy inverse limit of the Taylor tower of a functor $F$ under general assumptions.
Goodwillie Calculus via Adjunction and LS Cocategory
Rosona Eldred
Mathematics , 2012,
Abstract: In this paper, we show that for reduced homotopy endofunctors of spaces, F, and for all $n \geq 1$ there are adjoint functors $R_n, L_n$ with $T_n F \simeq R_n F L_n$, where $P_n F$ is the $n$-excisive approximation to $F$, constructed by taking the homotopy colimit over iterations of $T_n F$. This then endows $T_n$ of the identity with the structure of a monad and the $T_n F$'s are the functor version of bimodules over that monad. It follows that each $T_n F$ (and $P_nF$) takes values in spaces of symmetric Lusternik-Schnirelman cocategory $n$, as defined by Hopkins. This also recovers recent results of Chorny-Scherer. The spaces $T_n F(X)$ are in fact classically nilpotent (in the sense of Berstein-Ganea) but not nilpotent in the sense of Biedermann and Dwyer. We extend the original constructions of dual calculus to our setting, establishing the $n$-co-excisive approximation for a functor, and dualize our constructions to obtain analogous results concerning constructions $T^n$, $P^n$,and LS category.
Absolutely homotopy-cartesian squares
Rosona Eldred
Mathematics , 2013,
Abstract: We call a diagram D absolutely cartesian if F(D) is homotopy cartesian for all homotopy functors F. This is a sensible notion for diagrams in categories C where Goodwillie's calculus of functors may be set up for functors with domain C. We prove a classification theorem for absolutely cartesian squares of spaces and state a conjecture of the classification for higher dimensional cubes.
Competitiveness of Togolese Banking Sector  [PDF]
Tunde Ahmed Afolabi
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2018.811161
Abstract: Development of a country depends on its economic growth which depends also on several factors which can be both micro and macroeconomic. The financial sector is the lung of the economy; more exactly the banking sector contributes in a non negligible part to this growth. The competitiveness, effectiveness and efficiency of banking sector make it reliable to the economy. Unfortunately, evidences have shown that most Sub-Saharan countries don’t rely much on their financial sector, mainly due to challenges they face. This paper aims to analyze the competitiveness and the driving factors in Togolese banking sector with macroeconomic development using Structure-Conduct and Performance (SCP) framework and regression models. The research covers a period of sixteen years (from 2000 to 2015), with ten banks. This research proxies the asset in a panel A and profit in a panel B for the bank’s competitiveness. The results are of panel regressions with fixed effects and robust standard errors. Considering the Panel A, the variables Inter-Banks loans, customers loans, Inter-Banks Debts, Customers Debts are the driving factor of the competitiveness. However, the size of the bank proxied by profit has no impact on the competitiveness. The result suggests that the reform which has started since 1990 should be completed; there should be organizational and financial restructuring.
Biodiesel for Sustainable Energy Provision in Developing Countries  [PDF]
Moses Tunde Oladiran, Jerekias Gandure
Low Carbon Economy (LCE) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/lce.2011.23017
Abstract: Consumption of fossil fuel resources has been growing over the years and it is the kernel of economic development. However combustion which takes place principally in automobiles, power generation and industrial plants produces greenhouse gases (GHG) that are harmful to the environment. The release of GHG such as carbon dioxide is contributing to global warming. Biofuels can lower carbon footprint, reduce dependence on imported fossil fuels and increase energy security. Integrating biofuels into the national energy mix also has good socio-economic and sustainability potential. Therefore this paper discusses factors for successful diffusion of biodiesel technology in developing economies.
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