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Double jeopardy--drug and sex risks among Russian women who inject drugs: initial feasibility and efficacy results of a small randomized controlled trial
Wendee M Wechsberg, Evgeny Krupitsky, Tatiana Romanova, Edwin Zvartau, Tracy L Kline, Felicia A Browne, Rachel Ellerson, Georgiy Bobashev, William A Zule, Hendrée E Jones
Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1747-597x-7-1
Abstract: Women (N = 100) were randomized into one of two one-hour long intervention conditions--the Woman-Focused intervention (n = 51) or a time and attention-matched Nutrition control condition (n = 49).The results showed that 57% of the participants had been told that they were HIV-positive. At 3-month follow-up, both groups showed reduced levels of injecting frequency. However, participants in the Woman-Focused intervention reported, on average, a lower frequency of partner impairment at last sex act and a lower average number of unprotected vaginal sex acts with their main sex partner than the Nutrition condition.The findings suggest that improvements in sexual risk reduction are possible for these at-risk women and that more comprehensive treatment is needed to address HIV and drug risks in this vulnerable population.Russia is an emerging epicenter of the global HIV epidemic [1], accounting for 66% of all newly registered HIV cases in Eastern Europe and Eurasia [2]. The geographical nexus of Russia's HIV epidemic is St. Petersburg, with an HIV prevalence rate of 30-47% among injecting drug users (IDUs) [3]. Additionally, 80-90% of the HIV cases in St. Petersburg are associated with IDUs, many of whom are unaware of their HIV status [4-6]. Further, HIV morbidity is reported to be highest among IDUs in St. Petersburg [7].In earlier studies, Russian women in general and female IDUs in particular appeared to be at high risk of HIV, but HIV prevalence among them was relatively low [8,9]. However, between 1996 and 2006, the number of HIV-infected women increased rapidly from 29% to 44% [2,9]. In St. Petersburg, HIV prevalence among female IDUs was estimated to be 20% [10]. Consequently, there is a critical need to address the HIV risks of female IDUs [11-13].Because of the multifaceted risks women face, they are at high risk for contracting and spreading HIV. For example, sharing contaminated injecting equipment and sexual transmission are the main causes of HIV infection fo
Severe & Moderate BPH Symptoms in Mid-Aged Men Improve with Isoflavonoid-Equol Treatment: Pilot Intervention Study  [PDF]
Edwin D. Lephart
Open Journal of Urology (OJU) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/oju.2013.31004

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the pathological cellular progression of glandular proliferation associated with aging. Current available treatment options for BPH have limitations and various adverse effects. Equol is a polyphenolic/isoflavonoid molecule derived from intestinal metabolism, dairy and dietary plant sources. It has the unique characteristic to bind specifically 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT) by sequestering 5α-DHT from the androgen receptor, thus decreasing androgen hormone actions to improve prostate health by acting as a selective androgen modulator (SAM). It also has affinity for estrogen related receptor gamma (ERR-γ) and estrogen receptor beta (ER-β) within the prostate that is known to improve male health via selective estrogen receptor modulatory (SERM) activities to decrease inflammation, cellular proliferation and carcinogenesis. We investigated the possible clinical efficacy of equol on the symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in this study. Materials and Methods: We performed a pilot intervention study evaluating the effects of low dose oral equol supplement (6 mg, twice a day with meals) for 4 weeks in a total of 18 men (49 - 60 years old) with moderate or severe BPH. Subjects included in the study: gave informed consent, underwent a physical examination and verified their BPH symptoms as measured by the International Prostate Symptom Scores (IPSS) and then were assigned to the moderate or severe BPH groups based upon their total IPSS index. All adverse events were reported. The primary efficacy measure was the IPSS parameters comparing baseline to 2 and 4 week IPSS indices. Blood samples were collected at the baseline and 4th week visits that served as secondary efficacy parameters that included testosterone, 5α-DHT and general blood chemistries along with cardiac and hepatic function panels. Results: Low dose equol positively improved moderate to severe BPH symptoms according to the IPSS indices. In moderately symptomatic men (n = 10) 5 out of 7 of the IPSS parameters significantly improved by 4 weeks of equol treatment. In severely symptomatic men (n = 8) all 7 of the IPSS parameters significantly improved with 4 weeks of equol treatment. There were no significant changes in androgen levels, general blood chemistries or cardiac and hepatic function parameters. Although, 5α-DHT levels declined by 21% in severely symptomatic men (from baseline vs. 4 week values).

Smoking and Pancreatic Disease  [PDF]
Mouad Edderkaoui, Edwin Thrower
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2013.410A005

Smoking is a major risk factor for chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. However, the mechanisms through which it causes the diseases remain unknown. In the present manuscript we reviewed the latest knowledge gained on the effect of cigarette smoke and smoking compounds on cell signaling pathways mediating both diseases. We also reviewed the effect of smoking on the pancreatic cell microenvironment including inflammatory cells and stellate cells.

Software Frameworks, Architectural and Design Patterns  [PDF]
Njeru Mwendi Edwin
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2014.78061

Software systems can be among the most complex constructions in engineering disciplines and can span into years of development. Most software systems though implement in part what has already been built and tend to follow known or nearly known architectures. Although most software systems are not of the size of say Microsoft Windows 8, complexity of software development can be quick to increase. Thus among these methods that are the most important is the use of architectural and design patterns and software frameworks. Patterns provide known solutions to re-occurring problems that developers are facing. By using well-known patterns reusable components can be built in frameworks.Software frameworks provide developers with powerful tools to develop more flexible and less error-prone applications in a more effective way. Software frameworks often help expedite the development process by providing necessary functionality “out of the box”. Providing frameworks for reusability and separation of concerns is key to software development today. In this study I take a look at the state of art and the impact of frameworks and patterns in software development.

The Potential of Adaptive Mentorship©: Experts’ Perspectives  [PDF]
Edwin Ralph, Keith Walker
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2014.28013
Abstract: In recent years, global interest in the processes of mentorship and coaching has expanded across all disciplinary fields. Educational institutions, commercial enterprises, and other organizations have integrated mentorship processes into their educational programs to help prepare/train protégés for entry into a specific professions or occupations and/or to upgrade their related skills/knowledge. Over the past quarter century, in partial response to the popularity of mentoring, the authors have developed a mentoring model called Adaptive Mentorship© (AM). Research conducted by the authors and others has affirmed AM’s value in improving mentoring practice in a variety of disciplines. In the present article, the authors summarize assessments of the model that they solicited during the past five years from 49 multi-disciplinary groups or panels of experts. The experts’ positive statements regarding AM outweighed their cautionary comments by a ratio of 2:1. The strengths that they identified were that AM conceptualized the entire mentorship process in an understandable manner, and that it helped reveal potential interpersonal conflicts as well as practical solutions for them. The caveats identified by the experts were that personnel employing the AM model must apply it sensibly, sensitively, and flexibly—especially in cross-cultural contexts.
Review: Anti-Oxidant and Anti-Aging Properties of Equol in Prostate Health (BPH)  [PDF]
Edwin D. Lephart
Open Journal of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases (OJEMD) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojemd.2014.41001

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the pathological cellular progression of glandular proliferation associated with aging. The primary changes in prostate disorders are mediated by the conversion of the principle androgen, testosterone, to its more potent metabolite, 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT). However, recent evidence suggests that estrogen hormonal actions via estrogen receptor subtypes also play an important role in BPH. Current pharmaceutical options for BPH have advantages, limitations and adverse effects. Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) treatments for BPH include botanicals such as polyphenols and isoflavones. Equol is a polyphenolic/isoflavonoid molecule derived from intestinal metabolism, dairy and dietary plant sources. Equol has potent anti-oxidant and anti-aging properties to decrease prostatic irritation and potentially neoplastic growth. It has the unique characteristic to bind specifically 5α-DHT by sequestering 5α-DHT from the androgen receptor (AR), thus decreasing androgen hormone actions to improve prostate health by acting as a selective androgen modulator (SAM). It also has affinity for estrogen related receptor gamma (ERR-γ) and estrogen receptor beta (ER-β) within the prostate that is known to improve male health via selective estrogen receptor modulatory (SERM) activities to decrease inflammation, cellular proliferation and carcinogenesis. The possible clinical efficacy of equol on the symptoms associated with BPH is presented and the reviewed findings suggest that equol may provide a well-tolerated and rapid beneficial therapy for BPH that can be used alone or in combination with current pharmaceutical therapies. The beneficial clinical efficacy of equol observed may be due to the multiple positive biological actions that are not present in current pharmaceutical treatments.

Whole-Rock Geochemistry and Mineralogy of Triassic Montney Formation, Northeastern British Columbia, Western Canada Sedimentary Basin  [PDF]
Edwin I. Egbobawaye
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2016.71008
Abstract: Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to analyze chemical elements—major, trace and rare earth elements (REE) concentrations, augmented with quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and thin-section petrography for mineralogical characterization of the Triassic Montney Formation in northeastern British Columbia, Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB). Results from this study indicate that integration of chemical elements with mineralogy shows affinity to the host lithologies. Evidently, chemical elements are the building blocks for minerals, thus, their significances in the interpretation of geological systems are unambiguous. Herein, major elements concentration such as Al, Fe, K, Mg, Ca, Mn in the samples analyzed from the Montney Formation are interpreted as: 1) indication of dolomitization and diagenesis; 2) trace elements—Rb, Th, U, and Cs are related to the organic matter—kerogen in the clay component of the Montney Formation source rock; and 3) transition metals—Sc, V, Co, Cr, Zn show strong affinity with diagenesis in the study interval.
Modelling Epidemiological Data Using Box-Jenkins Procedure  [PDF]
Stanley Jere, Edwin Moyo
Open Journal of Statistics (OJS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojs.2016.62025
Abstract: In this paper, the Box-Jenkins modelling procedure is used to determine an ARIMA model and go further to forecasting. We consider data of Malaria cases from Ministry of Health (Kabwe District)-Zambia for the period, 2009 to 2013 for age 1 to under 5 years. The model-building process involves three steps: tentative identification of a model from the ARIMA class, estimation of parameters in the identified model, and diagnostic checks. Results show that an appropriate model is simply an ARIMA (1, 0, 0) due to the fact that, the ACF has an exponential decay and the PACF has a spike at lag 1 which is an indication of the said model. The forecasted Malaria cases for January and February, 2014 are 220 and 265, respectively.
Coherent Application of a Contact Structure to Formulate Classical Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics  [PDF]
Edwin Knobbe, Dirk Roekaerts
Modern Mechanical Engineering (MME) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/mme.2017.71002
This contribution presents an outline of a new mathematical formulation for Classical Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics (CNET) based on a contact structure in differential geometry. First a non-equilibrium state space is introduced as the third key element besides the first and second law of thermodynamics. This state space provides the mathematical structure to generalize the Gibbs fundamental relation to non-equilibrium thermodynamics. A unique formulation for the second law of thermodynamics is postulated and it showed how the complying concept for non-equilibrium entropy is retrieved. The foundation of this formulation is a physical quantity, which is in non-equilibrium thermodynamics nowhere equal to zero. This is another perspective compared to the inequality, which is used in most other formulations in the literature. Based on this mathematical framework, it is proven that the thermodynamic potential is defined by the Gibbs free energy. The set of conjugated coordinates in the mathematical structure for the Gibbs fundamental relation will be identified for single component, closed systems. Only in the final section of this contribution will the equilibrium constraint be introduced and applied to obtain some familiar formulations for classical (equilibrium) thermodynamics.
Isotopes (13C and 18O) Geochemistry of Lower Triassic Montney Formation, Northeastern British Columbia, Western Canada  [PDF]
Edwin I. Egbobawaye
Natural Science (NS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2017.910034
Oxygen isotope (δ18O) serves as paleothermometer, and provides paleotemperature for carbonates. δ18O signature was used to estimate the temperature of fractionation of dolomite and calcite in Montney Formation, empirically calculated to have precipitated, between approximately 13°C to ±33°C during Triassic time in northeastern British Columbia, Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB). Measurements of stable isotopes (δ13C and δ18O) fractionation, supported by quantitative X-ray diffraction evidence, and whole-rock geochemical characterization of the Triassic Montney Formation indicates the presence of calcite, dolomite, magnesium, carbon and other elements. Results from isotopic signature obtained from bulk calcite and bulk dolomite from this study indicates depleted δ13CPDB (-2.18‰ to -8.46‰) and depleted δ18OPDB (-3.54‰ to -16.15‰), which is interpreted in relation to oxidation of organic matter during diagenesis. Diagenetic modification of dolomitized very fine-grained, silty-sandstone of the Montney Formation may have occurred in stages of progressive oxidation and reduction reactions involving chemical elements such as Fe, which manifest in mineral form as pyrite, particularly, during early burial diagenesis. Such mineralogical changes evident in this study from petrography and SEM, includes cementation, authigenic quartz overgrowth and mineral replacement involving calcite and dolomite, which are typical of diagenesis. High concentration of chemical elements in the Montney Formation?-Ca and Mg indicates dolomitization. It is interpreted herein, that calcite may have been precipitated into the interstitial pore space of the intergranular matrix of very fine-grained silty-sandstone of the Montney Formation as cement by a complex mechanism resulting in the interlocking of grains.
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