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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 6560 matches for " Efficiency "
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Monopoly and Economic Efficiency: Perspective from an Efficiency Wage Model  [PDF]
Bo Zhao
Modern Economy (ME) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/me.2011.25092
Abstract: The objective of this paper is to analyze the efficiency consequences of monopoly from the perspective of an efficiency-wage model based on Shapiro and Stiglitz (1984). An important innovation of our model is that a firm can raise the probability that a shirking worker is detected by increasing its effort or investment in the monitoring of workers. By comparing with the competitive equilibrium we find that monopoly is associated with higher unemployment rate and less monitoring. Surprisingly, however, monopoly is not necessarily dominated by perfect competition in terms of economic efficiency.
High Performance Polymer Light-Emitting Devices  [PDF]
Vivek Kant Jogi
World Journal of Nano Science and Engineering (WJNSE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/wjnse.2014.41003
In order to improve the performance of polymer light-emitting devices, driving voltages, current efficiency, luminance and power efficiency of different cathode metals such as Ca/Al, CsF/Al, LiF/Al and LiF/Ca/Ag were compared. The results show that cathode metals CsF/Al contain the highest current efficiency, maximum luminance and power efficiency. Therefore, we can choose the CsF/Al to be the cathode for improving the performance of polymer light-emitting devices.
Lerner Index, Productive Efficiency and Homotheticity  [PDF]
Andrea Mantovi
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2015.53042
Abstract: Chambers et al. (2014) set forth a decomposition of the Lerner index, which results in a function on the full space \"\"?of input and output prices and quantities, such that the effect of the Farrell output measure of technical efficiency is explicit. In close correspondence, a decomposition of the Lerner index is established in which allocative efficiency (in both standard and reversed form, as defined by Bogetoft et al., 2006) complements the effect of input technical efficiency, with the reversed decomposition bound to the hypothesis of homotheticity. The resulting functions on \"\"are conjectured to define pregnant perspectives on the benchmark relevance of homothetic models, and their generalizations to multiple output.
Happiness as Surplus or Freely Available Energy  [PDF]
Matthew T. Gailliot
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2012.39107
Abstract: This paper presents a literature review that indicate happiness as a state of freely available or surplus energy. Happiness is associated with good metabolism and glucose levels, fewer demands (from parenting, work, difficult social relationships, or personal threats), and goal achievement, as well as increased ease of processing, mental resources, social support, and monetary wealth. Each of these either provide or help conserve energy.
Theft and Welfare in General Equilibrium: A Theoretical Note  [PDF]
Thomas Randolph Beard, George S. Ford, Liliana V. Stern, Michael L. Stern
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2012.25088
Abstract: We show that in a dynamic general equilibrium model theft lowers social welfare even if it is costless to steal, there is no theft prevention cost, and all stolen goods are immediately returned to society. Theft lowers social welfare because it distorts the investment decision, resulting in undercapitalization and a lower steady-state level of capital. This sheds a new light on the literature originated by Tullock [1].
Efficiency Evaluation of China’s Medical Service  [PDF]
Zhang An, Bao Yong, Xia Wen, Shuping Wang
iBusiness (IB) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ib.2013.53B001

How to improve healthcare system’ efficiency has been highly concerned by Chinese government. The objectives of this paper are to establish production function of medical service and analyze returns to scale; to measure technical efficiency; and to highlight possible policy implications of the results for policy makers. Stochastic Frontier Approach (SFA) is employed in this paper based on data from 2010 China Health Statistical Yearbook. These findings suggest that increasing investment on human resource is a key factor for raising CHS’ efficiency. Operation model and institution will contribute to technology efficiency of CHS.

The Cost Efficiency of Regional Public Hospitals in South Korea  [PDF]
Sang-Mok Kang, Moon-Hwee Kim
Modern Economy (ME) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/me.2014.59091

This paper investigates the cost efficiency (CE), technical efficiency (TE), allocative efficiency (AE), and scale efficiency (SE) over 34 regional public hospitals in South Korea from 2007 to 2010 using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). The CE, AE, and TE of these hospitals during the period are 0.52, 0.71, and 0.74, on average, respectively, indicating that there is a possibility to reduce their inefficiency of 48%, 29%, and 26% by reallocating the input mix or scaling input back. SE of these hospitals during the same period is 0.85, suggesting that most of the regional public hospitals do not operate under the optimal scale which is efficient relative to both constant returns to scale (CRS) and variable returns to scale (VRS) technologies. The empirical result implies that even though half of the regional public hospitals are comparatively efficient allocatively and technically, they have not been good at selecting the cost-minimal input mix. It also indicates that some hospitals have suffered losses from not having the most optimal scale.

Exploitation in Monopsony  [PDF]
Chung-Cheng Lin
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2015.54058
Abstract: A key feature of monopsony model is that a single firm pays its workers a wage (w) less than the marginal revenue product (MRP). This feature has been explained as a synonym of the single firm exploiting its workers since its creation by Joan Robinson [1]. By using a simple standard efficiency wage model of Yellen [2], this paper examines the conventional wisdom by showing that the firm pays workers w in the equilibrium of full employment, but paradoxically pays them w=MRP in the equilibrium of involuntary unemployment. According to the conventional wisdom that the result of w implies that workers are exploited by the firm, this finding indicates that the firm does not exploit its employees (w=MRP) when there are involuntary unemployed workers queuing for jobs, but paradoxically exploits workers (w) when there are no workers queuing for jobs. The finding is obviously counter-intuitive. This counter-intuitive finding reveals that the key feature of w in monopsony cannot be regarded as a proper theoretical basis for the issue of labor exploitation.
Energy and water saving by using modified closed circuits of drip irrigation system  [PDF]
Hani Abdel-Ghani Mansour, Mohamed Yousif Tayel, David A. Lightfoot, Abdel-Ghany Mohamed El-Gindy
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/as.2010.13019
Abstract: The aim of this research was determine the en- ergy and water use efficiencies under the modification of closed circuit drip irrigation systems designs. Field experiments carried out on transgenic maize (GDH, LL3), (Zea Mays crop) under two types of closed circuits: a) One manifold for lateral lines or Closed circuits with One Manifold of Drip Irrigation System (CM1DIS); b) Closed circuits with Two Manifolds of Drip Irrigation System (CM2DIS), and c) Traditional Drip Irrigation System (TDIS) as a control. Three lengths of lateral lines were used, 40, 60, and 80 meters. PE tubes lateral lines: 16 mm diameter; 30 cm emitters distance, and GR built-in emitters 4 lph when operating pressure 1 bar under Two levels slope conditions 0% and 2%. Experiments were conducted at the Agric. Res. Fields., Soil and Plant & Agric. System Dept., Agric. Faculty, Southern Illinois University, Car- bondale (SIUC), Illinois, USA. Under 0% level slope when using CM2DIS the increase percent of Energy Use Efficiency (EUE) were 32.27, 33.21, and 34.37% whereas with CM1DIS were 30.84, 28.96, and 27.45% On the other hand when level slope 2% were with CM2DIS 31.57, 33.14, and 34.25 while CM1DIS were 30.15, 28.98, and 27.53 under lateral lengths 40, 60 and 80 m respectively relative to TDIS. Water Use Efficiency (WUE) when level slope 0% under CM2DIS were 1.67, 1.18, and 0.87 kg/m3 compared to 1.65, 1.16, and 0.86 kg/m3 with CM1DIS and 1.35, 1.04, and 0.75 kg/m3 with TDIS whereas with level slope 2% when using CM2DIS were 1.76, 1.29, and 0.84 kg/m3 compared to 1.77, 1.30, and 0.87 kg/m3 with CM1DIS and 1.41, 1.12, and 0.76 kg/m3 (for lateral lengths 40, 60, and 80 meters respectively). Water saving percent varied widely within individual lateral lengths and between circuit types relative to TDIS. Under slope 0% level CM2DIS water saving percent values were 19.26, 12.48, and 14.03%; with CM1DIS they were 18.51, 10.50, and 12.78%; and under slope level 2% with CM2DIS they were 19.93, 13.26, and 10.38% and CM1DIS were 20.49, 13.96, and 13.23% (for lateral lengths 40, 60, 80 meters respectively). The energy use efficiency and water saving were observed under CM2DIS and CM1DIS when using the shortest lateral length 40 meters, then lateral length 60 meters, while the lowest value was observed when using lateral length 80 meters this result depends on the physical and hydraulic characteristics of the emitters, lateral line uniformity, and friction losses. CM2DIS was more energy use efficiency, EUE, water saving, and WUE than either CM1DIS or TDIS.
Exergy Analysis of Single Array Wind Farm Using Wake Effects  [PDF]
A. Jeya Saravanan, C. P. Karthikeyan, Anand A. Samuel
Engineering (ENG) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2011.39117
Abstract: The influence of wake parameters on the exergy analysis of single array wind farm is studied in this paper. Key parameters which influence wake effects in a wind farm are wind velocity, tip speed ratio, number of blades, rotor speed, rotor diameter and hub height. Three different models namely power, wake and exergy model were used in estimating the exergy efficiency of the single array wind farm. Even though it is ideal for wind farms to fix the wind turbines in rows and columns the conditions of the site may not always be condu- cive for it. Hence analysis has been done keeping the wind turbines at random in a row and the effect of positioning on the performance is analyzed. Energy and exergy efficiency calculations were made for different cases by varying the positions of wind turbines in the single array wind farm. Standard relations were used in estimating the energy deficit in the wind farm due to wake effects. The wake effects were found to have an aggregated influence on the energy production of the wind farm, which results from the changes in the key parameters mentioned above. Potential areas for reducing energy losses by proper location and selection of turbines based on rating are highlighted. The influence of individual parameters contributing to the wake ef-fect were analyzed and discussed in detail.
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