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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 455 matches for " Edoardo Alesse "
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Targeting Costimulatory Molecules to Improve Antitumor Immunity
Daria Capece,Daniela Verzella,Mariafausta Fischietti,Francesca Zazzeroni,Edoardo Alesse
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/926321
Abstract: The full activation of T cells necessitates the concomitant activation of two signals, the engagement of T-cell receptor by peptide/major histocompatibility complex II and an additional signal delivered by costimulatory molecules. The best characterized costimulatory molecules belong to B7/CD28 and TNF/TNFR families and play crucial roles in the modulation of immune response and improvement of antitumor immunity. Unfortunately, tumors often generate an immunosuppressive microenvironment, where T-cell response is attenuated by the lack of costimulatory molecules on the surface of cancer cells. Thus, targeting costimulatory pathways represent an attractive therapeutic strategy to enhance the antitumor immunity in several human cancers. Here, latest therapeutic approaches targeting costimulatory molecules will be described.
Serum Biomarkers Identification by Mass Spectrometry in High-Mortality Tumors
Alessandra Tessitore,Agata Gaggiano,Germana Cicciarelli,Daniela Verzella,Daria Capece,Mariafausta Fischietti,Francesca Zazzeroni,Edoardo Alesse
International Journal of Proteomics , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/125858
Abstract: Cancer affects millions of people worldwide. Tumor mortality is substantially due to diagnosis at stages that are too late for therapies to be effective. Advances in screening methods have improved the early diagnosis, prognosis, and survival for some cancers. Several validated biomarkers are currently used to diagnose and monitor the progression of cancer, but none of them shows adequate specificity, sensitivity, and predictive value for population screening. So, there is an urgent need to isolate novel sensitive, specific biomarkers to detect the disease early and improve prognosis, especially in high-mortality tumors. Proteomic techniques are powerful tools to help in diagnosis and monitoring of treatment and progression of the disease. During the last decade, mass spectrometry has assumed a key role in most of the proteomic analyses that are focused on identifying cancer biomarkers in human serum, making it possible to identify and characterize at the molecular level many proteins or peptides differentially expressed. In this paper we summarize the results of mass spectrometry serum profiling and biomarker identification in high mortality tumors, such as ovarian, liver, lung, and pancreatic cancer. 1. Introduction Cancer-related mortality is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. The most effective treatment to fight cancer is still early diagnosis. On the other hand, it is known that the correct classification of the tumor, coupled to a suitable therapy and to a stringent follow-up, helps to prevent and detect relapses. Cancer is a very heterogeneous disease, and, at the diagnostic level, is defined by many indexes such as histological grade, tumor stage, patient age, sex and, more importantly, genetic background and profiles. Histological evaluation of tumor specimens obtained from tissue biopsy is the gold standard of diagnosis, but often tumors with the same histopathological features respond differently to the same therapy. New generation diagnostic platforms, previously unavailable, have enabled to better characterize transcriptomic signatures that predict tumor behaviour, helping to define diagnosis, prognosis, and the most appropriate therapies [1–3]. Tumor biomarker discovery in biological fluids, such as serum, plasma, and urine, is one of the most challenging aspects of proteomic research [4]. Many researchers have attempted to identify biomarkers in serum that reflect a particular pathophysiological state. Since the expressed proteins, native, fragmented, or posttranslationally modified, quickly change in response to environmental
The tumor suppressor gene KCTD11REN is regulated by Sp1 and methylation and its expression is reduced in tumors
M Michela Mancarelli, Francesca Zazzeroni, Lucia Ciccocioppo, Daria Capece, Agnese Po, Simona Murgo, Raffaello Di Camillo, Christian Rinaldi, Elisabetta Ferretti, Alberto Gulino, Edoardo Alesse
Molecular Cancer , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1476-4598-9-172
Abstract: TSGs often locate at chromosomal regions, which are frequently deleted and/or methylated in tumors. High levels of 17p13 somatic alterations have been showed in several tumors, distal and independent of the p53 locus [1-4].Our group has identified KCTD11 as an immediate-early gene induced by neurogenic signals [5] and encoding a novel adaptor of Cullin3 ubiquitin E3 ligase complex targeting Histone Deacetylase 1 [6]. Importantly, KCTD11 is a novel TSG that inhibits cell growth and is mapping on human chromosome 17p13.2, whose expression is frequently lost in human MB [4].To analyze whether the down-regulation of KCTD11 represents a specific feature of MB, as well to other cancers, we performed a wide screening for KCTD11 expression, analyzing 177 human tumor samples and 177 normal matching samples, representing 18 different cancer types. Normal tissues, including larynx, esophagus, stomach, colon-rectum, urinary bladder, lung, breast, gallbladder and endometrium, exhibited a nuclear KCTD11 positive immunohistochemical staining between 40 to 78% (Fig. 1B), whereas the matching tumor samples showed a significant reduction of 0 to 18% of nuclear KCTD11 staining (Fig. 1A and 1B). Reduced KCTD11 expression was not observed in thyroid and kidney tumor tissues vs normal suggesting a tumorigenic specific role of KCTD11 for the above mentioned tissues (Fig. 1A and 1B and data not shown). Moreover KCTD11 was undetected both in normal and cancer tissues from liver, lymph-node and exocrine pancreas (data not shown). Together, these findings clearly indicated that selective tissues expressing KCTD11 have down-regulated this gene during tumorigenesis.To understand the transcriptional regulation of KCTD11, we identified and analyzed the promoter region. Human KCTD11 proximal promoter is a 623 bp region (Fig. 2A). It turned out to be a TATA- and CAAT-less promoter. The transcription start site (TSS) was previously identified [4] (Fig. 2A). Using the TRANSFACT software, we identifie
A Novel, Non-canonical Splice Variant of the Ikaros Gene Is Aberrantly Expressed in B-cell Lymphoproliferative Disorders
Daria Capece, Francesca Zazzeroni, Maria Michela Mancarelli, Daniela Verzella, Mariafausta Fischietti, Ambra Di Tommaso, Rita Maccarone, Sara Plebani, Mauro Di Ianni, Alberto Gulino, Edoardo Alesse
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0068080
Abstract: The Ikaros gene encodes a Krüppel-like zinc-finger transcription factor involved in hematopoiesis regulation. Ikaros has been established as one of the most clinically relevant tumor suppressors in several hematological malignancies. In fact, expression of dominant negative Ikaros isoforms is associated with adult B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, acute myeloid leukemia and adult and juvenile chronic myeloid leukemia. Here, we report the isolation of a novel, non-canonical Ikaros splice variant, called Ikaros 11 (Ik11). Ik11 is structurally related to known dominant negative Ikaros isoforms, due to the lack of a functional DNA-binding domain. Interestingly, Ik11 is the first Ikaros splice variant missing the transcriptional activation domain. Indeed, we demonstrated that Ik11 works as a dominant negative protein, being able to dimerize with Ikaros DNA-binding isoforms and inhibit their functions, at least in part by retaining them in the cytoplasm. Notably, we demonstrated that Ik11 is the first dominant negative Ikaros isoform to be aberrantly expressed in B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders, such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Aberrant expression of Ik11 interferes with both proliferation and apoptotic pathways, providing a mechanism for Ik11 involvement in tumor pathogenesis. Thus, Ik11 could represent a novel marker for B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders.
Fixed points and periodic points of semiflows of holomorphic maps
Edoardo Vesentini
Abstract and Applied Analysis , 2003, DOI: 10.1155/s1085337503203109
Abstract: Let ϕ be a semiflow of holomorphic maps of a bounded domainD in a complex Banach space. The general question arises underwhich conditions the existence of a periodic orbit of ϕ implies that ϕ itself is periodic. An answer is provided, in the first part of this paper, in the case in which D is the open unit ball of a J∗-algebra and ϕ acts isometrically. More precise results are provided when the J∗-algebra is a Cartan factor of type one or a spin factor. The second part of this paper deals essentially with the discrete semiflow ϕ generated by the iterates of a holomorphic map. It investigateshow the existence of fixed points determines the asymptotic behaviour of the semiflow. Some of these results are extended to continuous semiflows.
The 3-Base Periodicity and Codon Usage of Coding Sequences Are Correlated with Gene Expression at the Level of Transcription Elongation
Edoardo Trotta
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0021590
Abstract: Background Gene transcription is regulated by DNA transcriptional regulatory elements, promoters and enhancers that are located outside the coding regions. Here, we examine the characteristic 3-base periodicity of the coding sequences and analyse its correlation with the genome-wide transcriptional profile of yeast. Principal Findings The analysis of coding sequences by a new class of indices proposed here identified two different sources of 3-base periodicity: the codon frequency and the codon sequence. In exponentially growing yeast cells, the codon-frequency component of periodicity accounts for 71.9% of the variability of the cellular mRNA by a strong association with the density of elongating mRNA polymerase II complexes. The mRNA abundance explains most of the correlation between the codon-frequency component of periodicity and protein levels. Furthermore, pyrimidine-ending codons of the four-fold degenerate small amino acids alanine, glycine and valine are associated with genes with double the transcription rate of those associated with purine-ending codons. Conclusions We demonstrate that the 3-base periodicity of coding sequences is higher than expected by the codon usage frequency (CUF) and that its components, associated with codon bias and amino acid composition, are correlated with gene expression, principally at the level of transcription elongation. This indicates a role of codon sequences in maximising the transcription efficiency in exponentially growing yeast cells. Moreover, the results contrast with the common Darwinian explanation that attributes the codon bias to translational selection by an adjustment of synonymous codon frequencies to the most abundant isoaccepting tRNA. Here, we show that selection on codon bias likely acts at both the transcriptional and translational level and that codon usage and the relative abundance of tRNA could drive each other in order to synergistically optimize the efficiency of gene expression.
A General Overview of Scientific Production in China, Japan and Korea of the Water-Gas Shift (WGS) Process
Edoardo Magnone
Information , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/info3040771
Abstract: In today’s economy, one of the most important national indicators of economic growth performance is the country’s ability to produce new technology—and use it responsibly and efficiently—for environmental protection or energy conservation, production and consumption in agreement with international standards. The purpose of this study is to identify the Research and Development (R&D) capability in the area of environmentally friendly technologies in China, Japan and Korea over the last twenty years. As the field is very wide, Water-Gas Shift (WGS) reaction technologies were taken as a case study for the purpose of this article. During 1990–2011 a total of 788 papers in the field of WGS technologies were published by scientists in China, Japan and Korea. China was the top producing country with 394 papers (50%) followed by Japan with 250 papers (32%), and Korea with 144 papers (18%). The growth of the literature in the field was found to be exponential in nature for China. The R&D capabilities were found to correlate directly with the Gross Domestic Expenditures on R&D (GERD), Researchers in Full-time equivalents (FTE), and other economic parameters.
Investigación y Desarrollo , 2009,
Abstract: the analysis of the human development index of the municipalities of the department of santa cruzpermits us to make a connection between the developmental evolution of this department and the one of the rest of bolivia, as well as with the economic factors conditioning bolivia's development trends. in this sense, the department reproduced and amplified not only the economic cycle of the country, but also its patterns of human development: the hdi shows that there is a strong gap between a weak economic indicator and high scores in basic indicators of education and health. the hdi scores, the imbalances between its different components (i.e. economic variables, education indicators and life expectancy at birth), and the negative correlations between poverty indicators and the degree of municipal urbanization, demonstrate the existence of important internal asymmetries in the department. they also permit us to generate some insights with regard to the sustainability of the development process in this department.
On the real X-ranks of points of Pn(R) with respect to a real variety X Pn
Edoardo Ballico
Annales UMCS, Mathematica , 2010, DOI: 10.2478/v10062-010-0010-1
Abstract: Let X Pn be an integral and non-degenerate m-dimensional variety defined over R. For any P ∈ Pn(R) the real X-rank r x,R(P) is the minimal cardinality of S X(R) such that P ∈ . Here we extend to the real case an upper bound for the X-rank due to Landsberg and Teitler.
Rosa Canosa, Etnogenesi normanne e identità variabili. Il retroterra culturale dei Normanni d’Italia fra Scandinavia e Normandia,
Manarini, Edoardo
Storicamente , 2011,
Abstract: Review of Rosa Canosa, Etnogenesi normanne e identità variabili. Il retroterra culturale dei Normanni d’Italia fra Scandinavia e Normandia,
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