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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3445 matches for " Elaine Cole "
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The impact of methods for estimating bone health and the global burden of bone disease
Cole,Zo? A; Dennison,Elaine M; Cooper,Cyrus;
Salud Pública de México , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342009000700007
Abstract: osteoporosis constitutes a major public health problem through its association with age related fractures. fracture rates are generally higher in caucasian women than in other populations. important determinants include estrogen deficiency in women, low body mass index, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, poor dietary calcium intake, physical inactivity, certain drugs and illnesses. thus, modification of physical activity and dietary calcium/vitamin d nutrition should complement high risk approaches. in addition, the recently developed who algorithm for evaluation of 10-year absolute risk of fracture provides a means whereby various therapies can be targeted cost-effectively to those at risk. risk factors, together with bone mineral density (bmd) and biochemical indices of bone turnover, can be utilised to derive absolute risks of fracture and cost-utility thresholds at which treatment is justified. these data will provide the basis for translation into coherent public health strategies aiming to prevent osteoporosis both in individuals and in the general population.
Health Outcome after Major Trauma: What Are We Measuring?
Karen Hoffman, Elaine Cole, E. Diane Playford, Eva Grill, Helene L. Soberg, Karim Brohi
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0103082
Abstract: Importance Trauma is a global disease and is among the leading causes of disability in the world. The importance of outcome beyond trauma survival has been recognised over the last decade. Despite this there is no internationally agreed approach for assessment of health outcome and rehabilitation of trauma patients. Objective To systematically examine to what extent outcomes measures evaluate health outcomes in patients with major trauma. Data Sources MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL (from 2006–2012) were searched for studies evaluating health outcome after traumatic injuries. Study selection and data extraction Studies of adult patients with injuries involving at least two body areas or organ systems were included. Information on study design, outcome measures used, sample size and outcomes were extracted. The World Health Organisation International Classification of Function, Disability and Health (ICF) were used to evaluate to what extent outcome measures captured health impacts. Results 34 studies from 755 studies were included in the review. 38 outcome measures were identified. 21 outcome measures were used only once and only five were used in three or more studies. Only 6% of all possible health impacts were captured. Concepts related to activity and participation were the most represented but still only captured 12% of all possible concepts in this domain. Measures performed very poorly in capturing concepts related to body function (5%), functional activities (11%) and environmental factors (2%). Conclusion Outcome measures used in major trauma capture only a small proportion of health impacts. There is no inclusive classification for measuring disability or health outcome following trauma. The ICF may provide a useful framework for the development of a comprehensive health outcome measure for trauma care.
Phosphorylation of Mutant Huntingtin at Serine 116 Modulates Neuronal Toxicity
Erin E. Watkin, Nicolas Arbez, Elaine Waldron-Roby, Robert O'Meally, Tamara Ratovitski, Robert N. Cole, Christopher A. Ross
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0088284
Abstract: Phosphorylation has been shown to have a significant impact on expanded huntingtin-mediated cellular toxicity. Several phosphorylation sites have been identified on the huntingtin (Htt) protein. To find new potential therapeutic targets for Huntington's Disease (HD), we used mass spectrometry to identify novel phosphorylation sites on N-terminal Htt, expressed in HEK293 cells. Using site-directed mutagenesis we introduced alterations of phosphorylation sites in a N586 Htt construct containing 82 polyglutamine repeats. The effects of these alterations on expanded Htt toxicity were evaluated in primary neurons using a nuclear condensation assay and a direct time-lapse imaging of neuronal death. As a result of these studies, we identified several novel phosphorylation sites, validated several known sites, and discovered one phospho-null alteration, S116A, that had a protective effect against expanded polyglutamine-mediated cellular toxicity. The results suggest that S116 is a potential therapeutic target, and indicate that our screening method is useful for identifying candidate phosphorylation sites.
Children grow and horses race: is the adiposity rebound a critical period for later obesity?
TJ Cole
BMC Pediatrics , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2431-4-6
Abstract: Longitudinal changes in body mass index during adiposity rebound, measured both in original (kg/m2) and standard deviation (SD) score units, are studied in five hypothetical subjects. Two aspects of the body mass index curve, the body mass index centile and the rate of body mass index centile crossing, determine a child's age at rebound. A high centile and upward centile crossing are both associated separately with an early rebound, while a low centile and/or downward centile crossing correspond to a late rebound. Early adiposity rebound is a risk factor for later fatness because it identifies children whose body mass index centile is high and/or crossing upwards. Such children are likely to have a raised body mass index later in childhood and adulthood. This is an example of Peto's "horse racing effect". The association of centile crossing with later obesity is statistical not physiological, and it applies at all ages not just at rebound, so adiposity rebound cannot be considered a critical period for future obesity. Body mass index centile crossing is a more direct indicator of the underlying drive to fatness.An early age at adiposity rebound predicts later fatness because it identifies children whose body mass index centile is high and/or crossing upwards. Such children are likely to have a raised body mass index later. Body mass index centile crossing is more direct than the timing of adiposity rebound for predicting later fatness.There is continuing interest and concern about the worldwide epidemic of child obesity, particularly its role in the development of later obesity and adult chronic disease. [1,2] The adiposity rebound is the second rise in adiposity, as measured by body mass index (BMI = weight/height2), which occurs between 3 and 7 years of age in individual children. [3] It corresponds to fat cells starting to increase in number after an earlier phase of increasing then decreasing in size. [4] In an important paper Rolland-Cachera [3] noted that the
From “Animal Machines” to “Happy Meat”? Foucault’s Ideas of Disciplinary and Pastoral Power Applied to ‘Animal-Centred’ Welfare Discourse
Matthew Cole
Animals , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/ani1010083
Abstract: Michel Foucault’s work traces shifting techniques in the governance of humans, from the production of ‘docile bodies’ subjected to the knowledge formations of the human sciences (disciplinary power), to the facilitation of self-governing agents directed towards specified forms of self-knowledge by quasi-therapeutic authorities (pastoral power). While mindful of the important differences between the governance of human subjects and the oppression of nonhuman animals, exemplified in nonhuman animals’ legal status as property, this paper explores parallel shifts from disciplinary to pastoral regimes of human-‘farmed’ animal relations. Recent innovations in ‘animal-centred’ welfare science represent a trend away from the ‘disciplinary’ techniques of confinement and torture associated with ‘factory farms’ and towards quasi-therapeutic ways of claiming to know ‘farmed’ animals, in which the animals themselves are co-opted into the processes by which knowledge about them is generated. The new pastoral turn in ‘animal-centred’ welfare finds popular expression in ‘happy meat’ discourses that invite ‘consumers’ to adopt a position of vicarious carer for the ‘farmed’ animals who they eat. The paper concludes that while ‘animal-centred’ welfare reform and ‘happy meat’ discourses promise a possibility of a somewhat less degraded life for some ‘farmed’ animals, they do so by perpetuating exploitation and oppression and entrenching speciesist privilege by making it less vulnerable to critical scrutiny.
Reinventando las prácticas educativas del pasado para lograr el éxito pedagógico del futuro
Revista de Estudios Sociales , 2011,
Abstract: in this paper i argue that the future of psychological research on educational processes would benefit from an interdisciplinary approach that enables psychologists to locate their objects of study within the cultural, social, and historical contexts of their research. an examination of anthropological accounts of the characteristics of education in small, face-to-face, pre-industrial societies raises the question of why major challenges have confronted contemporary psycho-educational research that seeks to implement major, qualitative changes in modern educational practices by transforming them to have the properties of education in those same face-to-face societies. the paper concludes with a description of a multi-institutional, multi-disciplinary system of education that responds to these challenges while offering a model for educating psychology students in a multi-generational system of activities with potential widespread benefits.
Phenomenology Neuroscience and Impairment
Jonathan Cole
Abstracta : Linguagem, Mente e A??o , 2008,
Abstract: No Abstract.
Culture and Cognitive Science
Michael Cole
Outlines : Critical Practice Studies , 2003,
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to review the way in which cultural contributions to human nature have been treated within the field of cognitive science. I was initially motivated to write about this topic when invited to give a talk to a Cognitive Science department at a sister university in California a few years ago. My goal, on that occasion, was to convince my audience, none of whom were predisposed to considering culture an integral part of cognitive science, that they would indeed benefit from recognizing some affinities between the ideas of some of the founders of cognitive science and ideas about culture emanating from the Soviet (now Russian) cultural-historical school. My task in presenting this argument to the readers of Outlines is most likely the mirror image of that earlier effort. On the one hand, the ideas of the cultural-historical school are well known to this readership and you do not need to be lectured on the topic by an American whose knowledge of the topic is no greater than your own. At best, the ways in which I have appropriated those ideas and put them to work might provide an opportunity to reflect on the strange fate of ideas when they move between national traditions of thought. On the other hand, owing to a double twist of fate (after all, what was an American doing in Moscow in 1962 doing post-doctoral work in psychology) I was also present during the discussions leading to the founding of Cognitive Science in the early 1970’s and subsequently became a member of the Cognitive Science Program at UCSD in the early 1980’s, arguably one of the pioneering efforts to institutionalize this new discipline. My hope is this unusual confluence of experiences, and the ideas that they have generated, will be of some use to those who see value in a dialogue between these different intellectual projects. With this goal in mind, I will begin by providing my own brief history of key ideas associated with the origins of cognitive science. My presentation will of necessity be highly selective – it is the relevance of the inclusion of culture in cognitive science that is my major focus. I will then summarize some major milestones in the development of cognitive science at UCSD before turning to describe my own fusion of ideas from cultural-historical psychology and cognitive science as a kind of existence proof of the potential value of inter-disciplinary dialogue.
BOOK REVIEW: Blunden (2010): An Interdisciplinary Theory of Activity
Michael Cole
Outlines : Critical Practice Studies , 2011,
Identifying and Engaging 'Disengaged' and 'Disruptive' Students
Ted Cole
International Journal of Emotional Education , 2009,
Abstract: This paper outlines concerns in the UK about young people who are disruptive in class and/or disengaged from the normal educational process. After discussing who these children are and estimating their numbers, the paper examines recent research on how best to meet their needs. This research indicates the appropriateness of the UK government's recent softening of its position on 'inclusion'. The studies cited indicate that far more can be done in 'normal' school settings to promote engagement but that special provision can sometimes be more appropriate. If social inclusion as adults is the overarching aim, what matters more than the physical location of the education offered are the qualities, skills, commitment and energies of the professionals involved. The values of staff, the quality of their relationships with the children and young people, and their imaginative, flexible delivery of appropriate curricula are crucial, as is the need to support these professionals in their demanding task.
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