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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 22227 matches for " Eduardo Massad "
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Moral Dilemma Judgment Revisited: A Loreta Analysis  [PDF]
Armando Freitas da Rocha, Fábio Theoto Rocha, Eduardo Massad
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2013.38066
Abstract:

Background: Recent neuroscience investigations on moral judgment have provided useful information about how brain processes such complex decision making. All these studies carried out so far were fMRI investigations and therefore were constrained by the poor temporal resolution of this technique. Recent advances in electroencephalography (EEG) analysis provided by Low Resolution Tomogray (Loreta), Principal Component (PCA), Correlation and Regression Analysis improved EEG spatial resolution and made EEG a very useful technique in decision-making studies. Methods: Here, we reinvestigate previous fMRI study of personal (PD) and impersonal (ID) moral dilemma judgment, taking profit of these new EEG analysis improvements. Results: PCA analysis disclosed three different patterns of brain activity associated with dilemma judgment. These patterns are proposed to disclose the neural circuits involved in benefit and risk evaluation, calculating intention to act and controlling decision-making. Regression analysis showed that activity at some cortical areas favors action implementation by increasing intention to act, while activity at some other areas opposes it by decreasing intention to act. Comparison with Existing Methods: Compared to the previous fMRI results, Loreta and PCA revealed a much greater number of cortical areas involved in dilemma judgment, whose temporal and spatial distribution were different for ID compared to PD. The present paper suggests that whenever final temporal details of the decision making process are desired,

Vectorial capacity, basic reproduction number, force of infection and all that: formal notation to complete and adjust their classical concepts and equations
Massad, Eduardo;Coutinho, Francisco Antonio Bezerra;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02762012000400022
Abstract: a dimensional analysis of the classical equations related to the dynamics of vector-borne infections is presented. it is provided a formal notation to complete the expressions for the ross' threshold theorem, the macdonald's basic reproduction "rate" and sporozoite "rate", garret-jones' vectorial capacity and dietz-molineaux-thomas' force of infection. the analysis was intended to provide a formal notation that complete the classical equations proposed by these authors.
Brain and Law: An EEG Study of How We Decide or Not to Implement a Law  [PDF]
Armando Freitas da Rocha, Eduardo Massad, Fabio Theoto Rocha, Marcelo Nascimento Burattini
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2014.412054
Abstract: Brazil has introduced a referendum regarding the prohibition of firearm commerce and propaganda arguments have invoked socially and personally driven issues in the promotion of voting in favor of and against firearm control, respectively. Here, we used different techniques to study the brain activity associated with a voter’s perception of the truthfulness of these arguments and their influence on voting decisions. Low-resolution tomography was used to identify the possible different sets of neurons activated in the analysis of the different types of propaganda. Linear correlation was used to calculate the amount information H(ei) provided to different electrodes about how these sets of neurons enroll themselves to carry out this cognitive analysis. The results clearly showed that vote decision was not influenced by arguments that were introduced by propaganda, which was typically driven by specific social or self-interest motives. However, different neural circuits were identified in the analysis of each type of propaganda argument, independently of the declared vote (for or against the control) intention.
Electroencephalographic Activity Associated to Investment Decisions: Gender Differences  [PDF]
Armando F. Rocha, Jo?o Paulo Vieito, Eduardo Massad, Fábio T. Rocha, Roberto Ivo Lima
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2015.56021
Abstract: Literature in finance and neurosciences shows that male and female differ in many relevant issues concerning financial decision investment. Here, we studied the EEG activity recorded while volunteers were playing a stock trading game to investigate these gender differences. 20 males and 20 females made 100 trading decisions using a portfolio of 200 shares of 7 different companies. Males and females were equally successful in earning above the market. sLORETA was used to identify sources of EEG recorded 2 seconds before trading decision. Results showed that male and female used different sets of neuron to make equally successful financial decisions.
The Brain as a Distributed Intelligent Processing System: An EEG Study
Armando Freitas da Rocha,Fábio Theoto Rocha,Eduardo Massad
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0017355
Abstract: Various neuroimaging studies, both structural and functional, have provided support for the proposal that a distributed brain network is likely to be the neural basis of intelligence. The theory of Distributed Intelligent Processing Systems (DIPS), first developed in the field of Artificial Intelligence, was proposed to adequately model distributed neural intelligent processing. In addition, the neural efficiency hypothesis suggests that individuals with higher intelligence display more focused cortical activation during cognitive performance, resulting in lower total brain activation when compared with individuals who have lower intelligence. This may be understood as a property of the DIPS.
Studies on mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) and anthropic environment: 7- Behaviour of adults Nyssorhynchus anophelines with special reference to Anopheles albitarsis s.l. in South-Eastern Brazil
Forattini,Oswaldo Paulo; Kakitani,Iná; Massad,Eduardo; Marucci,Daniel;
Revista de Saúde Pública , 1995, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-89101995000100005
Abstract: results obtained with catches performed at several sites of the ribeira valley, sp (brazil) are reported. collections with shannon type traps showed a concentration of an.albitarsis s.l. in the experimental farm of pariquera-a?u county, associated with the development of irrigated rice cultivation. two species of the complex, named a and b, were recognized. species b predominated in the samples. indoor and outdoor crepuscular human bait captures were performed a the domiciliary environment. the two species showed a generally low william's media valve of 0.2, the highest value obtained was 1.6. no differences were found between indoor and outdoor behaviours between the two species of the complex.
Studies on mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) and anthropic environment: 6 - Breeding in empty conditions of rice fields in South-Eastern Brazil
Forattini,Oswaldo Paulo; Kakitani,Iná; Massad,Eduardo; Marucci,Daniel;
Revista de Saúde Pública , 1994, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-89101994000600001
Abstract: studies on culicid breeding in empty rice fields were carried out during the cultivation cycle from may to november 1993. this period corresponded to stages 1 and 2, when empty conditions prevailed. breeding occurred in stage 1 and the first part of stage 2, corresponding respectively to fallow uncultivated and ploughing situations. no breeding was found to take place during the second part of stage 2 when transient floods and harrowing occurred. the predominant species were aedes scapularis, culex nigripalpus and cx. mollis. the pilosus group of culex (melanoconion) was found at lower densities. some epidemiological considerations are presented.
Studies on mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) and anthropic environment: 10- survey of adult behaviour of Culex nigripalpus and other species of Culex (Culex) in South-Eastern Brazil
Forattini,Oswaldo Paulo; Kakitani,Iná; Massad,Eduardo; Marucci,Daniel;
Revista de Saúde Pública , 1995, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-89101995000400003
Abstract: a survey of adult behaviour of culex (culex) species was carried out from august 1992 through december 1993 in a human modified (anthropic) environment in the ribeira valley, s.paulo state, brazil. culex nigripalpus dominated the catches at several sites and it's tendency to increase in the anthropic environment became quite clear. nevertheless no high level of synanthropy was demonstrated. so it seems that the mosquito may have a restricted role in natural arbovirus cycles. nonetheless, cx. nigripalpus must be considered a potential vector of arboviruses, especially st. louis encephalitis virus outside dwellings.
Studies on mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) and anthropic environment: 9- Synanthropy and epidemiological vector role of Aedes scapularis in South-Eastern Brazil
Forattini,Oswaldo Paulo; Kakitani,Iná; Massad,Eduardo; Marucci,Daniel;
Revista de Saúde Pública , 1995, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-89101995000300007
Abstract: behaviour comparisons of aedes scapularis and ae. serratus are presented. results were obtained by sampling aedes adult mosquitoes at several places in the rural anthropic environment in the ribeira valley region of s. paulo state, brazil. aedes dominance was shared by those two species, but ae. scapularis sshowed a clear tendency to frequent the modified environment, while ae. serratus was to be found in the more preserved ones, here represented by the vestigial patchy forests. regarding the open cultivated land and the dwelling environments, ae. scapularis preponderates. considering the regional developmental phases, this mosquito showed a remarkable increase in the modified environment differently from ae. serratus that underwent a considerable decrease in migrating from the forest to the anthropic environment. as a consequence of these results it is reasonable to conclude that ae. scapularis may be considered as an epidemiologically efficient vector and that it quite probably played this role in the rocio encephalitis and other arbovirus epidemics.
Studies on mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) and anthropic environment: 3- Survey of adult stages at the rice irrigation system and the emergence of Anopheles albitarsis in South-Eastern, Brazil
Forattini,Oswaldo Paulo; Kakitani,Iná; Massad,Eduardo; Marucci,Daniel;
Revista de Saúde Pública , 1993, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-89101993000500001
Abstract: a study of adult culicidae ecology was carried out from january 1992 through january 1993 at the rice irrigation system of the ribeira valley experimental station. the adaptation of anopheles albitarsis to the anthropic environment became evident through the adult collections made at its various habitats represented by the irrigation system and the edge of the residual pond, as well as at those made within the local patchy residual woods. other potential disease vectors were prevalent in the irrigated system too. there were aedes scapularis, culex nigripalpus and cx. ribeirensis that were collected at various habitats. remarkable differences among their prevalences were obtained such as between the natural forest and anthropic environments. in the former an. albitarsis was practically non-existent, thus suggesting that it might be considered as eusynathropic. as the populations of other species seemed to increase in the anthropic environment, they may be regarded as hemisynanthropes. observations suggest the hypothesis that the development of irrigated land may be a factor in the emergence of an. albitarsis, and some other species, as well as the possibility of an increase in the transmission of mosquito-borne diseases such as malaria.
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