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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3965 matches for " Elaine Chai "
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A Signaling Pathway Involving TGF-β2 and Snail in Hair Follicle Morphogenesis
Colin Jamora,Pedro Lee,Pawel Kocieniewski,Mohamad Azhar,Ryoichi Hosokawa,Yang Chai,Elaine Fuchs
PLOS Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0030011
Abstract: In a common theme of organogenesis, certain cells within a multipotent epithelial sheet exchange signals with their neighbors and develop into a bud structure. Using hair bud morphogenesis as a paradigm, we employed mutant mouse models and cultured keratinocytes to dissect the contributions of multiple extracellular cues in orchestrating adhesion dynamics and proliferation to shape the cluster of cells involved. We found that transforming growth factor β2 signaling is necessary to transiently induce the transcription factor Snail and activate the Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in the bud. In the epidermis, Snail misexpression leads to hyperproliferation and a reduction in intercellular adhesion. When E-cadherin is transcriptionally down-regulated, associated adhesion proteins with dual functions in signaling are released from cell-cell contacts, a process which we demonstrate leads to Ras-MAPK activation. These studies provide insights into how multipotent cells within a sheet are stimulated to undergo transcriptional changes that result in proliferation, junctional remodeling, and bud formation. This novel signaling pathway further weaves together the web of different morphogens and downstream transcriptional events that guide hair bud formation within the developing skin.
A Signaling Pathway Involving TGF-β2 and Snail in Hair Follicle Morphogenesis
Colin Jamora,Pedro Lee,Pawel Kocieniewski,Mohamad Azhar,Ryoichi Hosokawa,Yang Chai,Elaine Fuchs
PLOS Biology , 2005, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0030011
Abstract: In a common theme of organogenesis, certain cells within a multipotent epithelial sheet exchange signals with their neighbors and develop into a bud structure. Using hair bud morphogenesis as a paradigm, we employed mutant mouse models and cultured keratinocytes to dissect the contributions of multiple extracellular cues in orchestrating adhesion dynamics and proliferation to shape the cluster of cells involved. We found that transforming growth factor β2 signaling is necessary to transiently induce the transcription factor Snail and activate the Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in the bud. In the epidermis, Snail misexpression leads to hyperproliferation and a reduction in intercellular adhesion. When E-cadherin is transcriptionally down-regulated, associated adhesion proteins with dual functions in signaling are released from cell-cell contacts, a process which we demonstrate leads to Ras-MAPK activation. These studies provide insights into how multipotent cells within a sheet are stimulated to undergo transcriptional changes that result in proliferation, junctional remodeling, and bud formation. This novel signaling pathway further weaves together the web of different morphogens and downstream transcriptional events that guide hair bud formation within the developing skin.
Orienting a new generation of nurses: Expectations of the millennial new graduate  [PDF]
Elaine M. Riegel
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2013.37062
Abstract:

Generational diversity provides a unique quandary for nursing leaders and educators to enlist, orient, and retain nurses. Millennials are the largest cohort since the Baby Boomers and the age group from which the nursing profession will build its future workforce. This study examined the experiences of the new graduate nurse of the millennial generation as they navigate orientation in an acute care setting. Using a Web-based survey to conduct the study allowed nurses from across the country to participate while providing easy access to the study questions. Analysis of the data through qualitative content analysis demonstrated a dominate theme of seeking structure while expecting an individualized orientation. The survey also revealed the importance of the preceptor and manager in the perceived success of this generation’s transition and a need to assimilate into the professional role of RN. Recognizing that there is a need to promote a more individualized orientation with improved mentoring for novice nurses and their preceptors is evident and challenges nursing leaders and educators to rethink current practices to retain new nurses. Established roles within the hospital and individual nursing units are changing and traditional strategies for recruitment and retention no longer apply. A structured orientation can facilitate the transition from new graduate to professional nurse and assist in the retention of qualified nurses and ultimately safe patient care.

Simulation of Power Flow and Protection of a Limited Bus Grid System with Injected Solar Power  [PDF]
Nader Barsoum, Chai Zen Lee
Energy and Power Engineering (EPE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/epe.2013.51008
Abstract:

In recent years, injection of renewable energy such as solar power into the power grid is increasing. However, inclusion of large-scale intermittent-type renewable energy requires better management in proper understanding of grid’s variable characteristics and its protection systems. In this paper, the investigation on overvoltage issue is illustrated. Overvoltage in distribution feeder occurs when large amount of solar power is injected at low power demand. Another investigation is on false operation of overcurrent relays due to reverse power to the 33 kV loads. The potential solutions to the two issues are illustrated in the small-sized power grid system using bi-directional inverters on AC buses in charging battery banks and adjusting the relay current settings. The benefits of solar power injection are illustrated whereby output power from generators is decreased and transmission losses are reduced. Electrical Transient Analysis Program (ETAP) was used for investigations.

Positive Solution of Fourth-Order Integral Boundary Value Problemwith Two Parameters
Guoqing Chai
Abstract and Applied Analysis , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/859497
Abstract: The author investigates the fourth-order integral boundary value problem with two parameters (4)()
Existence results for anti-periodic boundary value problems of fractional differential equations
Guoqing Chai
Advances in Difference Equations , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1687-1847-2013-53
Abstract: In this paper, the author is concerned with the following fractional equation \[ { }^CD_{0+}^\alpha u(t)=f(t,u(t),{}^CD_{0+}^{\alpha _1 } u(t),{ }^CD_{0+}^{\alpha _2 } u(t)),t\in (0,1) \] with the anti-periodic boundary value conditions \[ u(0)=-u(1), \;\; t^{\beta _1 -1}\; {}^CD_{0+}^{\beta _1 } u(t)_{\vert t\to 0}=-t^{\beta _1 -1}\; {}^CD_{0+}^{\beta_1 } u(t)_{\vert t=1}, \] \[ t^{\beta _2 -2}\; {}^CD_{0+}^{\beta _2 } u(t)_{\vert t\to 0} =-t^{\beta _2-2}\; {}^CD_{0+}^{\beta _2 }u(t)_{\vert t=1}, \] where ${ }^CD_{0+}^\gamma $ denotes the Caputo fractional derivative of order $\gamma $, the constants $\alpha ,\alpha _1 ,\alpha _2 ,\beta _1 ,\beta _2 $ satisfy the conditions that $2<\alpha \leq3,0<\alpha _1 \leq1<\alpha _2 \leq2,0<\beta _1 <1<\beta _2 <2$. Differing from the recent researches, the function $f$ involves Caputo fractional derivative ${}^CD_{0+}^{\alpha _1 } u(t)$ and ${}^CD_{0+}^{\alpha _2 } u(t)$. In addition, the author put forward a new anti-periodic boundary value conditions, which are more suitable than that were studied in the recent literature. By applying Banach contraction mapping principle, and Leray-Schauder degree theory, some existence results of solution are obtained.
Proboscis lateralis: Comments
Chai K
Indian Journal of Plastic Surgery , 2003,
Abstract:
Efficient Intelligent Localization Scheme for Distributed Wireless Sensor Networks
Chunlai Chai
Journal of Computers , 2009, DOI: 10.4304/jcp.4.11.1159-1166
Abstract: To estimate location accurately in distributed wireless sensor networks (WSNs), an efficient intelligent position estimation scheme is proposed which needs fewer known nodes without calculating relative positions. The proposed intelligent localization scheme includes two phases. In the first phase, an initialization location algorithm is adopted, where known nodes broadcast their positions and one-hop distances, and then unknown nodes use the received information and operate weighted estimation algorithm to calculate their initial positions. In the second phase, an optimized location algorithm is employed. Unknown nodes exchange information with their neighbors and operate a modified weighted estimation algorithm to refine their positions repeatedly. Additionally, a location scheme also is proposed to solve the problem that a node only has two neighbors. Detailed simulation results show that, the proposed scheme can decrease the average position error down to 9% radio range, and increase the average number of located nodes up to 78% when connectivity is greater than 12 in 20% known node ratio.
Global Output Control for a Class of Inherently Higher-Order Nonlinear Time-Delay Systems Based on Homogeneous Domination Approach
Lin Chai
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/180717
Abstract: This paper addresses the problem of global output feedback stabilization for a class of inherently higher-order uncertain nonlinear systems subject to time-delay. By using the homogeneous domination approach, we construct a homogeneous output feedback controller with an adjustable scaling gain. With the aid of a homogeneous Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, the scaling gain is adjusted to dominate the time-delay nonlinearities bounded by homogeneous growth conditions and render the closed-loop system globally asymptotically stable. In addition, we also show that the proposed approach is applicable for time-delay systems under nontriangular growth conditions. 1. Introduction This paper addresses the global stabilization problem for a class of uncertain systems with delay which is described by where are the system states, is the control input, is the system output with , is a given time-delay constant, and is the initial function of the system state vector. The terms , , represent nonlinear perturbations that are not guaranteed to be precisely known. It has been known that the problem of global output feedback stabilization for uncertain nonlinear systems is very challenging compared to the state feedback case. In the past decade, global stabilization by output feedback domination method has been proved to be achievable for a series of nonlinear systems. For the system of a five-spot pattern reservoir, a nonlinear reduced-order model is identified and an asymptotically stabilizing controller is proposed based on the circle criterion in [1]. With the help of linear feedback domination design [2], some interesting results have been established under a linear growth condition [2] and under a higher-order growth condition [3]. Recently, the homogeneous domination approach proposed in [3] has been used as a universal tool to solve the problem of global output feedback stabilization for inherently nonlinear systems. As a consequence, fruitful research results have been achieved in [3–9]. However, the aforementioned results have not considered the time-delay effect which is actually very common in state, input, and output due to the time consumed in sensing, information transmitting, and controller computing. In the case when the nonlinearities contain time-delay, some interesting results have been obtained. For instance, in [10], the global asymptotic stability analysis problem is investigated for a class of stochastic bidirectional associative memory (BAM) networks with mixed time-delays and parameter uncertainties. The paper [11] investigated the state
Bessel functions and local converse conjecture of Jacquet
Jingsong Chai
Mathematics , 2014,
Abstract: In this paper, we prove a kernel formula of Bessel functions attached to irreducible smooth supercuspidal representations of p-adic $GL(n)$. We also show that the Bessel function defined by Bessel distribution coincides with the Bessel function defined via uniqueness of Whittaker models on the open Bruhat cell. As an application we give a proof of the local converse conjecture of Jacquet.
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