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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 403 matches for " Egypt "
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The Abusir Drill Core Survey, Egypt
Serena Love
Papers from the Institute of Archaeology , 2001, DOI: 10.5334/pia.158
“American Research Center in Egypt, Fifty-Third Annual Meeting”, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, 26th - 28th April 2002
Kathryn E. Piquette
Papers from the Institute of Archaeology , 2002, DOI: 10.5334/pia.173
Pollen Morphology of Tribes Gnaphalieae, Helenieae, Plucheeae and Senecioneae (Subfamily Asteroideae) of Compositae from Egypt  [PDF]
Ahmed Kamal El-Deen Osman
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2011.22014
Abstract: POLLEN morphology of twenty five species representing 12 genera of tribes Gnaphalieae, Helenieae, Plucheeae and Senecioneae (Asteroideae: Asteraceae) was investigated using light and scanning electron microscopy. The genera are Phagnalon, Filago, Gnaphalium, Helichrysum, Homognaphalium, Ifloga, Lasiopogon, Pseudognaphalium, Flaveria, Tagetes, Sphaeranthus and Senecio. Two pollen types were recognized viz. Senecio pollen type and Filago pollen type. Description of each type, a key to the investigated taxa as well as LM and SEM micrographs of pollen grains are provided.
Impact of biomass in Egypt on climate change  [PDF]
Dalia Adel Nakhla, Mohamed Galal Hassan, Salah El Haggar
Natural Science (NS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2013.56083

Egypt is one of the most vulnerable countries to climate change due to the expected detrimental impacts on coastal zones, agriculture, water security as well as indirect social and health impacts. Egypt is responsible for 0.57% of the global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Although Egypt is a non-annex I country not requiring any specific emission reduction or limitation targets under the Kyoto protocol, its National plans have included mitigation measures to reduce its greenhouse gases. The main sectors contributing to climate change in Egypt are energy, industry, agriculture and waste. Waste, on the other hand, has been accumulating in the streets of Egypt and along its water banks causing considerable air, soil and water pollution and indirect detrimental health impacts. However, this waste which is composed of organic municipal waste, agricultural residues, agro-industrial waste, animal manure and sewage sludge are valuable biomass resources. Utilizing the waste resources of Egypt especially the biomass or the organic component of this waste will not only solve some of the pressing economic needs of Egypt such as animal fodder, fertilizer and fuel but will also alleviate environmental burdens through decreasing air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions in the sector of waste as well as those of energy, industry and agriculture. This paper quantifies the biomass resources in Egypt generated from different waste resources. Then it demonstrates the efforts that Egypt made to contribute to global greenhouse gas emissions reductions through the Kyoto Protocol’s clean development mechanism (CDM). The projects in the waste sector already established in Egypt and approved as CDM projects are listed, which are related to waste management facilities and those which are waste to energy projects. Finally, a list of mitigation projects as proposed by the Egyptian government to decrease GHGs as related to the waste sector are enumerated.

Organotin Compounds in Sediments of Northern Lakes, Egypt  [PDF]
Mohamed A. Shreadah, Safaa A. Abdel Ghani, Hamada B. I. Hawash, Asia Abd El Samie, Abd El Moniem M. Ahmed
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2014.517156
Abstract: This pioneered study is aimed to determine the levels and distributions of organotin compounds (OTCs) in sediment samples collected from five Egyptian lakes located in the southern-eastern Mediterranean Sea. The paper has given an account of and the reasons for the widespread distribution of Tributyltin (TBT) in northern lakes. The percentage of TBT ranged from 4% - 100% OTC revealing recent inputs of TBT. The highest average of TBT (2.84 μg/g Sn dry wt) was measured in lake Edku. Dibutyltin (DBT) was observed at most sampled sites. Relatively higher abundance of DBT was observed in sediments of EL-Burullus (0.69 μg/g Sn dry wt). One of most significant findings to emerge from this study is the absence of any strong and significant correlation between TBT and DBT in sediments from five northern lakes. The absence of such correlation might give a clear evidence that both compounds did not come from the same source. The observed OTC levels indicate some highly localized areas of contamination which are severe enough to cause harmful effects on marine flora and fauna. Except for El-Burllus, Triphenyltin (TPhT) was not measured in sediments of most stations. TPhT was the predominant species in El-Burullus, which indicate a source of pollution mostly originated from industrial and agricultural waste water discharge, organic wastes, commercial fertilizers, chemical wastes and pesticides. The percentages of OTC to total tin ranged from 1% to 35%. El-Brullus, Edku and El-Bardaweel exhibited the highest percentages. As a result of lack of enforcement on the control of OTC, the study has thrown up many questions need further detailed environmental assessment of OTC.
Involvement of Male Youth into Accidents in Upper Egypt: Pattern and Risk Analysis  [PDF]
Raouf M. Afifi, Sameh Sh. Zaytou, Ahmed A. El Raggal, Amani Qulali, Hesham A. K. Ayoub
Health (Health) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/health.2015.78114
Abstract: Background: Accidents pose a serious threat to health and economy in Egypt. Objectives: To identify and analyze the epidemiological factors associated with different types of accidents among adult males in Upper Egypt. Methods: A sample of 500 Egyptian males 20 - 28 years of age attending for health care at Quena University Hospital (QUH) or affiliated health institutions in South Egyptian governorates of Luxor and Red Sea was studied. The demographic, socioeconomic, and habitual data, as well as health status, medical history, and history of engagement into accidents for the recruits all were evaluated. Results: Accidents occurrences accounted up to 23/500 (4.6%) of the studied group. Road traffic accidents (RTAs) represented the highest percentage (30.4%), followed by street fights (21.7%) and animal bites (13.1%). Occupational accidents, electrical injuries, and near-drowning, all were equally encountered (8.7%), whereas falls and burns were least prevalent (4.3% each). Drug abuse, manual work, obesity, and having epilepsy were significant risk factors for accident injuries (OR = 6.35, 95% CI: 1.64 - 24.58, OR = 3.36, 95% CI: 1.22 - 9.73, OR = 4.81, 95% CI: 1.50 - 15.46, OR = 45.33, 95% CI: 3.94 - 518.01, respectively). Conclusions: Engagement of young Upper Egyptian males into accidents is alarming. Most of the accident mechanisms encountered are preventable. Enforcement of standard occupational, traffic and public safety laws is needed to minimize the burden of accidents upon the public health and economy in Upper Egypt.
“Education Ltd.”—The Influence of British Earl of Cromer on the Education System in Egypt (1883-1907)  [PDF]
Yossi Maman, Janan Faraj Falah
Advances in Historical Studies (AHS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ahs.2018.72006

This research focuses on a historic issue: the influence of the Earl of Cromer (who served as the British Consul-General in Egypt) on the local education system. The research reflects an inter-disciplinary approacheducation and history. Coping with the issue was done via examination of the declared educational goals and the activities in practice as well as the local population’s responses to the activities. Allegedly, Cromer failed in his attempted reforms in Egyptian education. This article attempts to examine the issue from a process-holistic approach attributing meaning to all actions taken by Cromer in the education system. The major leading goal of this research is the examination of the education system in Egypt during the British occupation, when the Earl of Cromer served as the British Consul-General from September 11, 1883 to the end of his term on May 6, 1907. Cromer is claimed to have ailed his reforms in Egyptian education, and so this article will attempt to separate the educational goals set by the British and Cromer and the actual practice in the field. We will also relate to the local population’s responses to these activities.

Egypt: Politics in the New Millennium
Maye Kassem
UNISCI Discussion Papers , 2006,
Abstract: It seems that with the new millennium, some potentially interesting changes have emerged within the Egyptian political arena. Whether these are linked to attempts at US democratic promotion in the Middle East is difficult to substantiate. What seems clear however is such reforms appear to have produced only the most minor of changes to the prevailing authoritarian system of contemporary Egypt. These changes have included reforms ranging from changes in legislative elections procedures (2000); internal re-structuring within the NDP(2001/2); a proposed revision of presidential referendum procedures (March 2005); followed by the first presidential elections in Egypt (September 2005) and new legislative elections a few months later (November-December 2005). This article will examine these political developments in an effort to gauge the degree to which such changes can potentially contribute towards the democratization of Egyptian politics in the new millennium.
Distribution of Different Organotin and Organolead Compounds in Sediment of Suez Gulf  [PDF]
Mohamed A. Shreadah, Tarek O. Said, Safaa A. Abd El Ghani, Abd El Moniem M. Ahmed
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2011.25063
Abstract: Organotin and organolead compounds were determined in sediments of the Suez Gulf The concentrations of Tributyltin (TBT) ranged from 0.27 to 2.77 with an average value of 1.37 µgg-1; dry wt. However, the concentrations of dibutyltin (DBT) ranged from 0.07 to 2.27 with an average value of 0.58 µgg-1; dry wt. A significant correlation was found between TBT and DBT with r = 0.82, (p = 0.05) indicating that the occurrence of DBT is mainly related to the degradation of TBT. Generally, the high concentration of TBT was attributed to shipping activity in harbours. In addition, Diphenyltin (DPhT) concentrations ranged from not detected to 2.09 with an average of 1.10 µgg-1 dry wt. Antifouling agents, industrial discharge and the influence of sewage discharge are the main sources of pollution by DPhT compounds in Suez Gulf. On the other side, organolead (OLC) concentrations ranged from 10.88 - 440.2 with an average of 168.7 ngg-1; dry wt. A significant setting of OLC recorded in sediments of Suez Gulf was mainly attributed to cars exhaust and/or spelling and direct evaporation of fuels.
Mercury and Methyl Mercury in Sediments of Northern Lakes-Egypt  [PDF]
Mohamed A. Shreadah, Safaa A.Abdel Ghani, Asia Abd El Samie Taha, Moniem M. Abd El Ahmed, Hamada B. I. Hawash
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2012.33032
Abstract: Fifty-four sediment samples of the five Northern Egyptian lakes, (Mariout, Edku, El-Burullus, El-Manzallah, and El-Bardaweel) were analyzed to investigate the pollution status of mercury (Hg). The total mercury (T-Hg) content in sediment samples ranged from 15.33 to 171.29 ng·g–1 dry wt).The results showed that T-Hg were lower than the back ground values reported and also lower than the ranges of uncontaminated sediments. Moreover, the T-Hg concentrations in all sediments were under the upper chemical Exceedance level (1 μg·g–1). The concentrations of Methyl mercury (MeHg) in surface sediments of the Northern lakes ranged from 0.002 - 0.023 ng·g–1 dry wt. The contribution of MeHg was less than 0.1% of total mercury concentration with index values from 0.08 - 1.37 ng·g–1; dry wt). MeHg showed insignificant correlation with T-Hg. This suggested that MeHg contents were not controlled by the T-Hg in sediments. The T-Hg and MeHg concentrations were insignificantly correlated with TOC content which indicates that the concentration of T-Hg and MeHg in sediments of Northern lakes were not influence by TOC. The average T-Hg concentration was found in the following order; Mariout > El-Manzallah > El-Burullus > Edku > El-Bardaweel. While the MeHg was found in the order; El-Bardaweel > El-Burullus ≥ El-Manzallah > Mariout > Edku.
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